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to corrupt a saint. Thou hast done much harm upon me, Hal; God forgive thee for it! Before I knew thee, Hal, I knew nothing; and now am I, if 95 a man should speak truly, little better than one of the wicked. I must give over this life, and I will give it over: by the Lord, an I do not, I am a villain: I'll be damned for never a king's son in Christendom. Prince. Where shall we take a purse to-morrow, Jack? 100 Fal. 'Zounds, where thou wilt, lad; I'll make one; an

I do not, call me villain and baffle me.

Prince. I see a good amendment of life in thee; from praying to purse-taking.

Fal. Why, Hal, 'tis my vocation, Hal; 'tis no sin for a man to labour in his vocation.

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93, 94. done. harm upon] So in Heywood, The Wise-Woman of Hogsdon, v. iv: " Young Chartley. I

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was as virtuously given as any youth
in Europe till I fell into one Boyster's
company; 'tis he that hath done all
the harm upon me." Cf. Brome,
The Queens Exchange, IV. i; "These
rigorous courses have done hurt upon
him." Qq, with the exception of Q 1,
and Ff read done harm unto.
96, 97. one of the wicked] In mimicry
of the Puritans Falstaff here employs
one of their canting expressions. See
Overbury, Characters, A Button-Maker
of Amsterdam: "though most of the
wicked (as he calls them) be there."

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99. be damned] See Overbury, Characters, A Button-Maker of Amsterdam: "he cries out, 'Tis impossible for any man to be damn'd that liues in his Religion." Another instance of mimicry of Puritan cant.

102. baffle] deride, treat with contumely. Beaumont and Fletcher, Love's Cure, v. i: he That yesternight

105

95. am I] I am Ff. 98. by the Lord] 101. 'Zounds] omitted Ff. an] Qq 1,

was baffled and disgrac'd," and Marston, What You Will, Iv. i: "Bar mee my house; beate mee,-baffle mee,-scoffe mee,-deride me.' In a letter dated 22 May, 1570, Sir George Carey writes to Lord Flemming, "I will baffull your good name "; and his correspondent replies, "yee may rayle vpon my honourable name as yee please." Nares: "Baffle was originally a punishment of infamy, inflicted on recreant knights, one part of which was hanging them up by the heels."

103. amendment of life]" Amendment of life" is the Genevan rendering of the word rendered by "repentance" in the Authorised Version. Falstaff is again ridiculing the Puritans.

105. 'tis my vocation] Falstaff here repeats in ridicule another of the Puritan shibboleths. See Middleton, The Family of Love, I. ii: "Lipsalve. 'Tis my vocation, boy; we must never be weary of well-doing: love's as proper to a courtier as preciseness to a puritan."

105, 106. 'tis no .. .. vocation] An allusion to 1 Corinthians vii. 20: "Let every man abide in the same vocation wherein he was called." This text was often quoted and constantly commended by protestant divines. Latimer, Cermons: Let every man therefore labour in his vocation" (ed. Corrie, p. 359), and the same author: "we must labour and do our business every one in his vocation" (Remains, ed. Corrie, p. 154).

Enter POINS.

Poins! Now shall we know if Gadshill have set a
match. O, if men were to be saved by merit, what
hole in hell were hot enough for him?

This is the

most omnipotent villain than ever cried "Stand" to 110

a true man.

Prince. Good morrow, Ned.

Poins. Good morrow, sweet Hal. What says Monsieur

Remorse? what says Sir John Sack and Sugar?

107. Enter Poins] omitted Ff. match] Qq; Watch Ff.

108.

107. Poins!] See note infra. 114, 115. Sugar? Jack !] Rowe; Sugar Iacke? Qq Iacke? F.

1-4; Sugar, Iacke? Qq 5-8; Sugar:

Cf. Nashe, Christ's Tears over Ferusalem, 1593 (Grosart, iv. 95): "He held it as lawful for hym (since all labouring in a mans vocation is but getting) to gette wealth as wel with his Sword by the Highway side, as the Laborer with his Spade or Mattock"; and Wilkins, Miseries of Enforced Marriage (Hazlitt's Dodsley, ix. 528): "this honest and needful calling of pursetaking.'

