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that chapter excludes positively the sense of days of twenty-four hours; after which I shall come to his other objections. 4. I shall observe first, that our days of twenty-four hours are measured by the revolutious of the earth on its axis, iii presence of the sun as a luminous body; but in the account of the creation, the sun is only mentioned in the fourth of these days. it is therefore evident, that the three preceding days cannot be our days of twenty-four hours; since these imply light and darkness succeeding each other on every part of the earth luring that space of time. But a nrest positive proof that this is not the sense of the text, is the definition of these days in that citapter, which is thus from the first : “ and the evening and the morning were the first day:” a definition quoted by Mr. Pilgrim himself, as will be seen hereafter, which continues for the following days in the same chapter. Is that the definition of days of twenty-four hours ? Certainly not ; for the latter are counted, either frosa therning to morning, or from exerting to c vering. From this evident reason, before geology was in view, many interpreters had decided, that the days of that chapter could not be understood as our days, but that they expressed periods of undetermined lengths, of wi:ich the morning was the beginning, aid the evening was the end. This Mr. Pilgrim might have known; but jet us see how he thinks he can obiige 1me to adopt his erroncous sense, in order that it may be 9pposed by natural phoJi, Chic to a. 5. “Let us attentively peruse (he says) the first chapter of Genesis, in order to see how far Mr. De Luc is right in his conjectures. In the first verse, (unfortunately for that gentleman's theory) we read: And God called the light day, and the darkness he called night: and the evening and the morning were the first day.” Thus Mr. Pilgrim himBelf quotes the very words which, as it Jyas been aiready Secu, exclude his interpretation. But further, if he had attentively perased that chapter, he would not have made a mistake which has led him into error. The words he quotes, that “ God called the light day, and the darkness he called night,” are not the first, but only the fifth verse, and the foljowing is the first: “In the beginning God created the Heaves, and the carth:” a subline preamble, which evidently embraces the whole of the crgation. Thea
follow8, in the third verse, this admirable command of the Almighty : “Let there be light, and there was light.” If Mr. . Pilgrim were well informed of the progress made in natural philosophy, or had only read my letters to Professor Blumenbach, published some years ago in the British Critic, instead of offering his present vague remarks, he would have felt it necessary to pring forward arguments in reply to what I have there stated of geological phenomena, leading to our subject, which I shall here briefly repeat. 6. The conclusions of the first of these letters, founded on facts which have been before detail (, are these. § 35.- : 1. The whole known mass of our continents is composed of strata of different substances, the principal kinds of which have every where hearly the same order of superposition.—2. After the first kinds. of strata, visii, y the most ancient, and, containing no organic bodies, we find other strata, wherein such bodies are, contained, and those change their specics in the strata of different kinds which are placed one above another.—3. We find remains of te; restrial animals and vegetables atmong theso organic bodies; but in the great imajority of these strata, and even in the loose strata at the surface o où soil, these inontonents of the history. of organized beings consist chiefly of Inarine bodies.—4. Although it is thus. ccrtain that our strata were formed in. the sea, (which necessarily implies that they must have been accumulated in a successive manner, and in a situation, nearly horizontal,) they are actually broken, overturned, and sunk, in great. masses; so that the whole surface of our continents presents the appearance of ruins. 5. The violent causes which have thus disordered our strata, were previous to some great revolution, by which our continents were made dry land, and thus submitted to the operations of such causes as are at present known.—-6. This great event was not many ages prior to the times traced hack by the monuments of inen.” J. A. DE LUc. Windsor, Oct. 1813. *ExosaTo the Edisor of the Monthly Magazine, SI R, f : \ll E influence of prejudice in resisting the powerful appeals of reason. and truth, is seldom more strongly appareut thai, when insanity is described as 4. the
