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the most, consentaneous recipients : in the latter, we are the positive and voluntary creators of effect.
The deep and full feeling of an author's sentiment, then, is the natural preliminary to expressive effect and consequent“ orotund.” But, from the imperfections of early culture, attention is, in most cases, demanded, at the same time, to the state and functions of the organs.
The effect of “ effusive orotund," on the voice, is identical in its quality with the soft, but round and deep tone of a prolonged yawn, – a form of voice which comes, obviously, from the peculiarly wide and free position of the organs in that act. Hence arises the suggestion to repeat voluntarily the effort of loud and prolonged yawning, and watch its peculiar effect on the sound of the voice, and repeat and prolong the sound in the form of the yawn, till it can be executed at pleasure.
“Effusive orotund” is, in one view, nothing else than “pure tone” rendered intense and ample in volume, by vigorous emission of breath, and by laryngial quality, or the full deep ringing effect of a free use of the larynx, and an ample expansion of the pharynx. The same position and movements of the organs, therefore, are used in the one, as in the other.
The larynx operates in both with the consentaneous enlargement of the pharynx, the elevation of the veil of the palate, and the exactly balanced use of the nasal passage, a style in which it is neither too much compressed, nor too widely opened, but exerted in the mode required to produce what musicians term “ head tone."
The cultivation of vocal music, in the form of singing bass, is one of the most effectual means of securing the property of “effusive orotund” utterance, in reading and speaking. The following, and similar examples, together with the tabular elements, should be attentively and repeatedly practised, till the full, clear, deep and perfect resonance of the “ orotund ” quality of voice, is perfectly at command.
I. Esramples of "Efusive Orotund.” 1. Pathos and Gloom, or Melancholy mingled with Gran
From Gray's Elegy. “The curfew tolls, - the knell of parting day;
The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea;
i Pathetic, tranquil, and solemn emotions, always pass from “pure tone” to “orotund quality," when force or sublimity, in any degree, marks the language in which these emotions are uttered.
The ploughman homeward plods his weary way,
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
“ Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,
And all the air a solemn stillness holds; Save where the beetle wheels his drony flight,
And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds.
* Save that, from yonder ivy-mantled tower,
The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such as, wandering near her secret bower,
Molest her ancient, solitary reign.
“ Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade,
Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap, Each in his narrow cell forever laid,
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.
“For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,
Or busy housewife ply her evening care ; No children run to lisp their sire's return,
Or climb his knees, the envied kiss to share."
2. Solemnity and Sublimity combined.
Milton's INVOCATION OF LIGHT.
“Hail! holy Light, - offspring of Heaven, first-born,
Or of the Eternal coeternal beam
FROM THE BOOK OF PSALMS. “ Bless the Lord, O my soul! O Lord, my God, TI very great; Thou art clothed with honor and majesty coverest thyself with light as with a garment; who stretches out the heavens like a curtain : who layeth the beams of His chambers in the waters: who maketh the clouds His chariot; who walketh upon the wings of the wind; who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed forever.”
This form of the “orotund,” or full utterance of public reading and speaking, bears precisely the same relation to the preceding, that “expulsive” bears to “effusive” “pure tone.”
It arises from the forcible action of the abdominal muscles, added to full expansion of chest, and deep inspiration. It has the same laryngial property which justifies the application of the term “ orotund” to the “effusive” style of that form of utterance.
“ Expulsive orotund” belongs appropriately to earnest or vehement declamation, to impassioned and poetic excitement of emotion, and consequently to whatever language is uttered in the form of shouting.
The first-mentioned of these styles, - the declamatory, is exemplified in public address or debate, on exciting occasions. The second is heard in the utterance of passion, when the reader or speaker passes beyond the mere voluntary and conscious force of “declamatory" utterance, and, in part, becomes himself, — in common with his audience, conscious, involuntary subject of the impelling emotion which he expresses. The third form of “expulsive orotund,” is at once the impassioned and the voluntary burst of emotion which transcends the customary forms and effects of speech, and, in the spirit of enthusiastic excitement, utters itself in shouts and exclamations.
This form of utterance, - the “ expulsive orotund,” -- is one of the noblest functions of the human voice. It is this which gives to the ear the full effect of the majesty of man, as a being of heart and will and imagination. Without the full command of this property of utterance, the public reader or speaker falls short of whatever effect naturally belongs, in human speech, to the union of depth, force, and grandeur of emotion. The language of the loftier feelings of the soul, unaided by this natural advantage, becomes familiar, low, and trivial.
The forcible and manly eloquence of Demosthenes or of Chatham, divested of the full “ expulsive" utterance of deep and powerful emotion, would become ridiculous in its effect on the ear and the imagination. The same would be true of the style of onr own eminent contemporary and countryman, Webster. Depth, weight, and fulness of tone, form one powerful assemblage of effects, in all his utterance on great and exciting occasions.
To form the voice to the extent of the full property of " expulsive orotund,” care should be taken to maintain a perfectly erect attitude of body, the chest fully expanded, and projected, and the shoulders depressed, - to maintain, also, a vigorous play of the abdominal muscles, and to practise the organic act of prolonged coughing, in a moderate form, which is the natural mechanical function most nearly resembling expulsive orotund.” The elements of the language should be practised in a similar style; and to these exercises should be added the repeated and energetic practice of the following examples.
Practice on the “crying ” voice, or weeping utterance of sorrow, is another expedient for rendering nature's processes conducive to culture. The act of crying, being, in its mechanism, a perfect“ expulsive orotund.”
Examples of “Expulsive Orotund.”
FROM WEBSTER'S SPEECH OF JOHN ADAMS. “ Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I give my hand and
heart to this vote!” Sir, before God, I believe the hour is come. My judgment approves
my whole heart is in it. All that I have, and all that I am, and all that I hope, in this life, I am now ready here to stake upon it; and I leave off, as I began, that, live or die, survive or perish, I am for the declaration. It is my living sentiment; and, by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying sentiment:-independence now, and INDEPENDENCE FOREVER !”
2.-"Impassioned" Poetic Style.
FROM CAREY's Ode on ELOQUENCE.
From the fury of the blast!
Up! or Freedom breathes her last !”
3.- Weeping Utterance. (“Crying " Voice.) PRINCE ARTHUR, (TO HUBERT, WHOSE ATTENDANTS ARE BINDING THE PRINCE, FOR THE PURPOSE OF PUTTING OUT HIS EYES.]-Shakspeare
“ Alas! what need you be so boisterous rough?
4. --Shouting RICHMOND TO HIS TROOPS. — Shakspeare. “ Advance your standards, draw your willing swords ! Sound drums and trumpets, boldly and cheerfully! God, and Saint George! Richmond and victory!”
The “explosive” form of the “orotund” utterance, bears the same relation to “effusive" and "expulsive orotund,” that "explosion” in breathing or whispering, bears to “effusion” and “expulsion,” in those forms. It implies an instantaneous burst of voice with a quick, clear, sharp, and cutting effect on the ear.