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by means of loans made among the Society; and is supported by their donations, legacies, and annual subscriptions, aided by small payments of the patients, proportioned to their means. It was designed to accommodate 80 patients, but has since been enlarged, and now accommodates between 60 and 70.
The establishment merits notice from its successful treatment of the most deplorable of human maladies, by means more consonant to the feelings of moral and rational beings, than had heretofore been practised in receptacles for the same purpose. It was justly conceived, that a soothing, kind, and benevolent system was the true medicine for diseases of the mind; the experiment has been fairly tried in this admirable establishinept ; and its snceeds has afforded an example to all establishments for similar purposes, and has developed principles at once useful and gratifying. . . '• In our last Magazine, we took notice of a meeting of some benevolent persons
at the London Tavern, whose object it is to erect a building on a large scale near London; in which a similar treatment should be adopted. In that paragraph we specified the advantageous results of the practice in this establishment, compared with those in other receptacles for lunatics, as an incontrovertible arithmetical proof of the benefits which may be expected from an extension of the system. We need not repeat what we there stated; but for the further gratification of our readers, we refer them to a judicious account of the establishment lately published by Mr. Samuel Tuke, remark. ing, that we ardently wish success to the plan of building an extensive receptacle in which the same system of treatment is to be adopted; and that we consider the Society of Friends as having established new claims, if any were wanted, to the respect and gratitude of mankind for the excellent spirit which originated, fostered and matured these important improvements. -
- THE COMMERCIAL ROOMS, BRISTOL.
for the proposed building. Ten plans were accordingly submitted to their judgment, and after the gentlemen of the committee' had duly considered, and publicly exhibited all the plans, they awarded the first premium to Mr. C. A. Busby, of London, and under whose superintendance, as architect to the committee, this building has been subsequently erected. . . . - - - . . . . . Thé entrance from Corn-street is under an Ionic portico of four columns, communicating immediately with the grand room, which is 60 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 25 in height. In the , centre of the ceiling is a circular lantern, light, 21 feet in diameter, covered won. a dome borne by 12 caryatides, or silo2 Q 2 |) of k . . . .
296 porting figures, between which the light is admitted into the room, through reticulated iron sashes, and the whole has an effect altogether pleasing and elegant. The height from the floor to the dome is 45 feet, and from the centre is suspended a beautiful Grecian lamp, besides four others of smaller dimensions in the angles of the room. The reading room is 30 feet by 20, and 17 high. There are also a committee room and offices, and two rooms over the reading and committee rooms, of dimensions corresponding with those below. The whole site of the building is vaulted, and the liberality of the committee has spared no expence in the solidity of its construction, or in the embellishments which render it an honourable proof of their public spirit. The rooms are furnished with handsome mahogany tables and chairs. All the London news and commercial papers, as well as those printed in the principal cities and towns of the United Kingdoms, are taken in, and also the best periodical publications. Correct authentic lists are kept, of all vessels coming in and clearing out from the principal ports, and every possible information is afforded to facilitate the extensive commercial arrangements of the citizens of Bristol. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, AVING noticed in your Magazine for July 1813, an account of a gentieman's expectations from his appletrees having been repeatedly disappointed by insects, which breed on the leaves of his trees, and which leaves are almost universally covered with a glutinous adhesive liquor; and his attempts to destroy these insects, by a mixture of soap suds and spirits of turpentine, destroy both leaves and buds. In the first place it would be necessary to enquire how this glutinous and adhesive liquor was formed on the leaves. Is it not likely that the parents of these insects perforated the fine vessels of the leaves, from which exuded a liquor, which by the wind and sun evaporating the watery parts, the other became glutinous and adhesive, which by instinct, or rather foreknowledge, the parent insect knew would be a proper nidus to support its young An easy means, in my humble opinion, of destroying these insects shall be mentioned in this letter, after having noticed the complaints of two other gentlemen respecting the blight in their apple-trees. The first is in your Magazine for August, where the writer says in his letter, that the most popular opinion of the cause of