107. Poins!] Qq 3-8 and F print Poines or Pointz in italics, as if the words Now shall we ... true man were spoken by him.

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107, 108. set a match] "To set a match" signified in the argot of thieves to plot a robbery. So in Jonson, Bartholomew Fair (1614), v. iii: 'they'll be angry if they hear you eavesdropping, now they are setting their match." See Greene, Art of Conny-Catching, 1591 (Grosart, x. 40): "ye high lawier [highwayman] when he hath no set match to ride about "; Dekker, Lanthorne and Candle-Light (Grosart, iii. 232): "The match being then agreed upon"; and The Misfortunes of Arthur (Hazlitt's Dodsley, iv. 311). "Match ,,

some one or other attendant dailie in the yard or house, or dwelling hard by vpon such matches, whether the preie be worth the following or no." The set a Watch of F was also a cant phrase in use among thieves. See Greene, Art of Conny-Catching (Grosart, x. 15): "The theefe is called a High lawier, He that setteth the watch, a scripper," and Dekker, Belman of London (Grosart, iii. 151).

110. omnipotent] capable of anything, arrant. New Eng. Dict. quotes Nashe, Have with you (Grosart, iii. 51): "Farre more boystrous and cumbersome than a pair of Swissers omnipotent galeaze breeches."

III. a true man] an honest man, as opposed to a thief. See 11. i. 93 post.

114. Sir... Sugar] Wright compares S. Rowlands, The Letting of Humours Blood in the Head-vaine (Hunterian Club ed., p. 28): "signeur Sacke and Suger drinke-drown'd reeles." Simon Eyre, in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday, III. v, appears to speak of sack and sugar as an old man's drink: "old age, Sacke and Sugar will steal upon us ere we be sometimes occurs in aware." Hentzner, Moryson and the sense of plunder, theft, as in others observed it as a peculiarity of Pasquils Fests with the Merriments of the English that they sweetened their Mother Bunch (quoted in Ashton's wines with sugar. Malone quotes Dr. Humour, Wit, and Satire of the Seven- Venner, Via Recta ad Vitam Longam, teenth Century): "which match [a 1622: "Some affect to drink sack with stolen purse] the fellow for feare of sugar, and some without, and upon hanging, willingly condescended to no other grounds, as I thinke, but as it surrender." Wright refers to Harrison's is best pleasing to their palates." Description of England (ii. 16, ed. 1587): Sugar, in Venner's opinion, allayed "Seldome. . are... waifaring men the heat of sack and retarded its penerobbed without the consent of the cham-trative quality. Sack, which, accordberleine, tapster, or ostler where they ing to Douce, is not mentioned earlier bait & lie, who.. giue intimation to than the twenty-third year of Henry

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Jack! how agrees the devil and thee about thy soul, 115
that thou soldest him on Good Friday last for a cup
of Madeira and a cold capon's leg?

Prince. Sir John stands to his word, the devil shall have
his bargain; for he was never yet a breaker of pro-
verbs: he will give the devil his due.

Poins. Then art thou damned for keeping thy word with
the devil.

Prince. Else he had been damned for cozening the devil.
Poins. But, my lads, my lads, to-morrow morning, by

120

four o'clock, early at Gadshill! there are pilgrims 125
going to Canterbury with rich offerings, and traders
riding to London with fat purses: I have vizards for
you all; you have horses for yourselves: Gadshill
lies to-night in Rochester: I have bespoke supper
to-morrow night in Eastcheap: we may do it as 130
secure as sleep. If you will go, I will stuff your
purses full of crowns; if you will not, tarry at home
and be hanged.

Fal. Hear ye, Yedward; if I tarry at home and go not,
I'll hang you for going.

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...

