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them had a real existence, and that at once the twelve tribes, and the twelve apostles, existed only in the twelve signs of the zodiac. This, if I may so express nyself, is the religious system of Sir W. Drummond, as promulgated in the (EdiFo Judaicus; and you will observe, that e adopts it in order to avoid what he considers the absurdities of the common system of belief; he disdains, like the vulgar, to be credulous; he only believes upon evidence, and has freed himself from the trainmels of superstition. The first dissertation professes to explain the 49th chapter of Genesis, containing. Jacob's blessing of his twelve sons; this is deemed by the author to be wholly astronomical, even at this day; (he says) the three great stars in Orion, are called Jacob's staff; and the milkyway is familiarly termed, Jacob's ladder. Jacob, in short, is an astrologer; and as “he lived in times when mankind were almost universally addicted to astrology, it was extremely natural that he should typify the future fortunes of his family, by allusions to the celestial bodies.” The twelve sons of Jacob, we have seen, are the signs of the zodiac: the author goes on from the supposed allegorical words of Jacob, to discover the individual sign represented by each of the brethren; a few instances will suffice as a specimen of the book, and of the system. “Reuben, thou art my first-born, &c. According to Aben Ezra, (says Sir W. Drummond,) the figure of a man was painted on the ensign of Reuben, and this man is supposed by Kircher to have been Aquarius. In fact, we find that Jacob calls Reuben his first-born, the beginning of his strength, &c, and these epithets apply very well to the sun in the commencement of his course, after he has passed the winter solstice. The sign of Aquarius is typified by a man with a pitcher, whence he pours forth water. Reuben is said to be unstable as water. It is then remarked, that he shall not ercel, because he went up to his father's bed, and we are thus reminded that he had lain with Bilhah. The oriental astronomers, and, among others, Ulug Beig, still designate a remarkable asterism in the sign of Aquarius, by the name of Bula, or Bulha.” This may be taken not only as a fair, but a favourable specimen of the system and the mode of argument of the author; the sign Cancer is attributed to Issacher, Hose he is called a strong ass; and ‘in Cancer, (says Dupuis) we find some Monthly Mag. No. 254, ""

stars called les ànes.” 2ebulon is Sagittarius, because it is said, his border shall be upon 2idon; and the Hebrew tsidon may be rendered the great hunter. Dan is the Scorpion, for it is declared, he shall be a serpent by the way; and the head of the scorpion's ascending with the hecla of the constellation Centaur is supposed typified by the words, he biteth the horses heels.

Sir W. Drummond appears to have collected together, with considerable industry, all the ancient planispheres and zodiacs which have come down to us; he has also obtained vocabularies of the Hebrew, the Chaldaic, the Svriac, and other ancient languages. With these materials in the one hand, he takes the 49th chapter of Genesis in the other, and seeks, in some one of the languages, for an astronomical sense to the words of the Jewish historian ; in some instances he has been successful, or rather, I should say, ingenious; content, however, with believing these things himself, he very properly does not wish to force them upon others, candidly observing, “the reader will consider these things, and then judge for himself.”

Briefly as to the subjects of the remaining dissertations. The second discusses the relation in the 14th chapter of Genesis, of the wars of the nations of Canaan, previous to the occupation by the Jews. This Sir W. regards as referring to the errors and consequent reformation of the calendar. The Egyptians calculated only 360 days to the solar year; the five days omitted are the five rebel kings of the Jewish allegory; the four kings who oppose them are the four seasons, or complcat year. The troubles and the combats which are related, typify the confusion, and the encounters among the heavenly bodies arising from this miscalculation. Lot is the moon ; Abraham the sun; and Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, is the ecliptic, because his name has been rendered by Jonathan, in his Targum, “This is the ligament revolving itself round the sheaves;” and Sir W. Drummond “thinks it highly probable, that the signs of the zodiac were compared with corn bound with sheaves.”

The third dissertation examines the Tabernacle and the Temple, in the “lintels, curtains, fringes, rings, tongs, tables, dishes, bowls, spoons, and candlesticks,” of which Sir W. Drummond discovers scientific knowledge and astronomical allusion.