Destruction of Apple-tree Insects, by Electricity. [May 1,
blights is a brownish blue. mist, that frequently accompanies an east wind. Is not this mist caused by an infinite multitude of small insects, which are scarce perceptible to the naked eye, which lay their eggs beneath the blossom, and are. the real cause of the blight? for this gentleman has found by exploring the blighted blossom, that a maggot or caterpillar is making his depredations beneath the blossom, and in the end renders the flower abortive. The third gentleman, in your October Magazine, says that the eggs of the insect may be detected between the scales. of the fruit-bud, with the assistance of the microscope,in the end of autumn. He also describes another species of insect, whose ravages are chiefly confined to the leaves. I am not sufficiently skilled in entomology to give a perfect description of these insects. If they are of the order Lepidoptera, they are divided into eight families by natu. ralists, in which are no less than 460 species, one of which are particularly fond of hops. The node of destroying these insects by soap, sulphur, and tobacco, or by lime water, is a tedious process.... I think it is possible to destroy all the insects on one tree in an instant, or even in a whole orchard at once, (and before they have made their depredations on the blossoms or leaves) at a very small expence. I have not yet made the experiment myself for want of the necessary apparatus, but earnestly recommend it to those curious gentlemen that are in possession of a good electrical apparatus. Observe the time when the insect is just hatched from its egg, which may be done by the help of a good pocket megalascope, and then o the tree by giving it a moderate shock; examine the buds and blossoms after the shock, to see if the maggot or caterpillar is deprived of life; and by a few experiments on different trees, the power of the electrical stroke may be ascertained; and then by means of a sufficient number of wires, so as to form an electrical chain with the conductor of the electrical machine, a whole orchard may be electrified at once. I much wish an experiment of this kind was made by some gentleman well skilled in electricity. If successful it would be of great public utility, especially to the
apple counties, I saw an account some years ago of great ravages heing done to the wheat in America, by a fly called the Hessian fly, from an opinion that they were first imported from Hesse. They first appeared in Long Island during the American war, and advanced inland about fisteen or - twenty twenty miles annually, and continued to proceed with unabating fury, being stopped neither by rivers nor mountains. No effectual means had been found to prevent their increase. The yellowbearded wheat alone withstand its ravages. : : . In your Magazine for January last is a copy of a letter addressed to Sir Joseph Banks, respecting some wonderful organic remains, found near the river Thames, such as the bones and teeth of the elephant, hippopotamus, deer, fresh water and marine shells, &c. I therefore take the liberty to send you an account of some organic remains that have been lately discovered in the parish of Dewlish, in the county of Dorset, and its vicinity. There is a hill in the parish of 3Dewlish which was always supposed to He formed of chalk : only but last sumfr, about one hundred feet above the l, of the foot of the hill, some sand was observed to be drawn out by a mouse; it was taken notice of, and General Mitchel sent workmen to seek for sand, and about five feet below the surface they discovered long pieces of wood, which appeared to be of the willow kind, but fell. into small pieces on being touched; they also found two animals, as they supposed, coiled up like a serpent, but which also sell to pieces when handled; what the workmen called hands are preserved, and are something petrified. I jaw of an animal. The bars of the mouth are of a deeper colour and more petrified than the other parts, but no teeth visible, and the whole is a solid mass. I was not present when they discovered these remains, and they are now torn all into small pieces; so I cannot at present positively say whether it is animal or vegetable matter. The workmen told me that they also dug up a bone of an uncommon size, but many people came to see it, and it being rotten, was soon torn in pieces.
I have some of the cellular part of the
bone, but cannot say to what animal it belongs. The workmen were just come down to some more organized matter, when the snow came and prevented their further progress. A considerable quantity of matter is now tumbled into the pit, and has left visible the following stratas of matter. They all basset out, having only the green turf to cover them, dipping more than three feet per fathom into the hill. First chalk about three feet thick, white clay about two eet, sand about three feet, chalk two feet, gravel three feet: the gravel does not appear to have been ever rounded by at
have one, and it appears like the upper.
