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Terentianus Maurus. De pentametro versu, qui et elegiacus dicitur
Quidam (quia gemino constat de commate versas)
Cludere comma prius non timuere brevi :
Hoc mihi tam grande munus habere datur.
Si fiet talis, Incipe Mænalios
Tantam nostra nequit mensura absolvere litem,
Malo tamen longa cludere comma prius.'
Priscian, p. 768. In Græcis ost quando invenimus e productà finiri ablativum tam primæ quam tertiæ declinationis nominum qui magis dativus est græcus positus pro latino ablativo. Virgilius in primo Æneid. Ipse une graditur comitatus Achate. Lucanus in octavo. Signaque ab Euphrate cum Crassis capta sequentem. Similiter a Demosthene, Aristotele, Hermogene. Vetustissimi tamen etiam in quibusdam Latinis quæ pominativum in es productam terminant, pares cum genitivo habent syllabas in hac declinatione, solebant producere ablativum more quintæ declinationis vel supradictorum Græcorum, ut a mole, fame, tabe, quod adhuc sic profertur. Virgil. in VI. offam objicit, ille fame rubida tria guttura pandens. Lucanus in X. Non mandante fame multas volucresque ferasque Ægypti posuere Deos. Juvenalis in V. Membra ! aliena fame lacerabant, esse parati Et sua. Lucretius. Imbribus, et tabe nimborum arbusta vacillent.
· Heinsius, in his note upon “Quantus in Æacide Actorideque fuit,” Ep. Pont. lib. 2. et 4. v. 22. observes, “ Hic hiatus insolens est Nasoni:”
2 We may add from Ovid, Te memorant Gange, totoque Oriente subacto. Fast. 3. 1. 729.
SAPPHIC AND ALCAIC METRES.
In the three last Priapean verses I have made some slight alterations in the words, with a view rather to show the nature of the metre than to restore the genuine text, which is evidently in many places corrupt in the books whence the fragments have been selected. .
In Gaisford's Hephaest. p. 60, a Priapean verse occurs with an initial broken quantity, representing a foot or half dipodia, as Τον στύγ- | νoν Με- λανίπ που φό- νον αι
Πατρο- φόνων έριAnd again, Πέτρης[ές πο- λιον) κύμα κολυμβ-ώμαι θύων έρω- τι, Ιb. p. 130. If in the line,
Εύ- μορφο- τέρα Μνασι- δίκα
τάς α- παλάς | Γυρίν νως we omit the second choriamb there remains the following metre :
Kρήσ- σαι να ποθ' ώδ'
έμμε λέως πόδεσ- σιν, Πό
και λακών Τρι βωλέ
γαρ 'Αρ κάδεσ σι λώ- βα, A short and brisk metre has been formed out of the Priapean verse, consisting wholly of the second section, and resembling the Anacreontic, as
3 3 Ι 3
per om- nes. .
χρους -τω κέ- χυται
δ' έπ’ - μερ
Instead of άραo, Dorice, for ηρασο, from έραμαι, which would be destructive of the metre, if not of the rhythm, and inconsistent with the sort of verse, (a choriambic hepthememer, having an iamb and long syllable for its close) of which it is produced by Hephægtion as an example, I would read ápão, Dorice for apmo, the optative passive, from épáouces. The initial a in ápkou ai is generally long, but Homer uses it short in ápe, preces, and Aristophanes in the compounds xatápatos and xatapo. When I say that the introduction of inpaoo for ápớo would be destructive of the metre, if not of the rhythm, it must not be understood that, according to the laws even of rhythm, a dactyl and an amphibrachys may be substituted one for another universally and in all cases. As single feet, they are incapable of reciprocal substitution, and it is only when they enter into a verse as parts of compound and larger feet that such a substitution can happen. To make a dactylic hexameter terminate, for instance, in ápớo nártus instead of paco Trávtws would be barbarous, intolerable, and an equal offence both to rhythm and metre; but the first section of a Priapean verse, which proceeds not by single feet, but by compound feet, may begin indifferently with a diiamb, or a choriamb, and admits, therefore, either opçõo or “paco equally well, as 3
3 đe- o vũy Παρθε- νία or 'Αρώ
παρθε- νία "Η ρα- σο νύν | Παρθε- νία, "Ηρα- ||σο νύν παρθε- νία
Here is no offence to rhythm, but still there may be to metre, as metre is sometimes strict, and by no means allows always the licence of isochronous and equivalent exchanges. This licence, although not entirely confined to the lyric poets, is chiefly used by them, and may be considered as a characteristic feature of the Greek Méan, or Odes. A nice observation of these isochronous interchanges may be a means of leading us to the true scansion and division of the dominant rhythm; a subject, either not well understood, or imperfectly explained by the Greek scholiasts, and where an unerring guide is still wanted. On account of the peculiar facility with which compound feet admit these interchanges, all feet exceeding three syllables were not, as Cicero tells us, esteemed feet so much as numbers. See Class. Journ. Vol. III. p. 39 and 54. This is confirmed too by Marius Victorinus, who says,
“Non gradiuntur Méan pedum mensionibus, sed rhythmis fiunt." Gaisford's Hephæst. p. 224. The same metre occurs with a syllable prefixed, as
46 δυκε μέν α | σελάνα, ,
Kai Tant- 'ades l ueras Sé. Hephæst. p. 65. Before I quit the subject of choriambics, I will subjoin a scale, and place in it several lines, proceeding from the most simple form
ναι χά- ριτες
of verse to that which is more complicated, from one middle to two,
ρων 'Ε- πίχαρμος. Κάδο
άμβο- σίας μεν Κρα τήρ έ- κέκρα- το. “Ερ
μάς δε Γελων Βλ5
Diva potens Cypri 7 Ου γαρ
α εν μοισο- πόλων θέμις 8 Θρήνον εμμέ- ναι, ουκ
άμμι πρέπει τάδε "Η. ραν πο- τα φα
Ισιν Δί- α τον τερπι- κέραυ-νον. 9 Sic fratris He-lenæ,
luci- da dera. . Hor. Ib. 10 Καττύπ- τεσθε κόραι και κατ-ερεί- κεσθε χιτώνας. 11 Ροδοπάχε- ες αγ
Διός κόραι. 12 Κρονί δα βα- σιλή ος γέ- νος Αϊ- αν τον άρισ- τον πεδ' Αχι13 Κατθα Ινούσα δε κείσ'.
