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- when the operation of the plan proposed

will begin to be effective? If there should be, what must they feel in regard to their parents, or the législature of the time being, who knowing that the payment of a single Pou ND at their birth, would have rescued them from indigence, yet omitted to establish societies and pay such pound? Let me hope then that such societies will forthwith be established every where, and that Acts of Parliament,” general &nd particular, will be passed to protect and foster them. Nor is it ever too late to take advantage of the plan, because 21, within the first year; 31. under five years; or 5l. under twenty years, would operate in an equal proportion to 1. at birth. Such funds might be made still more productive if they were employed in planting trees, and the produce accumulated. A system of planting would also be of great collateral benefit to the country, and enable the fund to begin to pay the annuitants at 50 years; and at 60, 70, and 80 years, to increase

them respectively to 40, 50, and 60i.;

but as the details of planting might be liable to mismanagement, the accumula tion from interest would perhaps be more simple. In conclusion it may be observed, that as it is the legitimate object and end of all social arrangements to render justice to the members of the social compact; and as each preceding active generation yields possession of the world to each succeeding active generation, the superannuated survivors of the former have a natural right to indemnity and subsistence from the latter, as long as any of its mem

• An Act of Parliament is requisite to guard against the purchase, sale, or alienation of the annuity or its reversion; to authorize checks against impositions; and to render trustees and others responsible ; and when obtained, societies on any seale might be established, either public or private, for districts or sects, or friendly associatious on any *

bers survive, in return for improvements and preservation; it is therefore the duty of the latter to subsist the former with part of the usufruct, as an obligation of right, and not as a concession of benevolence. * It is however more eligible that the subsistence of the surviving members of each preceding generation should arise from funds provided by their parents, particularly as this is practicable by means of. PERPETUAL To NT IN es; but it is the duty of each active generation to take care that such fund is adequate to its purposes, and whenever, it falls to replenish it by suitable contributions; and as no sacri. fice is required by one generation in favour of the surviving members of another, which that generation will not itself partake in its turn, so this reciprocity of benefits reconciles strict justice between generation and generation, with arrangements that are INDIsprinSIBLY N EcESSAR r to H U M A N H A PPIN ESS. By these simple arrangements, combining the powers of compound interest, with the benefit of survivorship, and a iimitation to poverty, society would lose half its deformity and misery. It would thus present its three great classes fully provided for—the You NG by their parents—the MATURE by their labour—and the AGED by means arising out of their personal rights, consequently untainted by the ignominy which attends parochial relief, or the servility which is created by a bitter dependance on public or private charity, however unostentatious or be

nevolent. CoMMON SENSE. -oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIP, .

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138 Original Letters between Dr.Y.oung & Mr. Richardson. [March 1,

morning at 7 A.M. was sometimes as great as in the evening, but never exceeded the above instances. Query : was your thermometer ever observed six hours after sun-set f


To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

SI R, SHOULD be extremely obliged to some of your inteliigen correspon

dents to inform me of the best method

of keeping oranges. I know that there

is a means of doing it, because I have purchased them in October, but at an extravagant price. I tried various methods to preserve them last year, but without success, as they uniformly went to decay in a short time. Can you, or any of your readers inform me, where a kind of pocket alarm, to fix to a watch, is manufactured or sold wholesale 2 Feb. 7, 1814. A. C. R.

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origiNAL LETTERs between DR.

EDWARD YOUNG, Author of Might Thoughts, and MR. SAMUEL,
RICHARDSON, Author of Clarissa, Grandison, &c.
(Continued from Page 423 of the last Volume.)

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H.ETTER XIX. o Wellwyn, Sunday, May 1746. Tear Sir, HAVE lately received a very melancholy account of our friend Mrs. Grace Cole; you would rejoice me greatly if you could send me better news of so valuable a person. Miss Lee is now in town, ill of the small-pox by inoculation, but, I hear, in a very fair way of recovery. Dr. Webster was here this week, who told me you was in perfect health, of which I give you joy. I hope all your fireside is in the same happy way, to whom my best wishes and services, take for granted, Ciarissa is putting on her last attire, and that we shall soon see her in public. That success may second all your undertakings is the sincere wish of, Dear Sir, Your very affectionate and obliged, E. YoUNG.

