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porting or invalidating of any particular theory. This will be succeeded by a narrative of a journey through the plain of Bacramitch up to the summit of Ida. Some full and satisfactory details will be given concerning Lemnos and Andros, two islands of the Archipelago which have been but seldom visited. A collection of Greek inscriptions which have not yet been published, will form a separate chapter; and a dissertation will be appropriated to the discussion of the causes of the gradual decay of the Greek language under the Byzantine sovereigns. Mr. GELL, the topographer of Troy, Ithaca, and Argolis, during his last visit to the plain of Marathon, procured among other valuable remains of antiquity recently found on that interesting spot, two engraved stones, which from the devices are supposed to have belonged to the

Persians slain there in the battle so ce

lebrated in Grecian history. The anxiety of some English travellers to possess antiques of this description, so enhanced the value of these gems, that Mr. Gell could not obtain them under a price amounting to nearly twenty-five guineas each. The conjecture concerning their origin, is corroborated, and their value consequently raised, by the circumstance of four others of a similar kind being found in Persia, by Sir William Ouseley, tluring his late travels in that country. Among a variety of brass arrow-heads brought also from Persepolis by Sir William Ouseley, some are said to resemble those which have been found on the plain of Marathon.

Mr. John Gifford, Author of the Life of Pitt, &c. &c. has announced a general History of the French Revolution, from its Commencement to the present important era, including a preliminary view of the reign of Louis XVI. and comprehending Annals of Europe for the last twenty-five Years. The author, having long had the composition of this work in contemplation, has collected a vast mass of materials, to enable him to give it that degree of authenticity and interest which are essentially requisite in historical productions. The recent triumph of the principle of the revolution, in the establishment of a free government, raises the event in the estimation of mankind, and by bringing this great political drama to a happy denouement, renders it a proper subject for the labours of his: torians. It is well known that Mr. Gifford has not been an inattentive spectator

of these contemporaneous events,and hat

Troad, without any reference to the sup

he is an eloquent writer, no mean quâ,
lifications for the task he has imposed on
himself; though complete impartiality, in
regard to events which have so violently
excited the passions, cannot be expected
from any writer of the present genera-
tion. Mr. Gifford's work is to form three
volumes in quarto, two of narrative and
one of documents.
A new edition is preparing of the
Saxon Chronicle, with an English trans-
lation and notes, by the Rev. J. INGRAM.
late Saxon professor in the University of
Oxford; to which will be added a new
and copious chronological, topographi-
cal, and glossarial Index, with a short
grammar of the Saxon language, and an
accurate and enlarged map of England
during the Heptarchy. The work will
be published in one volume, royal
quarto, as soon as possible. -
SIR. John Si Nclair, after devoting
forty years to the service of his country.
has resigned his honorary situation of
President of the Board of Agriculture,
and is succeeded by the EARL of HARD-
wicke. About two years ago he de-
clined, in favour of his son, to become a
candidate for his long continued seat
in parliament; and has consequently now
retired from public life. On such an
occasion we cannot let pass the oppor-
tunity of expressing our regret, that the
stern course of nature has thus deprived
the country of the active services of one
of those men, whose name and character
will always be honourably, associated
with the times in which we live-whose
philosophical spirit has accelerated the
progress of civilization,-and whose la-
hours have tended to improve the social
condition of mankind. Of the benefits
derived by the country, from the exertions.
of Sir John Sinclair, it is impossible to
present even a brief enumeration. They
are to be found in the extended and in-
proved cultivation of the soil, and in the
consequent increase of the means 9
subsistence; in new and improved roads
joining all parts of the empire; in exten-
sive enclosures; in canals; in fisheries;
in improved buildings; in useful machi-
nery; and in all branches of the arts of
life. Of several of these, Sir John has
been the successful projector, of others
the effective protnoter, and of many the
z, alous patron. Nor has his unwearied
industry been limited to the execution
of single objects, about which some me in
employ their entire lives; but his mind has
expanded from individuality to the great
principles of science and social economy.
Our libraries, as lung as the language
1