326 Original Letters between Dr. Foung & Mr. Richardson. [May 1,

The fourth dissertation is taken up with the supposed entrance of the Israesites into the land of Canaan, as related in the book of Joshua. Sir W. D. discovers in this book a confutation of the doctrine of Isabaism, or the worship of the stars, and other errors common among the Egyptians. The fifth is “a sketch of a commentary on the book of Judges.” Samson is the sun; “he had (it appears) seven locks, and these answer, in number at least, to the seven planets;” towards the end, Sir W. adds, “As I write for scholars, hints are sufficient; and therefore I leave them to fill up the canvass, where my sketches are unfinished.” The sixth is “a short dissertation concerning the Paschal Lamb,” which is to be “considered as a memorial of the transit, (or passover,) of the equinoxial sun, from the sign of the bull to that of the zam, or lamb.” You have here, Sir, a brief abstract, or rather perhaps detached specimens of a very learned and elaborate performance; whether yourself or your readers are likely to be convinced by it, and to become converts to the faith, I cannot of course determine; for my own part, like Sir W. Drummond, I am an avowed and strong enemy to a blind credulity in matters of religious faith. The question between him and his opponents, the bejievers in the literal acceptation of the Scriptures, simply is, which system is the imost probable? On which side does the evidence rest; for the literal acceptation, as generally received; or the figu*ative rendering, as maintained in the {Edipus Judaicus? To aid in solving this question, it might be well to remember, that bigotry, fanaticism, and superstition, are by no means necessarily confined to the believer in revelation, There are few things more interesting to the observing mind, than the various modes of acceptation in which the Scrip

tures have been regarded: the fanatic will tell you, they are holy and infallible, the revealed word of God; the sceptic, that they are mere imposture, fabricated by designing individuals; and both will join sometimes, though from different motives, in conferring on them a figurative meaning. It would be unbecoming in me to fill your Magazine with theological discussion; as a mere matter, however, of philosophical speculation, permit me to suggest an idea with regard to the nature of the Scriptures, which, although consistent with plain common sense, and lying on the very surface of the matter, appears either known to few, or at least very generally disregarded. The Scriptures then, I would say, are not a revelation, written by the finger of God, but the history of a revelation composed by fallible men. That the Deity empowered Moses to deliver the children of Israel from their captivity, I firmly believe; but that the historical records of the Jewish people, in which that fact among others is mentioned, should be. the work of inspiration, by no means. necessarily follows. Paul was called to teach the sublime and enlightened religion of Jesus to the gentile world; but when certain errors in the church of Corinth called for those valuable letters, (epistles) which have come down to us, plain common sense, without the aid of in. spiration, was sufficient for their correction. Not one of the many histories, poems, and other books, which form our “bible,” (with exception to the book of Revelations,) lays any claim to inspiration; why then should we gratuitously confer it on them 2 Should this abstract of the OEdipus Judaicus, with the few remarks affixed to it, prove interesting to your readers, I

shall be amply repaid the trouble of

making them. .

March 14, 1814, DELTA.

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ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY origiNAL LETTERs between Dr. EDWARD YOUNG, Author of Night Thoughts, and MR. SAMUEL RICHARDSON, Author of Clarissa, Grandison, &c. - - -

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i814.] Original Letters between Dr. Foung & Mr. Richardson, 82;

my opportunities as they offer. What contentions, what disputes, have I involved myself in with my poor Clarissa, through my own diffidence, and for want of a will ! I wish I had never consulted any body but Dr. Young, who so kindly vouchsafed me his ear, and sometimes his opinion. Two volumes will attend your commands, whenever you please to give me your direction for sending them. I think I shall publish in about a fortnight. Miss Lee may venture (if you and she have patience) to read these two to you. But Lovelace afterwards is so vile a felHow, that if I publish any more I don't know (so much have some hypercritics put me out of conceit with my work) whether she, of whose delicacy I have the highest opinion, can see it as from you or me.—And yet I hope, at worst, there will be nothing either in the language or sentiments that may be so very censurable, as may be found in the works of some very high names, who have, uncalled for by their subjects, given us specinens of their wit, at the expence of their modesty, and even of common de

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Summer slip, I shall be quite so. But the same regard that makes me wish you here makes me cautious of pressing. We need not press but for what is against inclination. And to see you here with youf inclinations is what must give the satisfaction I desire. If you should find yourself in the humour for Hertfordshire air, I flatter myself Mr. Grover would bear you company, to whom my love and service.

