« PreviousContinue »
sommonalty and citizens,”) will speedily bring the matter forward in the proper place; and that effectual measures will be taken to remove the disgrace attached to the city of London, in the dishonour which has been suffered so long to overcloud the munificent design of one of the most illustrious of her benefactors.
Islington, Nov. 11, 1813. J. N. -oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
SIR, r I. answer to a question, asked by one of your correspondents, relative to the mode of making coffee on the continent, allow me to say, that the great difference between the English and the continental mode is this: foreigners always burn the berry immediately before they make it into coffee, while in England the berry is frequently bought ready-burnt; subsequent to which process it soon loses its flavour. The following is the best mode of making coffee. After grinding the berry to a fine powder, mix with it the shell and white of an egg, then put it into a coffee-pot, fill this vessel with boiling water, and then boil our coffee till it becomes fine, which will e in less than ten minutes. If you cannot procure the shell and white of an egg, fine your coffee thus: af. ter it has boiled ten minutes pour out one cup-full, then put it again into the pot, and boil it five minutes. The Italians seldom take milk in any shape, but the Germans always add boiling cream to their coffee. CUoco ITALIANo & Ted Esco.
-oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
OBSERVE in the last number of
your Magazine a letter from Dr. Reade, stating some experiments, tending to prove the existence of only three primary colours. It is not with any view of invalidating those experiments, which indeed deserve many thanks sron the lovers of science, but unerely for the purpose of stating some of the observations made by St. Pierre on this subject. It has been asserted by naturalists that there are seven primitive colours, and this they demonstrated by the prism, which by breaking a solar ray decompounds it into seven coloured rays, which are displayed in the following order, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. These, it is contended, are the seven primary colours. Now it is evident
that four of these are compounded, for
•range is composed of yellow and red;
It must here be observed that our philosophical machinery deceives us with its affectation of superior intelligence, not only because it ascribes false elements to nature, as when the prism displays compound for primitive colours, but by depriving her of such as are true; for how many white and black bodies must be reckoned colourless, considering that this same prism does not exhibit these tints in the attempted decomposition of a solar ray !
This instrument leads us still further into error respecting the natural order of these very colours, by making the red ray the first in the series, and the violet ray the last. I am very much disposed to believe, that it were possible to cut a crystal with such a number of angles as would give to the refractions of the solar ray an order entirely different, and would multiply the pretended primitive colours far beyond the number of seven. The authority of such a polyedron would become altogether as respectable as that of the prism, if the algebraists were to apply to it a few calculations somewhat obscure, with a seasoning of the ratiocination of the corpuscular philosophy, as they have done with regard to the effects of the triangular instrument.
The natural order of colours is very clearly displayed by the decomposition of the solar ray in the heavens. In a fine summer's night, when the sky is serene, and only loaded with some light vapours, sufficient to stop and refract the rays of the sun, as they traverse the extremities of the atmosphere, you will observe the moment when the sun is going to exhibit his disk that the dazzling white is visible in the horizon, the pure yellow at an elevation of forty-five degrees, the fire colour in the zenith, the pure blue forty-five degrees under it, towards the west; and in the very west, the dark veil of night still lingering in the horizon. Between the tropics this progression is far more distinct than in our climates, as there they have scarcely any horizontal refraction to make the light prematurely encroach on the darkness. C. C. C.
Westminster, March 14, 1814,
For $16 For the Monthly 4 sagazine. [We have been favoured by the Author with the following extracts from a manuscript work, entitled, “The True Principles of Political Science, dedited from Isistorical Documents,” preparing for the press by the REW. T. D. PosLittook E, A}. A. F. A. S. Author of British Monachism, &c. &c.] To expedition to Portugal.--The French having coinonitted a greaterror in neglecting to occupy this country in force, directly after the retreat of Sir John Alcore, (Capt. Joliel's Jefence of Portugal, ) Marqois Wellington, then Sir Arthur Wellesley, is said to have proposed the second occupation of Portugal. The idea has proved happy. “Where there is a great superiority at sea, and plenty of soldiers to transport, an offensive war should be carried into the contre of the enemy's dominions.” (Cibbon ii. 258) As the latter direction was not practicable, the other plan came nearest to it. The policy is founded upon clear principles. The Emperor Proteus invaded the country of the Barbarians, upon the idea, that nothing could reconcile the to to peace but experience of the calaunitics of war in their own country. Battle of Talavera. It is never eligible to fight with inferior numbers, because the loss is sure to be very heavy. This battle probably prevented many others, by acquainting the enemy with the very high character of the British troops, thus admirably characterized by Goldsmith: “Wat Tyler (he says) was one of those hardy spirits, so frequently found among the common English, ready to face every danger, and support every calamity.” Lines of Torres Vedras. “Francis,” says ltobertson, (Ch. V. A. D. 1536.) “fixed upon the only proper and effectual plan for defeating the invasion of a powciful enemy. He determined to remain altogether upon the defensive; never to hazard a battle, or even a great skirmish, without certainty of success; to fortify his camps in a rcgular manner; to throw garrisons only into towns of great strength; to deprive the enemy of subsistence by laying waste the country before them, and to save the whole kingdom by sacrificing one of the provinces.” Battle of Almeida. It will be recollected that Lord W. through want of cavalry, made the brunt of the battle to rest upon the occupation of a village, from which the French were expelled, and, in the end, worn out. It was the custom in the wars of Italy to fight one squadron 3.
