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Ø02 thoughtless career, (and such are the objects it is proposed to begin with;) but when she is told that the end is her perfect salvation, that it is not only intended to convince her of the deformity of her crimes, but also to screen her for a while from the world's resentment, teach her religious principles, useful arts, and finally to endeavour to fix her in time imarried state, can it be doubted that such tidings would be hailed with joy My plan therefore is, to form an establishment, (in some respect like the Moravian societies,) where all the inmates shall, according to their abilities, assist by their industry in the support of each other; and being all females, practise in the useful labours of the needle, in their own service, and for wages, where temperance and frugality, united with religious duties, should be the characteristic of their rules; where the necessaries for existence should be all that were found, and plainness and cleanliness be followed with great exactness and resolution. The managers must be females of a proper age, embarking in it as well from zeal as interest; and no male should be allowed to enter the mansion, but for medical or spiritual purposes; and then, (as in convents) only in the presence of the matron. In a word, a house, where nothing had any tendency to recal the mind from its office of amendment, and where quiet and continual occupations succeeded each other, where no more repose was allowed than was necessary, and where idleness should be a thing unknown; yet no unkind severity practised, or any one expected to accept tasks, their abilities rendered them unfit for. In such a sitúation, I fully believe, that a real reform would be accomplished, and a detestations of their former mode of life effected, accompanied with a disposition to do any thing to recover their proper station in the world: and all this, I have no doubt, has been obtained by many institutions of this kind; but the evil is, that when the restraint of discipline is removed, and they are left again to their own guidance, the suspected character that follows them, the assaults of the passions, and the seductions of the other sex, render them always liable to fall again into the old train of depravity, and then all the benefit is for ever lost to themselves and their country. My plan goes farther; I expect not only to complete their reform by it, but also to render them sober, thoughtful, useful, and
Plan for improving Female Penitentiaries.
[April 1; religious members of the commonwealth to which they belong.: wives, the mothers of children; and agents, to promote the recovery and reform of others. To this end I propose, that al! those who are considered by the matron and managers as thoroughly reclaimed, should be placed in front of the gallery of the chapel, at prayers, (which should be early each morning) decently dressed, and that those so placed, should be considered by the public as penitent and entirely reformed characters, willing to engage in matrimonial duties, and instructed to make industrious wives; each being entitled on the day of marriage, to fifteen pounds value in useful household furniture, apparel, and linen, &c. so that any young man who should attend the chapel with proper devotion, and with a view to see their persons, might not only have an opportunity of doing so,at a convenient distance, but afterwards of speaking to the matron on that head; and if she approved of his character, be introduced in her presence into the parlour, where he should have an interview with the young woman whom he thought he should approve, for the purpose, by conversation; of explaining his prospects, and the probability of their being able by their joint industry to maintain a family. . If they agreed, a report should be made to the committee of ladies who govern, and on their consent being received a day fixed to have them privately united in the chapel, and the contract fulfilled in the presence of the matron, and one friend of each party; which, on the part of the female, would probably be a reconciled relation, for there is great likelihood that as soon as the parents or brothers of females thus situated heard of their situation and reform, they would (even though from motives of shame and resentment they had before abandoned them,) then joyfully renew their claims: neither is it very & travagant to itnagine that parents thus relieved from disgrace might promote the ends of the institution in many ways, or that some might, from this sanctuary, be demanded by their repentant seducers, or by former admirers, with
whom their penitence, suffering, and im
provement, might operate as an auxiliary to their personal charms. . - s
The author of this sketch of a plan for improving our penitentiaries, is well aware that the general opinion, at first, will be that men will not be found to conject themselves with women under these un,
fortunate circumstances, because people,
in general reason from the delicacy of
and that many of the lower classes fre
quently ally themselves on a very short acquaintance, and with scarce a knowledge of each other; attracted solely by accidental meeting, or personal comeliness. A practice this which cannot be too much reprobated ; yet no one dare in this case refuse to perform the office for men of bad morals and women of bad fame. . Is it not therefore more likely that of the lower class who want wives some should apply to such a source as this, where he may probably find a reformed and industrious young woman, whose religious principles are well planted, who knows the arts necessary to live, has been
recting their evil propensities; she was .