the effect of religion, or of a belief in any of its peculiar doctrines. Such particularly is the case in reference to Cowper, the poet, whose mental depressions have been laid to the charge of Calvinistic methodism. And such also is a case mentioned in your Medical Report for September, where the disease is accounted for by stating the patient to be “a steady follower of a popular and bigoted sect; destitute of education, suffering all the attributes of mercy and benevolence to pass the sieve of his understanding, and retaining only those horrible images which some individuals expatiate upon the more vehemently, as their audience is vulgar and uninformed.” I notice these circumstances, not for the purpose of defending the doctrine of reprobation, or to countenance the too prevalent custom of fanatical declamation, but would ask, whether it is not illiberal and absurd to make such attacks upon religion, when there is no proof that it has any such connection with unadness, as that of cause and effect? In the instance of our amiable aud inimitable poet, the charge has been fully refuted. In the above cited one from the Magazine, with great deference to your medical correspondent, it is far from being substantiated, since the indeterminate character of the couplaint creates a doubt on his mind to what specific class of disorder it should be astighed. But to the implied consequences of an attachment to the aforenamed religious tenet, matter of fact furnishes a reply in a case I am acquainted with, where a person of good education, ample property, exemplary conduct, and of sentiments directly opposed to the Calvinistic creed, has lately become afflicted with a hypochondriacal affection, exhibiting the symptoms that are usual in maladies of this nature, despair of both temporal support and eternal salvation: thus affording evidence that these impressions are by no means the result of a system of faith, but vuly indications of disease. . Allow me to add, that upon any occasions of recovery from this kind of insauity, it would be desirable to ascertain what religious feelings existed previous to the indisposition. The inquiry may tend to soleuce calumny, and clicit some further information respecting a calamity, which, from the varied aspects it assumes, is perhaps of all others the least underAlond, and the muost difficult to define. Botham. ” Joux. MANN.
For the Monthly Magazine. SPECIMEN of a PF DESTRIAN TOUR in YORKSH 1 R E. ROM Sheffield, my greatly esteemed native town, so justly noted for its superiority in cutlery and a variety of other useful articles ; around the town is mostly a strong clay and other inferior soils; yet from the excellent manures from the manufactories, and the common manure of a populous town, the farmers get amazing crops, frequently from 4G to 60 Winchester bushels of wheat per acre, and other grain in proportion. Crushed or ground bones, of which there are great quantities made use of, self from two to three shillings per bushel, at which price, and with 10 or 12 miles carriage, they are found to answer for grass, for grain, and for turnips, and their good ess, cts seen for severai succeeding crops: the usual quantity set per aere is 50 to 70 bushels; the smaller they are ground or crushed, the more valuable; excellent as they are, it is only a very small part of the kingdom where they are made use of, or their value as manure known. Within a few miles west of the town is a mountainous tract of moor land, Jately inclosed, which gives the greate-t encouragement to the practice, from the crops produced on some parts high and unpromising, in its late rude state, as most in England: there are excellent grass, grain, and turnips, one of the latter of which was weighed to 14|b. 7 oz. and measured 3 feet 3; inches in circumference, a few days since, which can be fully ascertained by respectable persons. Near the town they have a practice of , paring and burning the stubble, soon as possible after harvest, which is found so beneficial, that it is every year more practised ; it is done well by a cheap instrument added to the axle-tree and wheels, &c. of a common cart; the body being taken off occasionally for the purpose, a roller is fixed of near 2 feet in length, and 7 or 8 inches diameter, to the middle part of the eart axle tree, by two strong bolts with screws and nuts to remove at pleasure; at the ends of the bolts there are holes for the gudgeons of the roller to work in, and in the center part of the roller a mortise hole to admit a strong iron, so as to be raised or lowered as best suits, the iron to be of a length in proportion to the height of cart wheels, and the lower part in the coulter form, and at the bottom a strong hoe of 18 or 40 inch;3 broad, in the form of a . . GQ inhill Oil aro, * 23 BOUND - Nhu 1069
