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of North Wales may be (with small exseptions) said to consist. Two small Welsh churches midway up the hills, which rise on each side after the manner of an immense barrier—encountered an idiot on the road, a fine looking old man—Malwydd-breakfast—a bridge here about a quarter of a mile from the inn (where a comfortable refreshment may be had), over a most picturesque stream, which makes its way, not without much noise, amidst huge masses of rock, along a channel of the same kind— mill just above, of singular beauty—both beautiful and irresisting subjects for the pencil. Enchanting ride to Dolgelly—at Dinasimouthy hills above began to look mountainous, (the transition from hill to thountain is indeed complete within 25 miles). It happens particularly during this ride that when you would expect, on arriving at the head of the valley in which you travel, an impassable limit to your progress, you turn round the corner into a new and quite unexpected street of hills like the former—and this perpetually—which adds much to the charm of this enchanting tour. Six miles before you reach Dolgelly, on reaching the head of such a street, and having attained a very considerable height over which the road is carried, Cader Idris bursts suddenly upon the view in all his grandeur, and is seen for the first time when only four miles distant, without the smallest intervention of hills to prevent embracing the whole of his magnificent dimensions; his awful perpendicular craggs; his double peak (3,2830g), his face of entire stone, at the same unoment you view for the first time a country totally surrounded in all directions with mountains of the same abrupt and awful character, not only divested of vegetation, but exhibiting a deeply fissured aspect, and grey with perpetual stone. Two miles before arriving there Dolgelly appears—its situation particularly fine: between this place and the circular barrier of mountains which bounds its horizon, there is interposed a fine belt of gentle hills, covered with verdure and woods, and diversified with several picturesque villas– the river — bridge—&c.—appearance of the town, on arriving there, totally different from any English town or village. The assizes. Start at half past one to ascend Cader Idris. Ascent begins two miles south from Dolgelly—day quite clear— ascent not particularly difficult, but long, requiring full eight hours on ponies— : walk two miles after dismounting; the

Recent Tour in Wales.

[May 1, views looking over the cliffs awful—our first view of Snowdon from Cader, from which it appears a come of vast pre-eminence—other points of the prospect are, the pool of Bala, many miles off—the sea from the extreme point of Pembrokeshire. to that of Carnarvon—Anglesea partially —Ireland not at all—Brecon Hills–Sugar Loas-Plinlimmon—Barmouth Towynrivers, &c. Returned to Dolgelly about half past eight o'clock, having spent seven hours in this delightful excursión. Peak of Cader viewed from the inn door, right over the market house of Dolgelly—the ins moderately good. *

-nose- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIP, - O long as the people of this nation are deluded with the prospects of for reign connections and foreign commerce —so long as the majority of them think there is something very imposing in wearing a red coat and using a sword, agriculture and the peaceful arts will be neglected and despised; and whatever mise. ries these notions may occasion, few will be found bold enough to explain the various causes to which they are referable ; nor indeed will their remarks, let them be ever so well intentioned, be well received by the generality of mankind, because that dazzle and parade which so much delights this fighting age, tends materially to stifle all generous habits of pure and deep reflection, and to encourage indir vidual passion rather to the further indulgence of these unhappy propensities, than seeking to put an end to them by those kind considerations that have for their ultimate ends the comforts and happiness of nations. That war is the cause of immense waste in blood and treasure, is as certain as the sun giving light and heat; and that the waste is the cause of great fluctuation in the necessaries of life is what our pocket daily experiences; yet instead of these conclusions being generally allowed and acknowledged, the whole is attempted to be laid on the farmer, and that to their pride and selfishness are all the numerous evils of this description to be referred. It is vain for you to remind them of the numerous and pressing calls that are continually made on this respectable and valuable class, and over which they have no more controul than an oyster has over the tide of the ocean. There are no description of people whose property is so little protected as the farmer’s, and whose comforts and happiness are so

