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pated. That his impiety was so audacious, that as he passed by the Trone Church one cold night, he said to a companion he could wish to warm himself in the place Ezra called hell; and lastly, that he uttered these and the like speeches, during the last twelvemonth, without provocation, and merely from malice against God and Christ. The court found the railing against or cursing any of the Trinity, relevant to infer the pains of death; and the other crimes relevant to infer an arbitrary punishinent. No counsel appeared for the prisoner, nor does it seem that one word was urged in his behalf during the course of the trial. Four or five witnesses were examined, one of them a writer at Edinburgh, and the rest students at the university, lads from 18 to 21 years of age. They proved most of the articles of the libes, with this addition, that the prisoner said he was confident Christianity would be utterly extirpated by the year 1800. There was however a material defect in the evidence. The article twost highly criminal, the railing against God, and cursing our Saviour, was not proved at all, but was an inference drawn by the jury from the prisoner's cursing Ezra, and saying that the inventors of the scripturedoctrines would be damned if there were such a thing as damnation. The jury unanimously found the prisoner guilty of railing, against God, of cursing Christ, and of the whole other articles in the libel. The verdict was returned, and scutence pronounced against the prisoner on Christmas Eve, “to be taken to the Gallow-Lee on the 8th of January, between the hours of two and four in the afternoon, and to be hanged; his body to be buried at the foot of the gallows, and his moveable estate to be forfeited.” The compiler of this collection observes that five persons summoned on the jury refused to attend. He adds, after several liberal remarks, mercy was asleep as well as justice and science, so the dreadful sentence was executed. This unfortunate young man was seemingly a disciple of Toland. And before many years have elapsed such sentences may again be pronounced, and again executed, if the saws which authorize them are not plucked indignantly from the statute-book, and exposed to infamy in the has argues of senators, and the reflections of historians, while yet such oratory can be hazarded. A fanatical religious industry, unprecedented for assiduity and

Disgraceful Intolerance.—Medical Literature. [April is

extent, has sprung up among us, and is reviving the maxims and the bigotry of the earlier protestant reformers. Those epurated sentiments of religion, which the pulpits of a learned clergy once delighted to diffuse, are replaced by a harsh and mystical dogmatism, which the rude and savage classes of the people, by a natural sympathy, culi for themselves in the various repository of scripture. Already the twilight dimmens, which announces a new night of the human mind. -o-oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, To country has lately been deluged by circular letters addressed to the medical profession, by certain apothecaries and surgeon-apothecaries in London, in which they combine the plan of a proposed bill for regulating their branch of the profession, with the announcement of a publication to be conducted by them, and addressed, as may be supposed, to other spothecaries and surgeon-apotheraries. I conclude, however, that the committee appointed to prepare the said reform-biis, know nothing of the union of interests, which is supposed by many to exist between them and the Apothecaries’ Repository, for such I believe is its real name; and if they do not, it appears to me to be incumbent on them to disavow an impression which has generally gone forth; and which impression, (as the said Repository, or by whatever other name it is known, is a work published for profit) is not favourable to their disinterestedness. I may enlarge, by the bye, on an idea already suggested in your Magazine, that as a work of instruction and scientific character, I cannot duly appreciate the pretensions of an Apothecaries’ Repository. Apothecaries do not desire to be taught by other apothecaries, and certainly physicians will not look for instruction in such a quarter. What advantage then is gained by this new work to the profession, which was not already possessed in the LoN Don MEDICAL Jour NAL, a work which has always been conducted with evident inipartiality, and which is open to every noveity of the profession ? I put it therefore fairly to the common" sense of every medical man, whether, if he lived, as I do, at a distance from the metropolis, or in any of the colonies, he would purchase for his instruction and current information, an apothecaries . wademeculu, or the universal

Medica - Journal, Journal, which embraces whatever can gratify a medical enquirer? Also, whether it is to be supposed that any for reigner, who might wish to consult the MEDICAL LITERATURE of England, would receive a work published among the apothecaries as its correct representative * I state this observation strongly, because it would be to be regretted, that any gentleman who wished to communicate a fact to the public, should omit to do it through the oNE Journal, a work which must be read and sought for, by preference, among all foreigners and distant practitioners; and which therefore ought, either exclusively or conjointly, to be made the medium of all writers who desire that their light should be seen by the world in a work of universal and established circulation ; and not hid Aunder a bushel in one which is addressed only to a sect or party.

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Carlisle, Teb. 20, 1814. Medicus.