1% common floating spade; to the coulter, a little above the hoe, are fixed two chains, one end of each chain fastened to each of the cart shafts, so as to be longer or shorter, as best to keep the hoe to its work. With two horses and one man, and the above simple instrament, 3 or 3 acres per day of stubble are pared or floated, equal to what is done by hand Habour, at considerable expence ; the roller permits the hoe being kept properly to its work, or for its being raised, to make the instrument portable as a common carriage. From Sheffield to Rotherham, six miles, the country around which is so fertile and well cultivated, that a circle of ten miles around the town, may vie probably with a circle of the same extent, as coru land, in any part of his Majesty's dominions: the soil various, but good in general; that near the villages of Wath and Wombwell noted as excellent. The course of crops, turnips, barley, clover, wheat; or summer fallow, wheat, beans or clover, and wheat or oats. From £otherham to Doncaster, twelve miles; the first four or five miles a hazle earth in general, then near the same distance limestone, the remainder a sandy texture: the culture saine as before mentioned, and on some lands for the last two years, a trial of dibbling wheat has been made, which is found to answer weli, and produce on light land 5 or 6 bushels more than broadcast or the common method of sowing. The quantity of potatoes that usually grows east of Doncaster for many miles, is annazingly great for the London and other markets; as they are one of the most valuable of roots as food for the poor, and vegetables for the table, to increase their quantity must be most desirable; and as all bulbous roots are greatly injured and of less size if permitted to ripen their seeds, I conceive that it must have the same effect on potatoes, and that by taking off the buds or blossoins (which might be done for smals expence by children), or planting sorts not liable to blossom, much greater crops onight be obtained. I wrote to Sir Joseph Banks on the subject, who seemed to have the same ideas, and informed me that Andrew Wright, Esq. had given the last mentioned method a trial, of planting sorts not liable to blossoin, and found the additional produce considerable. If a number of sensible cultivators would, the ensuing season, give a fair, though sumall trial of the above, it would fully ascertain the benefits to be obtained; and if such as
Mr. Luke on the Cultivation of early Potatoes." [Feb. 1,
there is every reason to expect, it might be made public by your valuable Magazine, and be a national blessing, and deserve the thanks of the public at large. From Doncaster to Wheatbridge, ten miles; the first two miles a sandy texture, then a limestone takes place for the remainder, and for a great extent of length, as may hereafter be mentioned. Thistles are a very great nuisance in this part of the country, as the present laws for destroying thern are so inadequate; if a premium of one shilling per pound weight was allowed for their buds, or heads, or other more proper reward, it might be a ineans of exterminating them, in the same manner as wolves were by allowing a premium for their heads, in a former period of time. For near fifty miles north and east, they have a most absurd custom of making. the roofs or tops of their stacks of a hollow form, higher considerably at each. end than the middle, something like the form of the decks of Dutch ships: probably a Dutchman introduced the custom, but that Englishmen for such an extcut of country should make it a general practice, is a most amazing proof of custom prevailing over good sense ; as it is self-c vident that water endeavours to find its iowest level, and a hollow part must be more liable to damage; and that a convex would be a better form than a concave; but probably the best form for the roof of a building, is the best form. for the roof of a stack. In some countries the natives have an idea, that too wear a ring through the nose, is a useful ornament to the face and addition to: their beauty; if hollow-roofed stackmakers would, in future, please to wear the same ornament, it would make their taste more conspicuous. Josh UA WIG FULL, Senior. Ponds, Sheffield, Oct. 16, 1811. -ogoTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SI R, Uso the idea that it will be of service to the majority of your readers, I am induced to transcribe the following extract from the last “Report of the Committee of the Board of Agriculture,” and request its insertion in your invaluable repository. “Cut the sets [of potatoes] and put them on a room floor, where a strong current of air can be introduced at pleasure; lay them thin about two or three laysin depth; cover them with oat shells or saw-dust, to the thickness of about two or three inches; this, at the same time that it screens the to
the doors and windows are to be open as
often as the weather is mild enough to admit of its being done with safety. The sets must be frequently examined, and when the shoots have sprung an inch and a half, or two inches, the covering is to be carefully removed either with a wooden rake or with the fingers. In this manner they must remain until the planting season, taking care to give them all the air possible, by the doors and windows, when it can be be done with safety. By this method, the shoots will become green, put out leaves, and be moderately hardy in this way four crops have been raised or the same ground in one year, taking care always to have sets from the repository ready to put in, as soon as the other; are taken up. A crop of winter lettuce is sometimes raised afterwards from the same land. We are enabled to say from experience, that two crops may be obtained from the same ground yearly with great ease, and afterwards a crop of coleworts. “To raise two good crops in one year.— The method that has from experience