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much under the controul of the higher classes; therefore since leases have been discontinued, it is (as natural to be expected) rare to meet in this class of society men of enlarged minds, and who speak and feel as men enjoying the invigorating warmth of rational independence. The modern method of letting land, as a growing evil, ought to be continually exposed and condemned ; for how is it possible that a person coming from a distant part (in general a London attorney), possessing no knowledge of the many local circumstances that affect the value of the estate, and which greatly retard its successful cultivation, can be a proper person to decide on the tenure of an honest and industrious man, who may have spent hundreds of pounds, and the best portion of his life, in improving and ameliorating its condition? Two large estates in this neighbourhood, Coombe and Stonely, Warwickshire, have been thus valued to a rack rent; all deduction, all allowances, of materials for reF. rs or improvements, strictly forbidden; ow is it possible that agriculture can flourish, and those exertions be made that very properly tend to place us independant of other nations and unfavourable seasons, while the cultivators labour under such discouraging effects * The whole tribe of qualitiers, landagents, and stewards, are a pest to society; if the landlord and tenant cannot of themselves agree, why not, as is customary in other cases of dispute, appoint fair and impartial arbitrators This appears to me to be the only method to prevent many mischiefs, to do justice to both parties, and, by giving confidence, give a generous stimulant to remedy those growing evils that afflict us from the want of leases. But this appears to be the age of quackery; every thing that is as plain and simple as the palm of your hand is to be enveloped in some confusion, otherwise designing and useless individuals could not find means of preying on this deluded nation; consequently these vapid, fine-tongued gentry have an admirable opportunity to do harm to every body but their employers and themselves; they having no common nor mutual interest betwixt landlord and tenant, those generous feelings that ought to press materially on their decisions are totally disregarded; an increasing rent-roll, from which they receive a sinecure, stifles every manly sentiment. The change that has taken place in the kabits and manners of landlords, such as

Abuses in letting Estates. 31}

trifling away one part of the year at watering places; the other in fox-hunting and shooting, in which more store is certainly placed on a covey of birds than the comforts of an honest and industrious tenant and his family; is doing much mischief by estranging the one from the other, though it is their mutual interest to be joined; and in some instances where the women interfere, on account of the incapacity of their shiveiling husbands, illustrating the language of the poet, there is misery enough.

Sometimes through fear the sexes change their airs, The squire has vapours, and his lady swears; The one scarce crawls about with empty head, The other allows no peace till she's in bed; He on a Sunday bends his pious knees, Whilst she, through frost and snow, gees marking trees. The time that these people choose to begin their operations being in the spring of the year, which is sure to shew every thing to the best advantage, is exceedingly impolitic and unfair; and although the crops may look prolific and abundant, it is not by any means a just criterion of their ultimate produce. Nevertheless when they have thus given in the price, founded on this superficial decision, no abatement can possibly be made, right or wrong, because, as the minister observes in parliament, it is popular clamour—will make the rest discontented—and they are kind enough to give you for answer, “If you do not like it, leave it; Mr. Fingerdirt will find a tenant at the price.” Whilst this system “has increased, is increasing, and ought to be diminished,” it is rare for a farmer to think it prudent to quit; they

anxiously hope that things may turn up

for the better. Various are the ties that a wise Providence has established to bind human nature to the soil that gave him birth; and many must be the sleepless nights and unhappy days of him who has the endearing and additional ties of a lovely wife and numerous family, before he can submit to be driven from a home, to no employment. All authors, that I have read on agriculture, have described it as yet in its in. fancy, whilst my own experience confirms their renmark; and it is but lately that the enlightened aid of chemistry has been resorted to, to analyze soil, and to reduce the first principles of this important art to a science. Yet these modern landagents have the stupid effrontery to decide on the value of land, merely b 3 $ 2 rubbing