married, lived happily with her husband, and had several children. And this leads me to a point of great importance to the plan. In general the procuring objects for these charities is left to chance, or the slight recommendation of governors, or that rare case the application of the unfortunate objects themselves. I would take another method... I would employ (at a fixed sum per head,) one or two sober females advanced in life, who were calculated to inspire confidence, to hunt out for proper objects among the class we mean to save, selecting always, in the first instance, as objects to be persuaded,
the youngest, best favoured, and most docile, of the unhappy tribe; and even. watching their first steps in the road to ruin, by introducing themselves to their acquaintance, and inviting them to conferences at moments of distress, when they can best be reasoned with; affording them temporary relief and shelter; medical assistance from a dispensary connected with the house, where the practitioner should be instructed to further the good object, and thus in every way benefitting the community by lessening the evil where it is most likely to be productive of mischief. For the author of this project is not sanguine enough to expect that among those who have been long abandoned to vice in a great city many can be rescued; neither does he expect that in great cities, as they are at present constituted, there will or can be as yet a termination to the evil of prostitution ; all he wishes and hopes is, that by conducting the institution on this principle there may in every city in the kingdom be a sanctuary to which the wretched may fly, and not without a hope, by proper conduct, of finding there a termination to the dark labyrinth in which their follies and vices have involved them, and a happy restoration to their original state in society. G. CUMBERLAND. Bristol, Feb. 15, 1814. -o-onTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, S you were pleased to insert, in your Magazine for July 1812, some observations, &c. of mine on light and colours, I ain encouraged to send you the following on colours alone, which were written at the same period with the former ones, and as they are in some measure connected with those, I hope you will likewise give them insertion. These appear to me to confirm some positious advanced in those observations, viz. that there are but three simple primary co-. lours, yellow, red, and blue; that the simple colour red is not found in the prismatic spectrutn; that what is called red at one end of the prismatic spectrum, is the coin pound intermediate colour of red and yellow, and that the violet at the other end is the compound intermediate colour of red and blue. In the following figure I have arranged the colours in a circle; the three simple primary colours, red, yellow, and blue, are placed at the three angles of a triangle, and the three intermediate compounds, orange, green, and purple, in their proper situatious between the resjective
4204 spective colours which compose them, and at the angles of another triangle.
An equal portion of two primitive cofours makes the exact intermediate one, as of yellow and blue make a green; but another equal portion of the third primitive, red, neutralizes the whole, making it a grey or black, according as the coHours are light or dark; if only a small quantity of the third colour be used, it breaks the tint, making it approach more to a neutral tint according to the quantity used. By neutral tint, I do not mean the tint so called by landscape painters, which is inclined to blue or purple, and ought rather to be called an aërial tint; but I mean by it, that gradation between white and black which is best given by Indian ink. White and black, with all the intermediate degrees of grey, are given by equal combinations of the three simple colours. Pure white, by uniting all the colours, can only be produced with the rays of light, as shewn with the prism; but all the degrees of broken white or grey, down to black, may be produced by the coloured substances used in painting. A mixture of two intermediate colours, will produce a broken tint of the primary colour which lies between them in the figure; for instance, green and purple will form a broken or brown blue, as may be thus accounted for: green is one part blue, and one part yellow ; purple is one part blue, and one part red; thus in the whole, when mixed together, there are two parts blue, one part yellow, and one part red; the red and yellow, and one part of the blue, would form a neutral tint; but the additional portion of blue, gives a tinge to the whole, and produces a broken blue. The effect of the three intermediate colours mixed together, will be the same as the three simple ones; that is, they will produce a grey or neutral tint, which will be evident on considering them. The principal intention of the figure is this, it shews at once what colour or tiut is the most opposed to another, and will neutralise it when mixed with it;
Mr. Hargreave's Experiments on Colours.
[April 1, that colour being the one directly opposite to it in the circle; thus opposite yellow stands purple, which will neutralize. one, the other, and so on round the circle. # Wherever all the three colours have been combined in different proportions, I have called it a broken tint; but in general, they go by the names of browns, olives, &c. of which there are an infinite variety. In the figure, the colour which falls under the denomination of orange, is precisely that which, in the prismatic spectrum, is called red; in my former remarks, I have called the prismatic red vermilion colour, but it lies rather between the tint of vermilion and red lead, and is exactly neutralised by blue. In the same manner, the colour called purple in the figure, is the same with the prismatic violet, and is neutralised by yellow. This is proved by the prism, for if the spectrum be thrown on a blue' ground, the colour which is there called red, will disappear; and if on a yellow ground, the violet will likewise be neutralised. The same effect is produced by viewing the spectrum through glasses, coloured yellow or blue. The third primary colour, red, is there-fore not seen in the spectrum; the two ends are equally near to it: by referring to the figure, it will be seen that one third of the circle, from the colour marked orange, which answers to the prismatic red, to purple, or the prismatic violet, including the true primary red, and its most immediate compounds, are wanting in the prismatic spectrum. The true primary colour of red, is that which is called crimson; and in its paler gradations pink. This colour, in its various degrees of strength, is very frequent in flowers, more so than either of the other primitives in a pure state. The rose gives it in its paler gradations, but the pink or carnation shews it from the pale to the most deep. In painting, carmine is the colour the nearest approaching to it. With yellow, blue, and crimson, an artist can most certainly imitate every tint in nature; with yellow and crimson, the scarlets, prismatic red, and all the varieties of orange, may be produced; and crimson, with blue, gives the prismatic violet, purple, and indigo, &c. But if, instead of crimson, he takes any pigment of the hue of the prismatic red, he will find it impossible, by joining it with blue, to produce crimson, pink, violet, or any of the bright purples. .. Liverpool. T. HARGREAves. POPULA
though I had declared at the beginning,
had originated in the marine bodies, .
found in our continents. Then following indubitable facts, I arrive, § 18, at this conclusion: “That all the substances which form the known mass of our cons timents, including granite, must, at some distant epocha, have been suspended in a liquid which covered the whole globe, whence they were, at successive periods, chemically precipitated; and that this is the epocha we are to determine, as the point to start from, if we would expiain' the state of the earth since it has been.
observed, which embraces only a certain...: period in an uninterrupted succession of
phenomena proceeding from