-os- ~ For the Monthly Magazine. account of the state of MANNERs, K NowLEDGE, and RELIGION in the DISTRICT of the LYE waste, in the HAMLET of swi N Food ; by M.R. will IAM Scott, of stou RBRIDGE. HE large and populous village called the Lye, it is presumed, derived its name from the Saxon word Lay, or Ley, a farm consisting of pasture ground, being so called in ancient writings now extant, and in county histories. In 1630 this spot, together with its appendage the Waste, (which names they still continue, both separately and jointly, to retain) was an open common, having upon its surface only a few scattered cottages. *In consequence of the rapid and extensive progress of arts and manufactures, the population continued to increase during the 18th century, and it appeared from the statements of visitors appointed by the Stourbridge Auxiliary Bible Society to ascertain the deficiency, and to aid the distribution and sale of Bibles, that in the month of March, 1813, the district contained 541 families, and 2826 inhabitants. Well authenticated tradition and correct information establish the fact, that though from the origin of the villages called the Lye Waste, and during suc

* Various branches of the iron trade are carried on in this district, particularly mail making; but in the immediate vicinity of the Lye Waste are those valuable mines of the clay denominated Stourbridge clay, the Asbestos of the commercial world, Montuly Mag, No, 253,

ceeding years, several very worthy and respectable persons have resided there, yet at no very distant period the ignorance and depravity of the great bulk of the inhabitants were proverbial; it is pleasing however to detail the various means which Have been adopted to promote their improvement, and to report their important results. A charity school, which provides for the education of 45 children, was founded at the Waste by a member of the established church, and a building was erected for its accommodation, and for the residence of a master in 1786. A similar institution was established at Hay Green, in this vicinity, which continued to flourish for many years. * These seminaries tended in some degree to diffuse religious principles, and by circulating many copies of the New Testament, to excite attention to its sacred contents; the children were also taught to reverence the Lord's day. The number of persons who have attended the parish church from this district has bech gradually increasing, and the impressive discourses of the clergy have greatly contributed to promote their improvement, both in civilization and morals. About thirty years ago some occasional addresses on religious subjects were delivered to the inhabitants of this place, which; though disregarded by some, were by others received with gladness, and heard with profit. In January 1806 a chapel was opened for public worship on the Lord's day evening, by Protestant Dissenters situate at the Waste; and in 1811 another building was set apart for religious service, at the Lye, by another denomination of disSel) terS. Both these places are usually filled by attentive and serious hearers, and a Sun. day-school is connected with each of the societies. During the year 1812, the patron of the seminary first mentioned opened another day-school for the instruction of poor children. By the exertions of the Bible Society the holy scriptures have been circulated to a considerable extent in this neighbourhood, and are received with gratitude and joy. The first Annual Report of this Society, published 1813, informs us that schools were opened in April last for the reception of adult persons. The generous individual alluded to above having, on application from some gentlemen in the neighbourhood, granted the use of his school rooms, and become 2 F a libera

214 Benefit Societies at Swinford and Sourbridge. [April 1,

a liberal contributor to the institution, many persons were admitted from the age of 13 to that of 38; the generality of them deeply lamented their want of opportunities for learning to read, or their neglect of such advantages as had presented themselves during the season of youth. They are instructed during the intervals of labour by the master and elder scholars; the number of persons so attending is at present 137, though at some times it has greatly exceeded, and at others failen short of this statement; and from preseat appearances the happiest results may be expected.

This long neglected, but now favoured spot, has recently been supplied with important additional advantages,

A new church, erected at the sole expence of the munificent gentleman who has so repeatedly patronised and supported many benevolent schemes for the benefit of this neighbourhood, was opened on Sunday, Dec. 5, 1813, the galleries of which are gratuitously appropriated to the use of the poor. -

The Rev. Matthew Booker, first minister of this chapel, officiated on the occasion, and delivered appropriate discourses to numerous and overflowing auditories.

BENEFIT Soci et IES.
Parish of Old Swinford, 1810.

Scoieties.

22 1506

No. of Members, Proportion to Population.

Population in 1801.
8199

The enumeration for 1810, it is presumed, will apply, with little variation, to subsequent years, though the number has rather increased.

The calculations are given exclusive of fractions.

CHARITY and SUNDAY Schools, with Number of Scholars, in the Parish of Old Swinford, including the Township of Stourbridge, 1810.