312 rubbing the soil in their fingers, or applying it to their mouth: verily sach ideas give to dirt a double degree of dirtiness. Ye chemists ye men of observation' who consider how proper it is, when in the pursuits of knowledge, to proceed cautiously, and to use every degree of circumspection, lest ye should not discover the various causes that alter or deteriorate; blush to think how ill you have passed your time in these cautious endeavours! locb. 10. VAR Ro. -oFor the Monthly Magazine. ¥ABITATs and BotAN : C MEMio RAN PA ; by M.R. winch, of Newcast LE. ExNGIUM campestre. A plant which Imake no doubt was introduced into this part of the kingdom with ballast from Holland, continues to grow at St. Peter's Quay on the north shore of Tyne, as mentioned in Wilson's Synopsis; and in the salt meadows near Friars-Goose; on the south shore, as noticed by Lawson in Ray's Works. I have also seen it on the ballast hills of Wear. N. J. W. BUPIEURUM rotundifolium. Box hill, and between Dorking and Ranmore Common, Surrey; Mr. J. Woods,-Rodersham, near Sittingburn, Kent ; Rev. 3. Fenwick. —Tipon, Yorkshire; Mr. 33runton. BUPLEURUM tenuissimum. Banks of Itchen, near Southampton ; Mr. J. Woods..—On Seaton Moor, Durham; JMr. J. Backhouse. CAUcALI's infesta. ing. N. J. W.-Ripon, Yorkshire; Mr. I3runton. CAUCAT. Is nidosa. Ring's park, Fäinburgh, and Holy Island, Northumberland. N. J. W.-Below St. Vincent's Jocks, Bristol; Mr. Thompson. DAucus maritimus. Withering. T}AUcus carot a y. Fi. Brit. On the coast of Cornwall; Mr. E. Forster.— ‘she plant mentioned in Winch's Guide, p. 26, as growing on the Durham coast, is not this remarkable variety, or more probably species. See Withering's edition, where a good figure is given of it. ...W. J. W. SE LINUM palustre. In a ditch by the right hand side of the road, in a field between Withersluck and Pendle, Yorkshire; Mr. Windsor. ER; tıIRIUM maritinum, Wallis mentions this plant as growing on rocks near Alemouth, Northumberland, which I am almost confident is a mistake.--Lightfoot observes that it is a native of the Galloway coast, but I never heard of its being

Afr. Winch’s Botanic Memoranda.

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[May 1,
found on the north-eastern shores of Bri-
tain. N. J. W.
MEUM athamanticum. On a hill near
Throckington, Northumberland; Wallis.
—A likely habitat for this rare plant.
N. J. H.
Lic Ustic UM scoticum. Among rocks
and loose pebbles on the sea beach, a little
to the north of Dunstanborough Castle,
Northumberland. The only English ha-
bitat, July 18, 1804, N.J. W.
(ENANTHE peucedanifolia. By the
road side between Barrington and Bar-
moor, Northumberland; Mr. Thompson.
SIUM latifolium. Ditches by the
Thames, above Maidenhead, Berks;
Mr. J. Woods.
SIUM modiflorum. Near Bath and
Bristol; Mr. Thompson.
SIGM repens. Tothill Fields; Mr. E.
Forster.—Finchley Common; Mr. J.
SIUM oerticellatum. On the shores of
Gare Loch, Scotland. N. J. W. -
Sison Amomum. Near Rochester,
Kent, and Dorking, Surrey. N. J. W.-
Bristol; Mr. Thompson.
SIsox segetum. Near Winchelsea, on
the road to Rye, Sussex; Mr. J. Woods.
—Between Yarmouth and Norwich, Nor-
folk; Mr. D. Turner. . .


To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,
{ ROM the time of my first introduc-
tion to the great metropolis, I have.
felt much pleasure on contemplating, in
my walks in and about the town, those
numerous charitable and other institu-
tions of a public nature, for the founda-
tion and establishment of which the inha-
bitants are so much indebted to the piety
and munificence of their ancestors.
Among “those famouser acts, which for
public and pious uses have been bestowed
by many worshipful citizens and benefac-
tor”,” (to use the words of honest John
Stow,) I have ever considered the public
spirit evinced by that renowned merchant
Sir Thomas Gresham, in the building of
the Burse in Cornhill, subsequently
called the Royal Exchange, and the en-
downent of a college for the advance-
inent of science, with its revenues, as"
one of those emanations of a patriotic
mind despising the paitry idea of family.
aggrandizement, which ought ever to be
held up as an example to the wealthy ci-
tizen, as it will be contemplated with re-
spect and veneration by every generous,
mind to the latest posterity. . . . . . .”