LETTER XX. Wellwyn, July 17, 1746. My dear Sir, After long absence, long I mean to my feeling, I yesterday returned home, as to a pillow, which gives me that joy in rest of which you will not be able to entertain any idea these twenty years. I received the True Estimate, and shall, at my leisure, look it over, and return 11. You gave me great pleasure in what you read to me at N. End, I mean that part that was new to me; and I wish you would lessen your apprehensions of length. If all fixes, and satisfies attention, the longer the better.

On his travels a very old man dines with me this day, the Rev. Mr. Watly, whose character may be briefly given by comparing him to a frosty night. There are many thoughts in him that glitter through the domińion of darkness. Tho’ it is night, it is a star-light night, and if yon (as you have promised) should succeed him in our little hemisphere, I should welcome a stichardson as returning day. In a word, I love you, and delight in your conversation, which permits me to think of something more than what I see; a favour which the conversation of very few others will indulge to,

Dear Sir,
Your affectionate and obliged
humble servant,

Pray my love and best wishes to your

amiable fireside.

Wellwyn, Aug. 17, 1746.
Dear Sir,
I was a little struck at my first reading -

your list of evils in your last letter. Evils they are, but surmountable ones, and not only so, but actually by you surmounted, not more to the admiration than the comfort of all that know you. But granting them worse than they are, there is great difference between middle and old age. Hope is quartered on the middle of life, and fear on the latter end of it; and hope is ever inspiring pleasant dreams, and fear hideous ones. And if any good arises beyond our hope, we have such a diffidence of its stay, that apprehension of losing destroys the pleasure of possessing it. It adds to our


1814.] Original Letters between Dr. Foung & Mr. Richardson.

fears rather than encreases our joys. What shall we do in this case? Hop one to an expedient; there is but one that I know of which is, that since the things of this life, from their mixture, repetition, defectiveness, and, in age, short duration, are unable to satisfy, we must aid their natural by a moral pleasure, we must season them with a spice of religion to make them more palateable; we must consider that 'tis God’s will that we should be content and pleased with them: and thus the thinness of the natural pleasure, by our sense of joining an obedience to heaven to it, will become much more substantial and satisfactory. We shall find great account in considering content, not only as a prudence, but as a duty too. Religion is all, and (happy for us ;) it is all-sufficient too in our last extremities: a full proof of which I will steal from yourself. So all-sufficient is religion, that you could not draw in Clarissa the strongest object of pity without giving us in it (thanks to her religion) an object of envy too. Pray my love and sefvice to all, and to Mr. Grover among the rest, who has lately much obliged, Dear Sir, Your truly affectionate humble servant, and Clarissa's admirer, E. YoUNG.

LETTER XXII. Wellwyn, Nov. 11, 1746. Dear Sir, I thank you for enabling me, at my

time of day, to think with great pleasure

of living another year. A summer bearing such fruit as you kindly give me cause to expect, may excuse me for wishing to see longer days than we at present enjoy. I consider Clarissa as my last amour; I am as tender of her welfare as I am sensible of her charms. This amour differs from all other in one respect, I should rejoice to have all the world my rivals in it. The waters here are not new things, they were in great vogue fifty years ago; but an eminent physician of this place dying, by degrees they were forgot. We have a physician now near us who drinks them himself all this winter. Aud a lady comes seven miles every morning for the same purpose. They are the same as Tunbridge, and I myself have found from them just the same effect. As to the melancholy part of your letter, our Chelsea friend, poor soul | But God is good, And we know uot what