[May 1, against another, and in lieu of that which was weary and began to retire to supply the battle with a fresh detachment, so that very few perished, and the event proved indecisive. Guicciardini, L. ii. After this followed a suspension of active operations. A famous general, says the last writer, (L. ii.) thought it a great wast of discretion to expose himself to the will of fortune without any necessity; and this reason his lordship assigned for declining battle at Fuentes Guinaldo. It is a military rule never to act offensively without superior numbers; by withdrawing a large portion of the French to observe him, he exposed the rest to a harassing warfare from the Spaniards, and confirmed them in their opinion of his army's invincibility, by the quiet in which it remained. Battle of Salamanca. “It may prove dangerous,” says Gibbon, (v. 81.) to extend the line of defence against a skilful antagonist, who is free to press or to suspend, to contract or to multiply, his various methods of attack.” Marmont drew. out his line to a thread, and his plan was only proper in situations where the opposing general was not free to chuse his plan of attack. The idea of Marmont was imperfect and misapplied. Retreat from Burgos. It was conducted upon the principle of the Romans, who covered the rear with cavalry, directed to resist in close action the advancing enemy, but not to pursue fugitives. Tacit. Annal. xiii. 40. Passage of the Douro, and consequent. evacuation of Toro, 3amora, Burgos, &c. As Byzantium was one of the greatest passes from Europe into Asia, it had been provided with a strong garrison, and a fleet of 500 vessels was anchored in the harbour. The impetuosity of Severus disappointed this prudent scheme of defence. He left to his generals the siege of Byzantium, forced the less guarded passage of the Hellespont, and, impatient of a meaner enemy, passed forward to encounter his rival. (Gibbon, c. 5.) This policy was adopted by Lord W. before the battle of Vittoria. The subsequent actions of this great officer are so evidently founded upon the highest military knowledge, as to render elucidation superfluous. - Jong experience in the art of war is said to produce that caution which is the best weapon, according to high authority, to cope with French impetuosity. (Roberts. Ch. V. A.D. 1521.) Generals, says Tacitus have more often succeeded by foresight, delay, and consultation, than
by by temerity. (Hist. ii. 20.) The account of Suetonius Paulinus, by the same philosophical writer, very well coincides with the military conduct of this illustrious, nobleman. “ He hesitated and weighed matters, preferring safe measures with reason, to presumed successes, which might result from fortune. His first care was to guard against defeat, and his next to contend for victory.” (Hist. ii. 26.) Vindication of the just pretensions of generals is a patriotic duty. Detraction, when applied to great commanders, is called by Livy (L. 22, c. 13,) a most pernicious practice (pessima ars) because tending to deprive the public of the benefits of their service. In all actions which excite the applause and admiration of mankind, part of the success is owing to conduct, and part to fortune. (Goldsmith's Letters on the English History. L. 63.) How very little can be ascribed to fortune, in action with a French enemy, may be easily imagined. To conquer them is incontrovertible credit. -o-EeTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, WAS much struck with the bold assertion of your correspondent Y. in page 128 of your last Magazine, where he says that “it is a latinism, or gallicism, to give a versatile personality to who, and to write who am or who art : the true old English way, the anglicism, is to write, I who is, thou who did.” As this kind of construction was quite new to me, I concluded that your correspondent must be in a gross error; but in order to be convinced, I consulted some of our earlier old English writers, and find that Chaucer, Spenser, and Milton, make use of language confirmatory of my opinion: to what old English way, or writers, he can allude, I am at a loss to guess.