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Being much in the habit of making researches into our civic history and antiquities, a subject which, in the circle of my acquaintance, is sometimes the topic of conversation, it has often fallen to my lot to feel the blush of indignation rise in full warmth, when the following question has been put to me in company, both by Englishmen and foreigners, relative to the above ancient institution: —“What has become of GRESHAM CollfgF, a phidosophical establishment of a hich we read in Stow, in Maitland, in Entick, and all the city historians, and which was founded by Sir Thomas Gresham more than two hundred years ago, for promoting the stu‘dy of Divinity, Geometry, Astronomy, JMusic, Law, Physie, and Rhetoric 2" Some of these querists, having understood, while on the Continent, that this was an institution endowed with ample revenues, and of equal stability with our two universities, have expressed the greatest surprise on my informing them that the col. lege had been pulled down nearly haif a century, and the sche covered by an Ev. cise Office J-that the professors being thus turned out of their apartments, are, as an equivalent, allowed each to take to him a wife, (an article prohibited by the will of the founder, as perhaps being considered inimical to philosophical pursuits,) and are further compensated by an aug. mentation of fifty pounds towards house, keeping, in addition to the like sum allowed them each annually as a stipend for delivering their lectures. It will be observed, Mr. Editor, that I cannot possibly intend, by these remarks, to throw any reflection on the prescnt corporation of the city, or the Company of Mercers, the successors of the trustees appointed by Sir Thomas Gresham to foster and superintend his munificent, and, what I must term, great national institution; seeing that the members of those bodies, who took upon themselves the respousibility of making such a formidable incroachment in the founder's will, have, it is most likely, been long since consigned to the tomb of “all the Capulets;” you will therefore, I trust, indulge me in making the following observations, for which I have no doubt the reader will consider the importance of the subject a full and sufficient apology. The dwelling house of Sir Thos. Gresham was a spacious and handsome quadrangular structure, situate between Bishopsgate-street and Broad-street, in the city of London, having in the centre an open court, nearly 144 feet square,

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planted with trees,” and containing a large hall, repository, library, and a great number of rooms distributed throughout its several parts. Moreover, it appeared from its situation in the heart of the metropolis, its magnitude, and the great variety of its apartments, its covered walks, stables, gardens, &c. that the worthy and illustrious knight harboured the in, ention of converting the same into a coliege at the time the building was first planned and erected. This is I think sufficiently supported by the circumstance of his devising the same “to the mayor, commonaltie, and citizens of London,” and “to the wardens and commonastie of the mysterie of the mercers;” in trust for the use of the several professors of the beforementioned seven liberal sciences, for them “there to inhabit, study, and acily to read their lectures.”f There can, as I conceive, he no doubt that it was the mind and intention of the illustrious Gresham, that this “Cellege,” as it has always been called, should have an existchce beyond the mere name, and that it should be firmly established, sapported and continued in perpetuity, as an honour and an ornament to his native city. It was certainly his earnest hope, that, instead of throwing cold water on his design, the citizens of London, on whom he had conferred such signal marks of his favour, would use their utmost endeavours to augment the revenues, and increase the establishment of his infant foundation, that it might in the progress of years assume the character of a school of learning, worthy of the first city in the world; and ultimately, by their exertions, and the bounty of public spirited individuals, arise to a consequence perhaps little inferior to the two famous Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which have attained their present exalted rank, by the exercise of similar means. This opinion is confirmed by the biographer of Sir Thomas, who states that, “having determined to bestow a part of his wealth in founding a college for the sciences in his native city, the principal people of the University of Cambridge endeavoured to dissuade him from thus establishing a rival institution, but his determination was fixed.”f