eudures

346

endures, will attest his comprehensive and patriotie views in the County Surveys of the Board; in the Statistical Account of Scotland; in the Satute Book and Parliamentary Reports; and is various works on the Revenue, and even on subjects of Health, Longevity, and Polise soterature. If the reig; of George is I. has been distinguished above into any sovereign, for the general in provement of the face of his empire, the ond which in a great micasure cooccioed, ioptied, end directed this system of ioprovenieńt, was that of Sir Joos & Noi, A. R. Yet this useful on has always been a mark for those bad cos which are erogendered by inferior a tellects, and the boldmess of his pians have so often a sorded topics for the exercise of inso derate wit, and the declaios of projadoce, inst his true character wit! ot be generally understood, till its worth is filt in its loss. The mob of mankind, who are misled by the timsel of military glory, the superficial glitter of eloquence, or the occumulation of great wealth, are incapable of appreciating the silent effects of social improvements; but we confess, that if it were in our choice to select the path of glory which wisdom and the better experience of mankind will consecrate, we should prefer the distinctions arising from the useful and unequivocal career of a SINCLAIR, to any renown attached to the splendid achievements of a Boy AFARTE, the fascinating eloquence of a Pitt, or the unmeasured wealth of a BARING. -" The laborious work on Philology, in which Mr. Townsen I has been many years engaged, is now brought to a conelusion, and ready for the press. It forms the second volume of his work on the veracity of Moses as an historian, recording events from the Creation to the Deluge, and subsequent to that great epoch, prior to the dispersion of man; kind. Mr. Townsend has examincó 3,600 words, all monosyllabic, as being most ancient, and compared the corresponding expressions in threescore dis. férent languages, for the purpose of demonstrating that they all originate in one. This part of his work serves as a key to the languages of Europe. Having there: fore, to the utmost of his ability, fulfilled his engagements to the public, he feels himself, at the age of 75, under the necessity of leaving the other parts of his intended work to be finished by any one who is disposed to resume the subject. A French gentioman is printing, in two seiavo volumes, accompanied by nuuic

£iterary and Philosophical Intelligence.

[May I, rous engravings, the Voyage d’un Francois en Angieterre, ou Journal d'un Tour et d'une Residence de deux ans dans différentes parties de la Grande Bretagne, avec des remarques sue I'aspect, les arts, la litterature, et la politique de ce pays. Mr. WoRD-worth has completed a new Poem, which is now in the press. Miss A. M. Port fit is engaged in printing a new Novel, under the title of, “ the Maid of Norway.” An account will soon be published in French, of the Captivity and Death of the late Pope Pius VI. by the widow of General de Merck, who was governor of Valence at the period of the Pontiff's capti.ity. Tio interesting question relative to the alledged right of the public hobraries to eleven copies of all new books and new editions, will be brought before the legislature early in the present session, in an explanatory bill, which will be introduced by Mr. Davies GIDDY, and be seconded by Mr. WYNN. Members of parliament, booksellers, and authors, wili find the entire subject fully and ably elucidated in a tract by Mr. BRITTon, recently published, under the title of, “ the Rights of Liter ATURE.” Parnassian Wild Shrubs, in one vo. lume, consisting of odes, moral pieces, sonnets, &c. by Mr. WILLIAM TAYLoR, is nearly ready for publication. Mr. E. BAYNES, Editor of the Leeds Intelligencer, announces a History of the War from 1803 to 1814. In the course of next month will be published, an Epicure's Almanack, or Guide to good living, on the plan of the French Almanach des Gourmands. The opening of the communications to all parts of the continent, leads us to calculate on the restoration of that fol. reign circulation which we enjoyed be: fore the rupture of the Treaty of Amiens. The post-offices at home and abroad are the means of securing the regular delivery of all half-crown numbers at three gui. neas per annum, and of 2s. ones, like the Monthly Magazine, at two guineas per annum. The same facility of communication will afford us a rich harvest of so. reign literature, and enable us to add greatly to the interest of those departments of our miscellany, Mr. Dr. Luc, by placing a pendulum between the positive and negative extre. mities of a Galvanic pile, in the year 1809, produced a self-acting motion, which will not cease to operate as long as: the Wils retains its power. The idsa has