trition, but the stones of which it is formed are very smooth, particularly the large flints, which are very numerous. Then white clay about two feet thick; next chalk, the thickness not ascertained. I particularly requested the principal workman to take great care of what he in future found that was curious, when the pit was again opened, as I have no doubt but many organic remains are to be found on this spot. About three miles above this spot, in the parish of Hilton, Dorset, the vale is well worthy the attention of the geologist and mineralogist : beds of bituminous schist, or slaty coal, (which will burn freely) may be traced from eight to ten miles, in the uppermost strata of which are found the shells of snails, and a great many small cornua ammonis. I have dug up the remains of some animal, about a foot in diameter, which is almost all covered with a thick shell, so cannot be the cornu ainmonis, nor is the shell exactly like the tortoise; but there area great number of tortoises found at Lower Melbury, in Dorset, highly petrified; they lie in beds with the exuviae of other marine animals. . In digging clay for making bricks at Ansty, in the parish of Hilton, my workmen a few weeks ago found. about four or five feet beneath the surface, in a dark-coloured clay, some oyster-shells, I believe of the pearl kind. I have one perfect, both top and bottom shells united, and is in diameter nine inches, and uneasures twenty-six inches round; it weighs nine pounds: all the shell, both top and bottom, is white and pearly, and drops off in scales by the touch. At Okeford Fitzpain, a few miles from Hilton, , the parish abounds with slaty coal and oxide of iron ; this oxide has been analyzed, and found to contain three grains of fine gold in the pound weight. At the end of the letter respecting fossils, in your January Magazine, is an acount of one Mary Howard, buried near Shoreditch Church, and when about twenty years after her gravewas opened,her flesh was found converted into spermaceti. I once saw an instance of the same kind in Dewlish Church-yard, the same parish where the fossils have been recently found. A very fat woman was buried in that church-yard, and about twenty years after her grave was opened, to bury some other person, and I saw a great number of large pieces, resembling the fat of mutton, or sperinaceti, thrown out of the grave, the smell of which was very disagreeable *93 greeable, so that the sight or smell of mutton was loathsome to me for a long time after. G. HALL. Ansty, near Blandford, Dorset, March 26, 1814. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, HOUGH vaccination, or the common small-pox inoculation, be neither of them quite such perfect securities as they were thought, against taking the small-pox, they are however great and desirable securities. And vaccination is preferable, I think experience has proved, as being milder and nearly as efficacious, less loathsome, unattended by almost any the slightest danger to life, and uninfectious. This last is a great public consideration. For these reasons I greatly wish to see vaccination gradually and freely establish itself. But I utterly object to a lately revived proposal, as I did when it was first made, of prohibiting the common, the small-pox, inoculation, making it subject to penalties against the persons who so inoculate themselves, or their relatives, and the surgeon who inoculates otherwise than with the vaccine. It appears to me that all this would be perfectly unnecessary, impolitic, unjust, and destructive of the very end proposed, of promoting vaccination in préference to the inoculation formerly alone in use, and now for a considerable time on its decline. The defenders of vaccination cannot deny that the common inoculation is a preventative, and is, comparatively to the natural small-pox, a great benefit. This they do, and upon their own principles they must, admit. That there is in their opinion, and in mine, and that of many others, a better and a more unexceptionable preventative, will not justify prohibiting that which has been long adopted. If persons do not see all the good that is allowable, they should be allowed to avail themselves of so inuch as they do $68. If inoculation for the small-pox, with virus taken from that variola, may spread the infection, the common natural sipall-pox has a far greater tendency to spread it. - We have no right to make laws to force persons to be inoculated at all. If they will not adopt the best mode of inoculation, they do, on the whole, a certain degree of good by adopting any. As far as caccination can make its way by evidence, by reason, by persuasion, J 1814,] . sons of Ishmael. If such information inust be so frequently repeated, it were better to prefix it in plain prose, as a running title to each page, and reserve the “Tchocadars,' the Galiongees, the ‘Musselims,’ and the ‘Mangabrees,' with their “Qllahs' and “Chibouques,’ for an improved version of Blue Beard. The ‘Childes’ and ‘Giaurs’ belong also to the same asfected family. Surely Lord Byron need not be told that the distinction obtained by visiting remarkable situations is a species of celebrity which of all others is acquired with the least expenditure of intellect. Minds of a lower order may scourt-this distinction, and endeavour to be known from the countries they have seen; for if the words, Trojan or Persian, Russian or African, become connect*d with their names, they acquire an importance their own genius would never have conferred. It is said too that these titles bear a higher price in the market, and are more reverenced in the “Row,' than the hackneyed appendage of LL.D. with or without the A double SS of Dr. Pangloss. The lovers of genuine poetry must wish that Lord Byron would cease to vitiate our language with these barbarous terms; that he would leave these abominable Turks and Tartars, and tune his harp to the pains and pleasures of beings with whom their sympathies could be in unison. They want not to be reminded that his lordship has seen Parnassus, for without this information they can recognize him as a true high priest of the
Impolicy of Prohibiting Small-pox Inoculation.