Of Orel, or of Sinai didst inspire.” And chiefly thou, O spirit, that dost prefer.” Milton: Paradise Lost. Book I. Upon a cursory inspection, these instances presented themselves; and, no doubt, many more might be found. The only possible objection, which your correspondent could start, might be, that the impersonal pronoun that is used, and not who, in these instances: but any person who is at all acquainted with our earlier writers, knows that that is used both personally and impersonally. Even Milton has not avoided what would now be accounted an inelegance. The Scriptures too have
“Our Father which art in Heaven.” Which passage makes equally against your correspondent, although which, instead of either that, or who, is used. But, Sir, what shall we say to the grammatical correctness of this passage of Pope: “O thou my voice inspire, Who touch'd Isaiah's hallow'd lips with fire,” when he is tried by his own writings 2 —Whoever will give himself the trouble to read “Sappho to Phaon,” and “Eloisa to Abelard,” will find a continual war with grammatical construction : “Yet once thy Sappho could thy cares employ, Once in her arms you center'd all your joy.” It must be evident that Pope would not have written, you center'd, had the measure of the verse admitted thou cen
teredst, and had it also been equally
harmonious. Again: in his “Universal Prayer,” he has two false concords of the same kind as that in the line above quoted, and for the same reason, that the measure of the verse and the harmony would not admit any other construction: but we are not therefore to adopt this licence as a rule. For when Pope was completely unfettered, he wrote grammatically as well as other persons; see his works passin: “Say, lovely youth, that dost my heart command.” Sappho to Phaon. “Thou who shalt stop where Thames' translucent wave.” Inscriptionin his Grotto.
Whatever may be the fault of the line, “Who touch'd Isaiah's hallow'd lips with fire,” I am disposed to think that the alteration proposed by another correspondent, would make the remedy worse than the 2 T disease.
disease. By the introduction of the expietive didst you certainly get rid of the false concord, but the harmony of the verse is spoiled: and in accenting Isaiah upon the first syllable, and making it besides a dissyllable, you certainly commit *nanslaughter, if not wilful murder The line, it appears to me, must always remain as it is, a harmonious one with a false concord, maugre all the efforts of your correspondents to the contrary. It is certainly singular, that Pope should have been either so inattentive, so mal-adroit, or so indifferent, as to use thou, and you, and they, and your, in addressing the same person in the same poem : but the fact is so ; and it must be admitted, this is no trivial derogation from his merit; but it is evident, that neither I who is, nor thon who did, is warranted by the usage of Pope, nor, as far as I know, by any other writer. Your correspondent refers us to the Gothic dialects: unfortunately for me, I ain not acquainted with those dialects. It would be kind if he would inform us to what dialects he alludes. I have consuited Wallis, who was, I presume, acquainted with the Saxon; and I should have thought that, if “tich a peculiarity of construction as I who is, or thou who did, existed, either in the Saxton, or was to be found in our old English writers, that he would have taken solije notice of it. U, on as t in his Grammatica Lingua: Anglicana, page 203, he says, that “Am est of A. slo-Saxonia Econ, quod forte 3:2; unde et Latinorum Su” (profixo s, ut stepe, spiritus loco :) at quo ab am flectuntur Are et Art quod contracte dicitur pro Ar’st (est edium st terminatio scc., oda Personae singula; is.”) From what has beet, said, I believe we shall have no difficulty in deciding, that J who is, and thou who did, are net anglicisms; nor have they ever been so at any period of our literary history; unless your correspondent is acquainted with some scriptores incogo... ', who have escaped the scrutinizing search of the last three or four centuries. Ifuntspill, March 20, 1814. -orTo the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. S I R, I? has often appeared to me rather astonishing, that in an age so peculiarly conspicuous so its many discoveries and improvements in every branch of science as the present, and in which that of natural history has been so eminently advanced by the munificent and
On preventing the ravages of Moths in a Museum. [May 1,
liberal encouragement it has received, as well as by the exertions of those whose labours, in different parts of the globe, have enriched our own country with so many of their natural productions, no material improvement that has come within my knowledge has been made in securing these beautiful, but perishable, objects, from the destruction of various species of insects, which, without the most vigilant and constant care, will soon destroy the fruit of years of careful and persevering assiduity, and render the acquisitions of the most zealous naturalist, even before he can convey his treasures to his native country, for the investigation of scientific observers, completely of no avail to the advancement of this charming science. I am led to this reflection by the cruel and vexatious loss I have recently sustained in a small but valuable collection of birds, which has been completely destroyed by these destructive and dreaded posts to the collector, not one specimen out of above sixty remaining in a state fit to be kept. For convenience in travelling, these specimens had been disposed on trays in two large boxes, and it is a matter somewhat curious, that they were both destroyed in different ways: in the one the whole work of devastation had been accomplished