* See a view of the coliege, in Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors, also in London and its Environs, 8vo. vol. iii. D. 76. } ; Vide Will of Sir Thomas Gresham, in Curia Praerog. Cantuar. # See article Gresham,Rees'sCyclopedia. - - * Is * {4 In what manner these praise-worthy and patriotic views have been carried into effect, is notorious to all the world, and discreditable to the city of London; and painful it is to the lover of science, to read in almost every book treating of civic affairs, that an institution thus endowed, and founded with these laudable intentions, has been suffered, “by the ignorance or careiessness of trustees, to fall into contempt and oblivion;” that the college is “totally destroyed;” that as for the professors, “ their places have become mere sinecures;” that “the world has long forgot to enquire after them, and they seem willing to enjoy their salaries in peaceful obscurity;” and, in short, that “ the public derive little or no advantage from Sir Thomas's munificence;” “the original design of the institution having nearly dwindled to nothing.” The apartment now assigned to the Gresham professors for delivering their lectures, when an audience can be found, is situated in a dark dirty nook, at the top of a long flight of stairs, in the IRoyal Exchange, where nobody would expect to find any such an appropriation of part of a building devoted to mercantile concerns; and the only means used to give publicity to these exhibitions, is through the medium of an occasional advertisement in some of the newspapers, and an obscure painted board covered with smoke and dust, which is sometimes to be seen hung upon the Exchange gate. I am not disposed to call in question the authority of an Act of Parliament, which a great lawyer once affirmed to be of sufficient power to do “any thing but turn a woman into a man;" but I must take the liberty to remark, that if this compromising, this accommodating disposition is encouraged, we may not unreasonably expect to see the effects it produces in regard to other institutions of a similar kind. Christ's Hospital, and St. Bartholomew's, may be razed to the ground, or transformed into barracks or military depots, for the use of government; and the Blue-coat boys and the sick patients sent home to their friends, with “a sufficient allowance” for their accommodation elsewhere, as an equivalent for their being

turned out of these buildings, which may,

TI Brayley's Account of London, p. 495. —Ralph's Critical Review of the Public Buildings, p. 30.--A Complete Guide-to the British , Capital; by John Wallis, p. 477, &c, &c. &c. &c. -

Plans for restoring Gresham College.

[May 1, forsooth, be found to be necessary for the public service. I have been induced to offer these remarks, on contemplating the fine opportunity that now presents itself to the Corporation of London, and the Mercers' Company. A plan for covering Moorfields, and the site of Bethlem Hospital, with buildings on a large scale, has received the sanction of the corporation. Would it not therefore be much to the honour of the city of London, for that body to determine on the erection of a handsome and appropriate structure in this place, so near to the original spot, to be designated by its ancient name of Gresham College 2 It would - not perhaps be thought necessary, or found convenient for the professors to have lodgings in the college as formerly; but, certainly, the renovation of this excelleut institution, by the erection of a spacious and commodious lecture-room, externally characterized as a public building and furnished with a library, and all the mechanical apparatus, necessary for the elucidation of the sciences, is a desideratum, anxiously looked for by every man of taste and true lover of learning. A society has been established in the city, under the name of the London Institution, “for promoting the diffusion of science, literature, and the arts,” and which received the royal charter in the year 1807. The members of this institution have been, from that time, en

deavouring to procure a suitable edifice

as a depository for their valuable library, (already consisting of several thousand volumes,) for the delivery of lectures, and other general purposes of the establishment; but hitherto, as I am informed, without the desired success. Now would it not be a most eligible thing, for the cause of letters, and beneficial to the public at large, could an association be formed between these two bodies, (by virtue of an Act of Parliament or otherwise,) for the establishment of a publie institution, in which the energies of both might be united in forwarding and promoting the great objects contemplated by the illustrious Gresham * These hints are thrown out merely as matter for consideration among those persons in the city who may feel interested in the cause, and be possessed of the means of doing something towards placing this long-neglected institution on

a more respectable footing; and I am ,

not without a hope, that some publicspirited member of the corporation, or. livery, (sor the trust is vested in “the


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