139, we pity. She is dead to us; she is in another state of existence; we are in the world of reason ; she is in the kingdom of imagination; nor can we more judge of her happiness or misery, than we can judge of the joy or sorrow of a person that is asleep. The persons that sleep are (for the time) in the kingdom of imagination too; and she, as they, suffers, or enjoys, according to the nature of the dreams that prevail. I heartily rejoice, that at length you find benefit from your tar water; tar by winter, and steel by summer, are the two chainpions sent forth by Providence to encounter and subdue the spleen. Miss Lee joins me in the kindest regard and littonbie service to Mrs. Richardson and her aunlable fireside. She gratefully acknowledges the receipt of your many favours, and hopes you'll put it in her power to shew her sensibility of them by her care of you at Wellwyn. And, she says, you'll stil oblige her more if you bring a female Richardson along with you. I bless God I am well; and I am composing, but it is in wood and stone, for I am building a steeple to my church; and as a wise man is every thing, I expect from you, as an architect, a critic upon 1t. When you see Mr. Speaker, I beg my best respects and grateful acknowledgements for his enquiring after me. I had almost forgot to tell you, that an Irishman has run away with one of my neighbourg, and that with such circumstances of intrigue and distress, that its truth alone hinders it from being an excellent romance: just as fiction alone hinders your's from being an excellent history. If you see good Miss Parsons, tell her she has the best wishes of my heart. I humbly thank you for the kind offer of sounething you have printed. I hope soon to be in town, and to prevent your designed trouble. I am, with true regard, and sincore affection, dear Sir, Your most ilumble servant, £. You Ng. Pray my service to Mr. Lutot. I thought of making some additious to that piece; but, on second thoughts, let it alone; so that it may go to the press as It is. Pray my humble service to Mr. Grover; and tell him the poverty I mentioned in one of my letters to him, is now falsen on ine. You say, my dcar friend, that I can't but think true; but to iive as one ought requires requires constant, if not intense, thinking. The shortness and uncertainty of iife is so evident, that all take it for granted; it wants no proof. And what follows Why this, because we can't deny it, therefore we forget it ; because it wants no proof, therefore we give it no attention. That is, we think not of it at all, for a very odd reason, viz. because we should think of nothing else. This is too strictly expressed, but very near the truth. Ask Cibber if he's of my opinion.

140 Original Letters between Dr. Young & Mr. Richardson. [March 1, 1814] Original Letters between Dr. Young & Mr. Richardson: 141

LET FER XXIII. Wellwyn, Nov. 16, 1746. Dear Sir, On your telling me you drank tar-water, I borrowed Mr. Prior's Narrative, where I find such an account of it, that I design to drink it myself, and to give it to any neighbour that will pledge me. But that • author cautions us about frauds in tar, which will defeat our expectations from it. He says it must be Norway tar, of a deep brown, and pretty thin, (page 170.) Since you drink it, 'tis your interest to know where the best is to be had, and if you do know, and are at leisure to procure me six gasions of it, 'twill much oblige, Dear Sir, Your truly affectionate and obliged humble servant, E. YoUN s. There's a Wellwyn carrier at the Windmill in St. John street, Smithfield, who comes out of town, Mondays and Thursdays, every week. have now but an inch of life left, and am for setting it up on a save-all of your providing. Miss L. joins me in hearty good wishes and service to your fireside. Pray how fares Clarissa ; LETTER XXIV. Wesleyn, December 2, 1746. Dear Sir, I thank you for my tar; I will be out of your debt for that as soon as I get to town, but never out of your debt for ma. my more material favours. I shall brew it soon, and then I'll drink your health in it to give myself a better title to my own. You said in your last that you was somewhat better for tar-water. In long chronical cases perseverance is the point. And so it is in the greatest point of a H. No man is so profligate but he is good for moments; perseverance only is wanting to make him a saint. As you persevere in the great point, persevere in this; to a good heart add a good constitution, and then you are only not an angel, as happy

as mortality can admit. That you may be so is the prayer of, dear sir, Your affectionate and obliged humble servant, E. YoUNG. LETTER XXV. Rev. Sir, Lec. 24, 1746. I am in great and unusual arrear with you; but I beg of you to believe, that it is not owing to the want of a true and sincere respect for you, and of a due regard for your favours. But you gave me hope of seeing you in town, when I thought to thank you, and to desire you to thank good Miss Lee, for both your kind invitations: I am sorry your stay in town was so short, as not to permit you to give me this hoped-for pleasure. You tell me, Sir, in one of your favours, that you are composing; but that it is in wood and stone. A worthy work : But, Sir, I expect, the world will still expect more durable works from Dr. Young than wood and stone can furnish. Then, having given your orders, the workmen acquit you of any further cares than those that require your purse and your weekly inspection. But they cannot employ your nightly meditations; your writing studies; a whole creation ever opened and opening before you, with new and improving beauties. And can Dr. Young say, that he has sung the God of that creation enough, while he affords him faculties undecayed, and a judgment still improving The important, the solemn subject you mention, may be best, (I humbly sup> pose) cultivated by meditations intended for the public eye. Can you better prepare to meet the last solemn hour, than by preparing others to meet it too : The good man is in a daily course; which, like a taper once lighted, pursues its way to a bright extinction, illuminating, till that awful pericq, all around it. Every hour makes the next happier and easier, till the fear of death is subdued; and then chearful thoughts must intervene,