Proportion to the

Population according to

Schools. Scholars. Population. Census of 1801. Day Schools . 10 344 * •e & c r Sunday Schools 12 450 is 8199 Roth 22 794. + O. Increased to 9,755 by the census of 1811. The following short list of plants in ER IcA vulgaris cineraria ciliaria,

this vicinity, consisting of a few select
ones, not very common, is at your service.
DIPSA cus pilosus. Quarter of a mile
from Stourbridge, near the foot bridge on
Birmingham-road. Scarce. Noticed by
Curtis as rare. Ipswich; $underland bal-
last hills.
SAPON ARIA. New Road, Stourbridge.
CAMPAN U LA. Not only a small blue
variety, but a white one. Near Podmore
and Stourton.
CYNog Lossus officinalis.
more. -
THYMUs vulgaris albus. One specimen
only found on the ridge.
DIGITALI's albus. Very rare ; near
Rinver.
Cory LEDON. Near Clart Church; very
fare.
Ox A LIS.
partial.
SAMBU cus Eubulus. Imblecot and
Delph; also near Dudley Port.
VERB Ascu M nigrum. Plentiful; near
Hagley.—Album, near Dunsley and Kin-
wer ; both very partial.
CARDAN IN E. Double-blossomed. A
meadow near Hagley, Withering.
AJ GA reptans alba, Wollaston
rock3.

Near Pod

Plentiful in some parts, but

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albu. On commons near Iverby, Chades-
ley, Kinver.
GEN ISTA spinosa.
by inclosures.
ATRoPA belladonna. One specimen
only found near Stourton, but plentiful
on Dudley Castle Hill.
VALERTANA. Plentiful in meadows,
CRocus autumnalis. Partial.
EUoNY MUs. In hedges near the

Nearly destroyed.

Lye.
BRYon IA. Several sorts.
ORCHIs. In meadows.

Variegated couch grass, cultivated from a small specimen found on the Kidderminster road, near Stourbridge. (Hoary grass.)

A fish market has recently been established in the town of Birmingham, in connection with the Patriotic Society in London. On the 22d of December an ample supply of fish arrived at Stourbridge from the same society, when a brisk sale commenced on moderate terms, affording a presage of success to a scheme which promises great local and national benefits. An association is likewise formed at Dudley

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Budley which has the same object in view; probably their market commenced about an hour earlier than that of Stourbridge. W. Scot T. Stourbridge, Dec. 23, 1813.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SI R, HE French verb orienter is a convenient geographic term, signifying, to place aright, with respect to the points of the compass, to mark the true bearings. Orienter une earle, to trace the bearings on a map : orientez cous, mark to what point of the compass you are looking. The Edinburgh reviewers propose to import this term in the form to orient. The collision of open vowels, the hiatus of identic sounds, renders this verb, in its infinitive mood, cacophonous in English; and the learnedness of the term orient unfits it in some degree for popularity. The verb orientalize would fall in better with established analogies; but it has already another meaning. And, after als, the east and west are indefinite points, which seem to vary with the hour of sun-set. Why not coin a verb from the fixed points of the compass, the north, or the south ; and as it is more obvious to infer one's bearings from a noon-day Sun, than from a polar star, why not say—South 3yourself: to south a map 2 And we say it already : Dryden has, The southing of the stars.

-os- R. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. - SIR, THINK nothing can be more clear, than that, if all men were influenced by the spirit of Christ, and acted in conformity thereto, wars would cease, “and nation would not lift up sword against nation,” but all would unite in promoting “peace on earth, and good will towards men.” How emphatically does our Saviour say, “A new commandment give I unto you, that ye love one another" “By this shall all men know ye are my disciples, if ye love one another.” His beloved disciple John says, “God is love, and he that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, and God in him.” Paul says, “The whole law is fulfilled in this, thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.” I could soon fill my paper with similar quotations, but I think these, in addition to the texts pointed out by E. F. in your last Magazine, are abundantly sufficient to prove, that if all men were influenced “by the spirit of Christ, and acted in con

*** formity thereto, wars would ceases i

believe “that the grace of God which bringeth salvation, hath appeared unto all men,” and that it is for want of a due attention thereto, that men are permitted to destroy one another, in direct contradiction to the spirit of christianity. I rejoice to see the zeal which is discovered in the circulation of the Holy Scriptures, “which are able to make wise unto salvation through faith which i8 in Christ Jesus;” but a query ariseth in my mind, whence is it, that a nation which discovers so much zeal in this good work, appears to be so little influenced by the spirit of the gospel which breathes universal peace? I once heard a clergyman of very dis. tinguished talents, address a brother clergyman, most emphatically, on this subject, and among many weighty remarks, he observed—“If we be sincere in our belief in the Scriptures, and think that one soul is of more value than the whole world, how cautious ought we to be in encouraging war, when we must know in what an unprepared state to die, are many of those who are led into the field of battle.”