and it has within very few years been making a wonderful and encreasing progress, I wish it every success. ... " But after a century passed in gradually introducing the common inoculation, and reconciling the people to its adoption, it would be as strange as it would be unjustifiable and unpardonable to pass a law that should prohibit the use of it. - . Nothing could make it infamous so to inoculate: for laws will not alter opinions. And a surgeon who should judge the common inoculation preferable, and therefore administer it, might be erroneous, but could not possibly be infamous. Nor could parents be so in acting to the best of their judgment to ses cure the life and health of their children. And as for penalties, what domestic inquisition is to ascertain the fact; and how is the penalty to be enforced 2 - - It may be proper to provide reasona ble penalties against persons under the common inoculated or natural small-pox, negligently spreading the infection, which is certainly a misdemeanor at common law. - It may be proper, with regard to the poor, and I think is so, to pay the expence of vaccination by subscription, in behalf of those who may be unable to afford that small expence. But to go beyond these limits would be to pass beyond the bounds both of
policy and of common right.
And although an act of parliament, . such as already mentioned, has been re
commended to prohibit, under penalties.
on the parents, friends, and operator,
and I suppose on the patient if adult,
inoculation with the virus of the small
Muses. Let me also whisper to his lord
ship, that with his fertile resources he has no excuse for borrowing or stealing thoughts and lines without acknowledgment. A poet who compels his Muse to write by the surface for a stipulated sum,
who engages to cover a given quantity of
paper with a certain quantity of words, may be expected to employ the scissars and the paste as well as the pen, in order to eke out the space required by his emiployer. Lord Byron will not be classed by posterity with poets of this order. “He makes a solitude and calls it peace.”
- - Page 46. from Tacitus, * ... “Solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant.”
with other lines, should have been marked with inverted commas.
Lord Byron and Dr. Reid.
299 of those who refuse their admiration. The note reminds us of Peter, in the “Tale of the Tub,” who asserted that “this bread was very good mutton,” and in proof of it, curses the unbelieving souls who shall dare to deny his veracity. Perhaps the line did not require an apology. It is the privilege of the poet to describe objects as they affect the mind, rather than the senses; and to regard the feelings with which impressions are associated, more than the external qualities by which these impressions are excited. To deny the poet this right would be to take away the soul of poetry, and to leave in its stead a lifeless corpse. The feelings of the poet should however have their foundation in nature, and be in general harmony with those of well-cultivated minds; where this is wanting, the stile becomes obscure, and the meaning perplexed. Perhaps traces of this defect may be observed in the: poems of Lord Byron, to whom Dr. Johnson's censure of Dryden will be sometimes applicable. “He delighted to tread on the brink of meaning, where' light and darkness mingle, to approach the precipice of absurdity, and hover over the abyss of unideal vacancy.” At the conclusion of the note already referred to, we have a prose illustration of Dr. Johnson's remark. “This passage (says Lord B.) is not drawn from imagination but memory, that mirror which affliction dashes to the earth, and looking down upon the fragments only beholds the reflection multiplied.” In these lines, which have been praised by some, the figures are not only indistinct but incorrect. The remembrance of a beloved. but lost object is not dashed to the ground by affliction, it is pressed more closely to the heart. In the Report of Diseases by Dr. Reid, given in the Monthly Magazine for 1809, an image of a similar kind is introduced with singular propriety and force, which may serve to evince that figurative language is neither less poetical nor less fascinating for being philosophically correct. The doctor describes two cases of mental disease—“One of thern was an instance of extreme imbecility, which had been gradually induced by a succes." sion of epileptic paroxysms, each of which took something away, until the mind was stripped altogether of its energies and en-s dowments. At length it presented a tablet from which was effaced nearly every impression of thought, or character of intellectual existence. “The other case was that of a young man who, from indiscreet exposure during go Courso