been found most successful, is to plant
the ground in the spring with the best early potatoe (managed in the method already quoted); these will be ready in the beginning of summer; the soil should be ploughed once, and planted either with the large white kidney or Killimanca, the sets of which should be cut at least six weeks before they are planted; they should be kept in a place where both air and light may have free access to them, by which means their shoots will be strong and vigorous, and as they will then have no frosts to encounter, they will grow immediately they are put into the earth. The operations of planting should be performed with the greatest care, in order to preserve the shoots from being broken, as in that case the crop will be renderéd considerably later. Perhaps there is no way of doing this so completely as with a stick; in this way the plant is not only placed at a proper depth, but the shoot is preserved and set upright in such a way, that the top is equal with the surface, It will certainly be objected to this mode of planting, that it requires more labour than the ordinary method of dropping the sets into the furrow ; but when properly considered, this ob
them from the frost, affords them a mo- bling
will plant as many in one day as, two in the ordinary way.” SAMUEL LURE.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, SIR, I HAVE observed many interesting communications, in your valuable Magazine, relative to fruit trees, and their failure; I conceive therefore that it may be of importance to your readers, who enjoy the luxury of a garden, to become acquainted with the means by which the people of a more northern latitude secure abundant and certain crops of fruit. I allude to Denmark, and it is the practice in that country to keep back the blossoms till the fine weather is settled, by covering the trees in the day-time, and exposing them during the night. The exocriment is easily made on a few trees, and the practice may afterwards be guided by the experienced results.
Hoddesdon, Dec. 1, 1813. J. ToDD.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SI R, HAVF taken the liberty of sending A you the following extract, hoping you will give it a place in your valuable and entertaining miscellany, as I am particularly desirous of seeing the reflection ota water, (as far as regards perpendicular objects,) the picture, and the va:rishing point, fully elucidated by some of your mathematical correspondents; for I must confess my faith is not sufficient to subscribe to the opinions of this artist, whilst they are at variance with science, common sense, and every day's observation.
“It has hitherto been the received maxim, and cei: , men practic”, in the doctrine of reflections on water, to reflect all perpeodicular objects perpentticularly, wherever they are situated in the pictore, without any regard to the eye. I was sirst struck with the follacy of this hypothesis in 1777 ; when wasking win the weste.In border of the Severn, opposite to the city of Worcester, my attonfoh was very forcibly struck with the reflections of the towers of the cathedial, Saint Andrew's and Ali Saints’ Churches; which aii appeared to stand towards toy eye. Tize n:#ddle orie, St. Andrew's spire, being directly before my eye, was reitected perpendicaiarly; the others, on either side, obliquely towards my eye. This circirnstance struck de so forcibly as a liew discovery, that being engaged at that time in engraving some views of iiereford, I absciutely to educed my new system in one of them; reflectio; the catacdral tower obliquely across the Wye, aş
15 A/r. Squire on the Reflection of perpendicular Ojects. [Feb. 1,
as it appeared from the point of view. I
to have been totally ignorant of it, as als his rules for reflections are for the perperidicular, however situated in the picture; which is certainly wrong and out of nature for more than one object: for I maintain, that only that can be perpendicular which is perpendicular to, or directly before, the eye; the others must incline. And this may be fully exemplified in a moment to a scientific eye, by an observation from Somerset Terrace, the Adelphi, or any terrace on the shore of the 'i'hanies; where the observer will immediately see that al; the reflections of the buildings on the farther shore wiłł tend to the eye; and that only wil; be perpendicular which is directly before it.
Should you be so obliging as to give this a place, you will most probably hear from one again on this subject, if any correspondent thinks it worth while offering your readers his remarks on the above.
Epping, TH ox! As SQUIR E.
May 13th, 1812.