VIII., appears to have been a dry
Spanish wine. The best qualities are
said to have been made at Xeres, and
Falstaff himself has much to say in
praise of "sherris-sack" in 2 Henry IV.
Iv. iii. 104. Span. secco, dry. Sher-
wood, Eng. French Dict.: "Sack
Vin d'Espagne, vin sec."
115. agrees thee] Pope would
emend the syntax by reading agree
and thou, but the use of a singular
verb preceding a plural subject and of
"thee for "thou
accords with
Elizabethan idiom.

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135 123. been] omitted F. 130. to-morrow

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cf., e.g., Breton, Crossing of Proverbs, 1616: 'P[roverb]. There is no fire without smoake. C[rosse-answer]. Yes, in a flint."

120. give . . . due] A proverbial saying. So in Henry V. 111. vii. 126, and Jonson, A Tale of a Tub, v. v: "give the devil his due."

125. Gadshill] A hill on the London road about two miles north-west of Rochester. The place had an ill repute for robberies. Dekker and Webster, West-ward Hoe, 11. ii: "as the way lies over Gads-hill, very danger

ous."

127. vizards] Highwaymen wore vizards or masks. Earle, Microcosmographie, A Younger Brother: "others take a more croked path, yet the Kings high-way; where at length their vizzard is pluck't off, and they strike faire for Tiborne." Bailey's Dict. (Canting Words): "High-Pads.. have a Vizor-Mask, and two or three Perukes of different Colours and Makes, the better to conceal themselves."

134. Yedward] A dialectal form of Edward. So we find Yead in Merry

Poins. You will, chops?

Fal. Hal, wilt thou make one?

Prince. Who, I rob? I a thief? not I, by my faith.

Fal. There's neither honesty, manhood, nor good fellowship in thee, nor thou camest not of the blood royal, 140 if thou darest not stand for ten shillings.

Prince. Well then, once in my days I'll be a madcap.

Fal. Why, that's well said.

Prince. Well, come what will, I'll tarry at home.

Fal. By the Lord, I'll be a traitor then, when thou art 145 king.

Prince. I care not.

150

Poins. Sir John, I prithee, leave the prince and me alone: I will lay him down such reasons for this adventure that he shall go. Fal. Well, God give thee the spirit of persuasion and him the ears of profiting, that what thou speakest may move and what he hears may be believed, that the true prince may, for recreation sake, prove a false thief; for the poor abuses of the time want counten- 155 ance. Farewell you shall find me in Eastcheap. Prince. Farewell, the latter spring! farewell, All-hallown summer!

[Exit Falstaff.

138. Who,] Who, I? Anon. conj. (apud Cambridge). by my faith] omitted Ff. 145. By the Lord] omitted Ff. 151. God give thee..

154. true] omitted Qq 5-8.

haue... and he Ff.
the Qq, Ff; Farewell, thou Pope and many editors.
2-4; omitted Qq, F.

Wives of Windsor, 1. i. 160. Dyce quotes
an example of Yedward in the Lanca-
shire dialect from Shadwell's Lancashire
Witches, I.

136. chops] fat or chubby cheeks. Cotgrave: Fafelu. Puffed up; fat cheeked; a chops." Cf. Marlowe, Few of Malta, 11: "'tis not a stone of beef a-day will maintain you in these chops. Let me see one that's somewhat leaner."

140, 141. camest shillings] The points of this jest are that a royal was a coin of the value of ten shillings and that "stand for" signified (1) to represent, stand in the place of, and (2) to make a fight for. For the latter meaning Brome, Covent Garden Weeded, III. i: "Nick. 40. sh. and 3.d. you'l bate the 3.d. will you not? Drawer. We'll not much stand for that Sir, though our master sits at a deare rent," and R, Brathwaite, The

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and him] maist thou 157. Farewell, the] Farewel 158. Exit Falstaff] Ff.