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Fo Gaubil, one of the most learned and most respectable misSiouaries in China, on this subject has these remarks. “Some writers fix the epoch of the reign of Yao, as I think may be done by a solar eclipse, so early as the year 2155 before the Christian era. Others will bring it down somewhat later, by 100, or 148, or 150 years. Still in either case it is impossible, I think, to avoid removing the deluge some centuries farther back than the period fixed by Usher, Petau, &c. “It is certainly true that China, in the time of Yao, was well peopled; and that even the islands of the eastern ocean were inhabited. The art of making verses was then understood: colleges and schools were then established. “In the time of Shun, the Chinese were able to ascertain by the stars the periods of the solstices and equinoxes: they knew the year to consist of 3653 days: they knew how to apply this calculation to the twelve revolutions of the moon, and also to employ the requisite intercalations. They made observations on the constellations; they worked in copper, iron, and varnish; they made cloth of silk; they built boats, such even as could 2 F2 carry

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carry them to the eastern isles. These articulars are all established by the #. Shouking, written in the time of Yao and Shun : and certainly we must admit the country to have been inhabited before their time.—Tchong-Tang lived not far from the reign of Shun in flis time was written the chapter Yntching, by which we see Mandarins then existed, who were employed in observing and calculating eclipses of the sun. This knowledge, however, may have been conveyed to the Chinese from the ancient patriarchs. Whatever system, therefore, may be adopted, it will be evident that the founders of the Chinese empire were not greatly removed from Noah and his immediate descendants. “From the countrywhere the dispersion of mankind took place to China, the distance is great, and the journey must have of course been long. To reconcile the chronology of China with that of Scripture, we ought to know exactly the true chronology resulting from a collation of the different versions of the Bible. “The persons who, at the dispersion after the flood, peopled, or re-peopled China, had doubtless characters for the language and the institutions of the country. May we not suppose the foundation of the Chinese state to have been laid at that dispersion 2 May not the occurrences of the long expedition from west to east, be reckoned as forming part of the history of China? May not the conductors of that expedition be considered as the first and original founders of the nation and monarchy 2" It is a curious circumstance, that in consequence of the representations of the missionaries in China, respecting the *istoric antiquity of that singular country, permission was granted from Rome, that they should employ the chronology of the Septuagint, which goes the farthest back of any version of the Scriptures; although in opposition to the language of the Vulgate itself, the long established and authenticated Latin version, adopted in all the Roman churches.

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Habitats and Botanic Memorandas.

[April 1, Northumberland, and Hartlepool, Durham. N. J. W. CHENOPoDI UM hybridum. Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear. N.J. W. CHENopodi UM ficifolium. St. Anthon's ballast hills, Northumberland, and Sunderland ballast hills, Durham. N.J.W. —Yarmouth ; Mr. D. Turner. CHENopods UM glaucum. Near Chirton Barracks, Northumberland, and on Sunderland ballast hills, Durham. N. J. W. CII esopod IUM maritimum. By the Medway, near Rochester, Kent. N.J. W. —By the Avon at Bath, and on the sea coast beyond Beal, Northumberland; Mr. Thompson. CHEN opods sys Bot. t. 1481. C. polyspermum.

acutifolium. Eng. Curt. fasc. 2. t. 17. Winch's Guide, v.1, p. 25. With. 273. Hull, 57. Relh. 102. Sitth. 89. On Sunderland ballast hills; W. Weighell’s Herbarium. CHENopodium botryoides. Eng. Bot. t. 2247.-Yarmouth; Mr. D. Turner.

—Sunderland ballast hills, Durham.
N. J. W.
CHENopod IUM olidum. Near Dar-

lington; Mr. Robson.-On Sunderland ballast hills, Durham. N. J. W. BETA maritima. Shores of Medway, above Rochester and Ramsgate Cliffs, I\ent. N. J. W. ULMUs campestris. In plantations in the north of England, probably not indigenous. ULMUs suberosus. Eng. Bot. t. 2161. ULMUs campestris. & Fl. Brit. 281. At Cons cliff, and other places on the Tees. Mr. J. Backhouse.—In Northumberland, but not very frequent. N. J. W. ULM US montana. Every hedge in the north. N. J. W. ULMUs glabra. Eng. Bot. t. 2248. ULMUs montana. 8 Fl. Brit. 284, Near the edges of the moors in the north. N.J. W. CUscuTA europea. On nettles, grass, tansey, and bindweed, on the south side of the Mole, near Brockham, Surrey. N.J. W-Near Taplow, on the footway to Maidenhead, Bucks; Mr. J. Woods. —Newmarket; Mr. D, Turner. GENTIANA pneumonanthe. Near Whitehaven, Cumberland; Rev. J. Har. riman.—Scales Moor, Manchester; Mr. Robson. GENTIANA verna. This beautiful inhabitant of the Swiss Alps and Pyrenees is found in no part of Britain except on the mountainous district above the Force of Tees, and in Birkdale, in the same

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