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chiefly of extracts fivo orai ori cutortaining pubications, in prose and verse, and seems to be well calculated to produce its professed effect among the class of persons to whom it is addressed. It is in contemplation to reprint in this *ountry the whole of the Latin Classics, from the editions in usum 1)elphini. Mr. ALEXANDER WALF ER has in the press, a critical analysis of Lord Bacon’s Philosophy ; preceded by a historical sketch of the progress of science from the fall of the Roman empire till the time of Bacon, a biographical account of that philosopher, a critical view of his writings in general, and a delineation of their influence over philosophy, to the present times. The same gentleman is also printing Outlines of a Natural System of Universal science; preceded by a preliminary discourse exhibiting a view of the natural system, and followed by refutations of all the prevalent hypotheses in philosophy, in 3 vols. 8vo, with plates. He is also printing his long protocq work on the Natural System of the History, Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology of Man; adapted to the Use of Professional Students, General Readers, Amateurs, and Artists. It will be ill cotrated by numerous plates and synoptic tabies, and extend to four volumes in octavo, and one of folio plates. The three works above named will form one systematic series. The first is meant to enunciate the great principles of modern science; the second, to combine its scattered facts under one theory, and to reduce them to one original, simple, and impressive system; and the third, to detail those particular portions of science which the Author deems the most interesting

In justice to true science, and the islustrious name of Dr. HERSCHEL, we think it proper to state that all connections of his name with Weather Guides, or Weather Prognostics, are frauds on the public, and merit utter contempt. At the sale of the late Rev. Sam. Pasmer's library, of Hackney, the pulpit bible of John Bunyan was purchased by Mr. Whitbread for twenty guineas, Dr. THOMAs You NG states the mean temperature of the six winter months, or from October to March :— ! .ondon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43.5° Edinburgh • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40.4% HDawłish • - - - - - - - - 45.3 Ilfracon;be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - (55) Paris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • * 44.3 H_isbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.5 Aïaita Madeira

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Bermudas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.5

From November to March. London. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.6* Penzance - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 48.1 From January to March. London. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.9° Glasgow. . . . . • - 40.3 (Jan. 33.1} Penzance 48.5 (Jan. 46.7 (Dec. 43.7°) Sidmouth . . . . . . . . . . 41.7 (Jan. 42.3). February and Miarch. }_ondon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.5° Clifton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.5 From October to December. }_ondon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.0° Sidmouth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.” From December to February. H.ondon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.7" Edinburgh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.3 It appears from this comparison, that none of the situations here enumerated, north of Lisbon, except Penzance, has any material advantage over London in the mildness of its winter. The best parts of evon:hore seen to be about a degree and a half warmer. Penzance -niāy he considered as having a temperature 4:9 higher than London in the coldest months. It is remarkable, that the temperature of the three coldest months is the same at Paris as at Edinburgh, being, in both these cities, about three degrees lower than in London. Malta and Madeira present, numerically, a rolean temperature for the winter months, as favourable for an invalid as can possibly be desired. The thawing of snow round trees and vegetables, has been considered as a proof that they give out beat; but the same appearance takes place whatever the substance may be around which the snow has fallén. When a thaw commences, all the