μναμο- σύνα σέθεν. [λέα. 14 Alphene imme- mor atqueuna nimis false soda- llibus. 15"Έσσετ' Ιουδέ ποτ' εις ύστε- ρον ου γάρ πεδ- έχεις βρόδων. 16 Jam te nil mi- seret,
dure, tui dulcis ami- culi. 17 Των εκ Πιε
αλλ'. Ρherecreatian. 18 Jam me prode- re, jam 19 'Αφανής Ixnu 'A- toa δόμοις. Glyconian. 20 Dubitas Ifalle
fide. 21 Φοιτάσεις πέδ' αμαυ ρών.. Ρherecratian,
, 22 Nec fac- ta impi-a fall acum. 23 Νεκύων έκπε
μένα. Glyconian. 24 Hominum cæli- colis placent.
The last six Greek lines (or rather sections of lines as to the last four) of Sappho I have underlined with others from Catullus, in order to show their mutual correspondence. This fragment of Sappho and the Ode of Catullus illustrate each other, and can now leave little doubt as to the true nature, both of the rhythm and of the artificial division of the strophe. Where on a former occasion (Class. Journ. Vol. IV. p. 299.) I mentioned only a strong resemblance between the two odes, I now upon closer examination discover an identity. The composition of the strophe in Catulluis is so singular, that although the ode is short, and consisting only of three strophes, yet the presumption is, that the uniformity found in them is such as cannot be accidental. In general the longer an ode is, with the greater certainty we can pronounce upon the principles of its versification. Had the Ode of Catullus consisted only of one strophe, a doubt might have existed, whether it ought to be divided into four, five, or eight lines, in the manner in which I had divided the same Greek strophe in a former part of the Class. Journ. Vol. IV. p. 298. The tirst strophe in Catullus may
be divided into eight lines, or sections of lines, so as to make each line end with an entire word, and the second strophe even admits of the same division; but when we come to the third strophe we fiud a difficulty, and the line
Si tu oblitus es, at Dî meminerunt, meminit fides, does not adınit of a division into a couplet or duad, like Nec fac ta impi
minum Cæli colis placent. The nonconformity of this last trophe in this particular, with the two preceding, may justify a conclusion that it was not intended to be broken into duads. If we consider the strophe as a tetrastich, or as a pentad, we may divide all the strophes into either; but then, instead of being too minute, as in the former case, we become too general, and lose sight of those colous and commas into which the art of the poet has broken and divided the metre. For it may be laid down as a rule, that the more curious and elaborately constructed any metre is, the more a uniform adherence to it affords proof of design, and negatives the supposition of accidental concordance. For instance, in the 8th Ode of Horace, in the first book, the second line,
Te Deos oro | Sybariv, || cur properas amando, is not only divided into two sections, but the termination of the first section is further distinguished by this invariable peculiarity, that it has for its close an entire word, or entire words, equal to a trissyllable, forming an anapest, detached from the preceding part of the section, as at the word Sybarin. Were any one composing an ode, in imitation of this of Horace, to write
Te Deos orare juvat, as equivalent to
Te Deos oro | Sybarin, he would miss his aim, and would agree with his prototype in rhythm only, but not in metre. From what has been said, I think we may conclude, that the right division of the Ode of Catullus is into strophes of six lines as above; and as the Greek strophe of Sappho agrees with the Latin of Catullus in all its peculiarities, we may conclude further, that both have been fashioned after one common model. In the language of Hephæstion, this metre is not composed, ég ouolw, but rata ogéony. p. 120. Upon the whole, therefore, the Fragment of Sappho and the singular Ode of Catullus admirably illustrate each other. How much is the recovery to be desired of the works of Sappho, Alcæus, Corinna, and the other lyric poets.; and what an inestimable treasure should we then enjoy of metrical and rhythmical productions in all their