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English Gentleman: "as you have
received your birth and breeding from
your Countrey; so are you to stand for
her, even to the sacrifice of your dearest
lives." Pope read cry, stand, for stand,
and bid stand is the reading in Better-
ton's acting copy of the play.
151-153. God
move] Again
Falstaff ridicules the language of the
Puritans. See Nashe, Anatomie of Ab-
surditie (Grosart, i. 32): "Might the
boast of the Spirit pind to their sleeues
make them elect before all other, they
will make men beleeue, they doe
nothing whereto the Spirit doth not
perswade them." Cf. also Marlowe,
few of Malta, 1 (Dyce, p. 152); and
Jonson, Alchemist, III. i: "Ananias.
The motion's good And of the spirit."
154. for sake] See note on

II. i. 70 post.

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157. the latter spring] Pope, followed by many editors, substituted thou for

Poins. Now, my good sweet honey lord, ride with us tomorrow: I have a jest to execute that I cannot 160 manage alone. Falstaff, Bardolph, Peto and Gadshill shall rob those men that we have already waylaid; yourself and I will not be there; and when they have the booty, if you and I do not rob them, cut this head off from my shoulders.

165

Prince. How shall we part with them in setting forth? Poins. Why, we will set forth before or after them, and appoint them a place of meeting, wherein it is at our pleasure to fail, and then will they adventure upon the exploit themselves; which they shall have no 170 sooner achieved, but we'll set upon them.

Prince. Yea, but 'tis like that they will know us by our

161. Bardolph, Peto] Theobald; Haruey, Rossill Qq, Ff. omitted Qq 3-8, Ff. 166. How] But how Ff.

the, but the change is unnecessary. The vocative of the definite article was in general use in O.E. and is not uncommon in the sixteenth century. Cf. N. Udall, Roister Doister, v. iv, where Gawyn Goodlucke is addressing C. Custance: "Come nowe, kisse me, the pearle of perfect honestie,' ," and ibid. v. vi: "Oh the moste honeste gentleman that ere I wist. I beseeche your mashyp. to suppe with us." For other examples cf. Spenser, Shep heards Calendar, viii. 190; 3 Henry VI. v. v. 38; King Lear, 1. i. 271; and Julius Cæsar, v. iii. 99: "The last of all the Romans, fare thee well!" The expression "latter spring" was used figuratively of the autumn of life or the youth of old age. See Webster, The Devil's Law-Case, 1. i:— with me

"Leonora.

'Tis fall o' the leaf.
Con. You enjoy the best of time:
This latter spring of yours shows
in my eye
More fruitful and more temperate
withal,

Than that whose date is only
limited

By the music of the cuckoo." 157, 158. All-hallown summer] New Eng. Dict.: "a season of fine weather in the late autumn [about November 1st or All Saints' Day]; also fig. brightness or beauty lingering or reappearing in

172. Yea] I Ff.

165. off]

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159. honey] A common term of endearment, as in Love's Labour's Lost, v. ii. 530.

161. Bardolph, Peto] The Haruey and Rossill of Qq and Ff were perhaps the names of dramatis personæ in the play as originally produced, afterwards altered to Bardolph and Peto; or, as Theobald suggested, the names of the actors who performed the parts of Bardolph and Peto. As in II. iv. 176, 178, 182, the Qq have Ross. for Gad. i.e. Gadshill, Wright suggests that the minor parts may have been taken sometimes by one actor and sometimes by another. The names Harvey and Rossill are not found in any list of actors of the period. It is perhaps worth noting that in 2 Henry IV. 11. ii., Q has a stage-direction: "Enter the Prince, Poynes, sir Iohn Russel, with other," where F gives: "Enter Prince Henry, Pointz, Bardolfe, and Page."

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162. that... waylaid] for whom we have set an ambush, for whom the ways are 'laid" or watched. Cf. R. Brome, A Jovial Crew, III: "The Search is every way; the Country all laid for you."

168, 169. wherein. . . fail] an appointment we can fail to keep if we please,

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