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*48 the surfaces of the snow absorb caloric in the same proportion, or nearly so; and consequently an uniform retreat of the whole depth of snow will take place, and a bare piece of ground will be seen around the substance, of whatever kind it may be, whether vegetables or stones, in the form of a rude circle. A question was lately decided in the Court of King's Bench calculated to check a prolific source of newspaper corruption. Baron Ki Lau LFT brought an action against the proprietor of the Traceller, for misrepresenting what passed regarding him in soine law proceedings. In his observations to the jury Lord Ellenborough stated, that in courts of law counsel were often obliged, in order to forward the ends of justice, to make obserwations which bore hard on the characters of individuals; but it was a very different case for persons to publish such observations to the world merely for the amusement of their readers, and their own profit. A verdict was in consequence given in favour of the plaintiff, with 201. damages. No less than NINETY. For R periodical works issue at this time from the London press, of which only NIN E are senior to the MoMTh I.Y MAGAZINE, and not more than 3 or 4, and these of a religious nature, are superior to it in circulation. Of the 85, above twenty have grown up out of the several departments of the Monthly Magazine, or are scions from its stock. The fourth number of DANIELL's Voyage round Great Britain, containing Views of Ilfracombe, on the Coast of North Devon, and from Lifracon be to Hilsborough, will appear on the 2d of May. Mr. Dyer's History of the University and Colleges of Cambridge; including notices of the Founders and Eminent Mlen; embellished with thirty-two engravings, in two volumes, royal octavo and quarto, will be published early in the month. A new edition of Dr. HUTTon’s Recreations in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, in four volumes, 8vo. with nearly 100 copper plates, will be published in May. Illustrations of Northern Antiquities, from the earlier Teutonic and Scandinavian Romances; being an abstract of the Book of Heroes, and Nivelungen Lay; with translations of Metrical Tales, from the old German, Danish, Swedish, and Icelandic languages, with notes and dissertations; will be published in a few days, in one volume, royal quarto,

Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

[May 1, In the course of the present month will be published, Essays, moral and entertaining; on the various Faculties and Passions of the Human Mind, by 'Dw ARD EARt. of CLARENDoN. The Rev. LEIGH R1ch Mon D is about to publish Annals of the Poor: containing the Dairy-man's Daughter, with considerable additions; the Negroe Servant; and the Young Cottager. Mr. J. G. DALYELL has in the press, observations on some interesting Phaenomena in Animal Physiology, exhibited by various species of Planariae, and illustrated by coloured figures of living animals. The Rev. W. GUNN is printing, an inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture, illustrated by engravings. Dr. J. P. SMITH will soon publish, a Manual of Latin Grammar; with prefatory advice to solitary students on the best method of self-improvement. Mr. C. Broughton, of Edinburgh, has in the press, a Synthesis and Anaiysis of the First Ten Powers of Numbers, forming the introduction to a new theory of numbers. The Rev. Sir H. M. WELwood, bart, will speedily publish Discourses on the Evidences of Christianity, connected with some of its practical results. The Rev. WILLIAM Potter announces a volume of Essays, illustrative of the Principles, Dispositions, and Manners of Mankind, pourtraying the horrors of human depravity, and the beauties of genuine religion. Count O’Neri, is printing a Narrative of his Incarceration, and of the Massacre of his Family in France during the period of the Revolution; and of his Second Imprisonment as a Prisoner of War. A work, to be completed in nine monthly parts, will appear on the 1st of May, entitled, British Pulpit Eloquence, a selection of serinons, in chronological order, from the works of the most emiment divines of Great Britain, during the 17th and 18th centuries, with biographical and critical notices. Mr. W. HAYGARTH is printing a poem in three parts, descriptive of Greece. The first part comprises the Northern parts of Greece; the second, Athens; and the third, the Peloponnesus. Notes and classical illustrations will accompany each of the . with eight engravings from sketches made on the spot. The Rape of Proserpine, with other poems from Claudian, have been translated into English verse, with notes, and - a prefatory