LETTE R X X XIII. On reading Clarissa. Tear Sir, I have read or heard Clarissa thrice, and the last kiss was the sweetest. I will venture to say that they who read it but once will like it least. From the lazy therefore, however well qualified to judge, you must not expect your due. No novelist before you ever aimed so much at instruction, and your execution is as happy as your aim is good. It will be owing to the folly or guilt of their parents if all the female youth of our age go not to school to Clariss. Miss Lee is entered already, and hopes, from your kind partiality, that you will place her in the middle class. She pays you her sincere thanks and best wishes. Go on and prosper, and enjoy, and, as generous as your heart is, be not content to make every body happy but yourself, particularly, Dear Sir, Your affectionate humble servant and admirer, E. YoUNG. My love and service to your Clarissa'd fire-side. May they all live to be fair cominents on their father's work | Please to accept one of the bound volumes of Night Thoughts from Mr. Hawkins.

London, Jan. 1, 1750.

Accept, Reverend and dear sir, with the wishes of many happy new years, the accompanying little piece.” It is strictly true that I had no intention of printing it. But reading it to a little assembly of female friends one Sunday night, one of whom was labouring under some distresses of mind, they were all so earnest with me to print it, that person in particular who is my wife's sister, that I could not resist their entreaties; and, as they were all great admirers of Clarissa, I thought I could not do better than, by historical connexion to the piece, point

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*ss Original Leilers between Dr. Young & Mr. Richardson. [May 15

the use of them in a distress so great as my heroine's is represented to be. I have printed but a small number. Your approbation, or the contrary, will give me courage to diffuse it, or to confine it to the few hands for which it was designed; notwithstanding the bookseilers' names in the title page. Mrs. Hallowes will accept of that in which I have written her name, to whom I wish all happiness, in which I am sure is included yours. I am, Sir, Your affectionate and faithful humble servant, S. Rich ARDson. Mr. Millar has your orders about the new edition of the Night Thoughts. He withholds publication, I believe, because the octavo edition is not all sold.

Wellwyn, Jan. 7, 1749.
Dear Sir,

I thank you much for your very valuable present, and advise, desire, and press ou to publish it, for the sake of all the afflicted, to whom it will be the richest cordial; and also for the sake of the profane, to whom it may be the greatest charity; for many may be tempted to read the glorious word of God when thus taken out of their Bible, who are fools enough mever to read it, in it; and thus, in time, by your pious stratagein, may become proselytes to common sense and their

own welfare.
Nor do I only press you to publish it,
but also to insert it in your next edition
of Clarissa; for now her character is esta-
blished, your reason for not inserting it
at first ceases. And it will much add to
the verisimilitude, and pathos, and sub-
Jimity of the work; the first of which is
the chief point in all fictitious composi-
tion, and the two last are the chief ex-
cellence of almost all composition what-
ever. With the most cordial prayer for

the welfare of you and yours, I am,
Dear Sir,
Your affectionate admirer,

Dear Sir, Feb. 9, 1748.9.

The inclosed is for Mrs. Delany; but she lets me not know in her letter where she lives. I believe you know, and therefore I beg the favour of you to seal and direct it. You, I remember, desired me to write to you my opinion of Clarissa. Therefore I leave the inclosed open, and there you may read it, And if my heart

lay open before you, you would find that letter a true transcript of it. Pray my love and service to Mrs. Richardson, and her little Clarissas. I am, Dear Sir, Your truly affectionate and obliged humble servant, E. YoUNG.

My dear Sir, May 24, 1749.

Most modern writers are mere remembrancers; they give you no new lights, only kindly put you in mind of what you knew before. Some may be considered as news writers, they amuse you (if not instruct) by their novelty; and the degree of credit you will afford them is at your own discretion, In this last view I recommend my friend Dr. Hartley. I neither approve, nor indeed understand, the whole, but there are parts I am fond of; particularly his proofs of the truth of Christianity; and the reasons he gives for the probably approaching ruin of these western kingdoms. But this by the by:

I heartily wish the diet drink may succeed to your expectation. I bless God I am well; and am very sorry to hear of your nervous symptoms increased: too great application hurts you. I wish you could bear being idle; but that I fear would be a harder task to you than your table of contents, which I long to see. Next month I hope to have the pleasure of seeing you at N. End; for I am covetous of a demand on you for your company at Wellwyn ; where you will find a lover of your virtues, and an admirer of your talents, in, Dear Sir,

Your truly affectionate
humble servant,

Dear Sir, July 9, 1749.