and the soul will be at leisure to expand

itself. Think not then, good Sir, to let the solemn so very much engross you, as to excuse you from the serene and the chearful; but let us see, that what you have conquered, humanly speaking, conquered, the less considerate must not still think terrible. But I know, Sir, you must, you cannot help thinking in such a way, as will instruct the world to think; and will here rest the point, in the hope at least, that it cannot be otherwise,

I hope,

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A full and strong conviction of the vanity of the present, and of the importance of the future, is, I think, the most complete notion of human wisdom. Now the very reverse of this seems to be the almost universal maxim of mankind. But it is something, you'll say, to be wise for the present. ... But in that too they as moto. riously fail. For what is being wise for the present, but taking care of one's self? And what is one's self but body and soul? But they neglect the first as much as the last; or rather they neglect the first by neglecting the last; for a wise Providence has so ordered it, (to make our happiness, though divided by dis. ferent states and periods, yet still, as it were, of a-piece) that virtue is the best physician. And what is virtue, but obedience to reason 2 And reason, I think, strict reason, as virtue's apothecary, provides for us, at this time, tar water. I

have found from it surprising good effects;

and I am verily persuaded, that if you can but be obstinate in your persever. ance, you will do the same. Despair often imposes itself upon us under the specious, but false character, of modesty and resignation. But those soft and amiable virtues must be quite consistent with the full prerogatives of courage and resolution, or they are cheats; they are not what they pretend to be. It is with the human virtues, as with the divine attributes, they are allies, not rivals. As much as we take from their con.

Monthly MAG, No. 252,

sistency, so much we take from their very , being. Despair not, my dear friend, but proceed and prosper; and le: us, when we meet in the sumner, jointly praise and adore that indulgent Provi. dence which has sent so very noble a remedy in our days; and, I am Sorry to Say, in our necessities. You make an apology for not writing 3 I write, because I’m at leisure; you forbear, because you are not; and both these are equally right: so that your apology wants an apology. If I'm appreheasive that I lay a tax on your time (which I know is so precious with you) by my writing, I shaft be forced to for. bear. Claissa is my rival, and such a rival I can bear; she's pay one what you ove me, tho' you shou'd owe the corre. spondence of an age. To the children, not of your pen, and to Mrs. Richardson, Caroline joins in the best wishes and re. Spects. I ain, dear Sir, Your affectionate and obliged humble Servant, E. Young. They who have experienced the won. derful effects of tar-water, (of whici i am one) reveal its excellencies to others 3. I say reveal, because they are beyond what any can conceive by reason, of . tural light. But others disbelieve them, tho' the revelation is attested past ali scruple, because to them such strange excellencies are incomprehensible. No, give me leave to say, that this infidelity oay possibly be as fatal to morbid bo. dies, as other insidelity to morbid Souls. I say this in honest zeal for your weft. I am confident, if you persist, you’ll be greatly benefited by it. In oid obsti. nate, chronical complaints, it probably will not show its virtue under three months; tho' secretly, it is doing good all the time. I will pay my tar" bill in Hilary term. Adied.

LETTER xxvsr. Wellayn, April 9th, 1747. Tear Sir, The delightful weather we have had brings forward our season for the Steelwater, and consequently of my enjoying you at this place, for your health, and ony great pleasure. I do assure you, from the authority of the best physicians, and from experience, which is a better Physician than the college can afford, that this spring has every virtue of Tún. bridge in it. I have corrected the Eighth Night, you will let me know when you have occasion for it. I forgot to tell you that U this

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