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o 1814.] a prefatory discourse, by Mr. JACQB Geo. STRutt. It has been the chief object to introduce the English reader to the peculiar beauty and richness of Claudian's Muse. Mr. J. F. Gyi. Es, of Bath, is preparing for publication the Elements of Hebrew Grammar. Mr. R. WINTER announces a History of Whitby, the Abbey of Streonshalh, and Mulgrave Castle, Yorkshire, containiog an account of the antiquities, mineralogy, botany, biography, and other local particulars, comprehended within the limits of twenty-five miles round Whitby, including an excellent map of the district, a view of the town and abbey, and seve" ral vignettes. Proposals have been circulated for publishing by subscription, in 20 monthly numbers, forming two volumes, the Hitory of the University of Cambridge, illustrated by eighty highly finished, and coloured engravings, fac-similes of drawings, representing exterior and interior views of the colleges, halls, public buildings, and costume, as well as of the more striking parts of the town. Mr. Wood, author of the very elegant work on Zoography, is engaged in the publication of a General Conchology, which is to appear in monthly numbers: Mr. John W.M. SMITH is printing the first book of a poem, called, The Horrors of Imagination, with specimens from other books of the same poem. - GER MA NY. Mr. LINK, in some late researches into the anatomy of plants, distinguishes the

cellular texture into several varieties, in

the following manner : 1. Alceolary Terture; consisting of short cylindrical or prismatic cellules; it is very common, particularly in the pith, external bark, &c. 2. Elongated Texture; the cellules longer and narrower. Found in the stamina; the pistils, and in some other elongated parts. 3. Globular Terture; composed of spherical or almost spherical cellules: it fills the interior of the leaves, of the peduncles, of the receptacle, &c. 4. Wesicular Terture; composed like the foregoing of spherical cellules; but these ceilies are more detached from each other, and frequentlydispersed: common in mushrooms, and several kinds of aggriei, peoize, and phallus, are entirely made up of vesicles. - 3. Irregular Texture; in which the sides do not form the same angle with the base : sometimes this angle is a straight angle, * Mosthly Mag. No. 234.

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Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

349 sometimes acute, sometimes obtuse. We find this texture in the sheaths of the leaves, in the bractea, the calyces, &c. 6. Hazel-free Toxture ; the cellules not spherical, cylindrical, or prismatic; but rather an oval or ob!; tıg form. This texture is common in the internal bark of the hazel-tree, and particularly between the fibrous vessels beside the tracheae. . —These six varieties of the cellular texture admit of several shades, and we frequently find intermediate forms which appear to be two varieties at once. We might add a seventh variety, the compact texture, which is found in some mushrooms, lichens, &c. not clearly developed, or so fine that its structure cannot be distinguished. The cellular texture consists of small membranous vesicles, being the primordial substance of vegetables, and of all organized bodies. The celluloir texture is like the froth of common soap ; but the froth of soap is composed of bubbles of air, separated originally from each other, so that each bubble is formed as it were of a distinct membrane, and it is only by meeting that these partitions are confounded. Frequently, the isolated bubbles rise to the surface of the froth, as is the case with cellules isolated in the cavities of the peduncle, the receptacle of the flowers, and of the fruit. Mr. Link is of opinion that the cellules have had the same origin with the bubbles alluded to; that a gas has been developed in a viscous fluid, and has reduced it into small vesicles, which have approached each other. As the vesicles of the cellular toxture have a more regular arrangement than the soap bubbles, a . peculiar attraction necessary to the increase of the vegetable, must have forced them into this arrangement The celłuie increases with the whole plant. It is astonishing that a cellule surrounded with wood should extend, notwithstanding the obstacle thus presented to it. Every organized body is developed, and increases by a very powerful force, and the plant in developing itself breaks a very strong thread tied firmly round it. Every cellule is a separate organ, destined to preserve and prepare the sap, to furnish it to other parts. The superfluity penetrates into the meatus intercellulares, and resembles animal fat a little. The green matter which colours the plant is always in the cellules. It resists the action of water, but it is dissolved in alcohol: this solution is not precipitated by water like that of the 2 Z TGSlins,

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