by the larva of a species of the Linnean Dermestes, which I cannot now recollect, but it must be too well known to the naturalist; in size it is somewhat less than a grain of corn, and has the segments of the abdomen with fine rufous ciliate hairs, with a fringe of the same at the anus: this insect had fed on the dried skin, and few remaining bones of the wings, legs, and head, leaving the feathers for the most part untouched. The specimens in the other box had been destroyed in quite a different way, for the fathers had entirely disappeared, leaving the naked skin, bones, &c. quite entire: these, from the numerous cases of the larva still remaining, had been eaten by a species of Tinca, (I believe T. FlaviJorontella,) and a few of the Lepesma saccharina I found at the bottom of the case. From various avocations I had not inspected this unfortunate collection for near twelve months, at which time however they were in perfect good order, having (to prevent such an accident) put thern then all into an oven, sufficiently heated to have destroyed any insects at that time in them. The method I adopted in their preservation had been to remove every part of - the
the animal substance possible, leaving only the terminal bones of the wings, those of the legs and head ; and after slightly sprinkling the skin with a composition of alum, wormwood, tobacco, and pepper, stuffed the body with cotton; I should add however, the antiseptic had frequently been omitted. I am acquainted with several compositions for preserving birds, such as those given in the “Instructions,” &c. of Mr. Donovan, and “the Naturalist's Companion” of Dr. Lettsom ; but they are generally expensive, and can seldom be procured in travelling, or in foreign countries. I should feel most sincerely obliged to any of your intelligent readers or correspondents who can give me any information on this point, which from observation or experience they may be acquainted with, and for this purpose beg the early insertion of this letter in your widely circulated and excellent miscellany. I have frequently thought that a liquor might be composed, which the cotton or tow used in stuffing should be impregmated with, and besides any inward antiseptic, a powder should be sprinkled between the feathers, whose strong qualities would prevent the approach of these destructive vermin. It certainly is a subject well worth the attention of chemists, amid the vast improvements of that science. How many rare and valuable specimens are annually lost to museums and private collections by the want of a specific of this description 1 I beg leave here also to remark, that I have made use of the solution of mercury in spirits of wine for the preservation of dried plants, as recommended in the excellent introduction to Botany of the learned. Dr. Smith, but without effect ; my Herbarium having been again attacked and much injured by the larva of Ptinus fur, in less than six months after having washed the entire collection with
this liquor. W. S.
EFORE chemistry gave her power- .
ful assistance to the healing art, no wonder that some cutaneous diseases were not subdued without great difficulty and perseverance; for even now, many cases occur, that require the most skilful treatment and the most potent remedies; nay, that frequently baffle the ractice not only of empirics, but of men the most distinguished by their ex
better of it.
tens. e experience, and for their improvements in medical science. Pliny informs us, that the Mentagra broke out in the reign of Claudius; it was a distemper brought from Asia to Rome, and then appeared for the first time, astecting only men of the first quałity, leaving women, the lower class of the people, and slaves, entirely free; beginning at the chin like a tetter, and spreading itself all over the face, except the eyes, and then the neck, the breast and hands soon appeared in branny scales, that were exceedingly offensive, though no way dangerous. The physicians were at a great loss to cure it, therefore some were sent for from Egypt, who, by the help of cauteries, got the Some of the Roman physicians, especially Pamphilus, found out a medicine afterwards, that did as well; * for which, it is almost incredible to think what vast sums were given: Manilius Cornutus, the governor of Aquitain, having agreed with his physicians for his cure, if Pliny does not mistake, at the rate of two hundred sesterces, that is, about 1600l. sterling. This historical fact was recalled to my remembrance, by seeing a letter to the Editors of that useful record of medical transactions and opinions, the Medical and Physical Joornal, (No. 149,) in which “Philanthropus” solicits “the favour of communications from their intelligent corre. spondents, for the best method of treating ring worm of the head, a disease that had occasioned a school to be broken up,” (such was the fact in regard to the pupils of one of the most sensible governesses in this parish) and that, “ though he is an old practitioner, he has not discovered any remedy, producing permanently good effects in ring-worm.” Enquiries to the same effect have been more recently made by a correspondent, whose letter appeared page 224, of the present volume of your celebrated miscellany; who, under the signature of “A MoTHF it,” requests to be informed of specifics for the “ring-worm.” Those who are best acquainted with
the virtues, properties, and powers of
medicines, know that there are much fewer specifics than are generally imagined, and that even those do not always answer the purpose for which they are recommended; however, to allav the amiable anxiety of “A MoTHER,” and for the benefit of that numerous and
* see Galen's fifth book, chap. iii. where he treats de earcóriatoriis Lichenum, 2 T 2 valuable