I have more reason to be sensible of the flight of time than you; however you cannot but be sensible that summers last not for ever, Ishould think myself happy in an opportunity of conversing with you, for serious minds are but rare. When you will give me that opportunity I cannot tell; but the sooner the kinder. Make the performance of your promise as agreeable to your own humour as you can. Let me know the time, and I will meet you with a post-chaise at Barnet, and snatch you to this place. I have just read a book published by Mr. Millar, Deism revealed, which I think excellent. Perhaps


Perhaps Mr. Millar might not be unwilling to come down with you; I should be very glad to see him, or any other friend of yours. Peace be within your walls, and Paradise within your breast. Dear Sir, Your obliged and truly affectionate humble servant,

- E. YoUNG.

My love and service to all that is dear to you.

LETTER XXXIX. September 9, 1749. Rev. and Dear Sir, On reprinting your Night Thoughts, in 1 vol. 12mo, which I am desirous to put to press myself, in hopes that it will not be the less correct for it, I find that the F. to the fourth night is temporary. imagine you will make some little alteration in the latter part of it, as it leaves the reader doubtful whether you will proceed with the excellent work, when the whole is before him complete. Be pleased to give me your orders on this head. Poor Mr. Grover !—You have doubtless read in the paper that poor Mr. Grower is no more; a violent, a malignant fever, brought on by an obliging over-heating walk to Ember Court, and to carelessness of himself when hot and fatigued, the occasion. He will be greatly missed by a whole House of Commons. It was not easy to find out so much as one half of his merits. I knew not of his illness till he was in danger. I have all his very greatly disordered affairs likely to be upon me. He was the support of a maiden sister, as he had been of a decayed father, mother, and family. I have got her (a worthy creature) to N. End to my good wife. He was too much regardless of money to leave her very happy in that particular. I am endeavouring to get those who valued him to be kind to her. Have you with you yet your dear friend, whom you mentioned to me in the chariot, as we went to Sir Jeremy's —Let me be intitled to your joint prayers, if so. If not, forget me not in yours. Be pleased, with my cordial respects, to thank good Mrs. Hallowes for her kind acceptance of my poor Clarissa. Mine also to Mrs. Ward, if with you; and to Mrs. Heysham, and your bachelor friend at next door. The hospitable reception I and my departed friend met with (for your sake) at $ir Jeremy's, deserves my grateful ac

I am,

knowledgments to the two ladies, and the good baronet. I am, Dear and Rev. Sir, Your faithful and obliged servant, S. RICHARDson. Pray, sir, forget not, if you have opportunity, to put me right with her grace of Portland. I should despise myself were I capable of the behaviour with respect to Mrs. Lambert, that I have been accused of. I would not lie under such an imputation (as, unknown to myself, for a long time I lay under), if I could help it, from the Duchess of Portland, above all the persons in the world; and this I say respecting rather the good woman than the duchess. The true friendship that all mine, as well as myself, bore to Miss Parsons, would have required, if she had had any favour for us, equal to the love we disinterestedly bore her, and still bear her, that she should have given me an opportunity to clear myself, and not left me to wonder at, and my wife to regret the loss of her friendship. My heart is too big, obscure man as I am, to expostulate on this occasion with a lady whom I looked upon as one of my own children. It would not be so big did I not know that it was incapable of deserving either her anger or her long silence. Could I know the asperser, I would keep the secret, if made one; only guard against the man in future. Pray, sir, inform me of the situation of poor Miss Cole. I loved her as cordially as I loved Miss Parsons. If I could add to her happiness in any way it would increase my own. The good duchess will he able to inform you of all that relates to her, I dare say. You see, sir, that I presuine you have not seen her grace yet, on her return from Walbeck.

September 10, 1749.
My Dear Sir,

Accept my various thanks for your late company, for Gidson, for Clarissa, (to Mrs. H.) and for the hopes Shotbolt gives me of seeing you again before I die. Did you know how much pleasure it would give me, I should see you soon. But not with our late friend. How was I struck at the news! If the vigour of life falls, why am I still alive? Neither you nor Solomon can tell. Pray let me know how your poor little sufferer does. I feel for her, and for you. How do you do yourself? Let me know. The pains we feel for others is the price we pay for those pleasures, the bare prospect of - which

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