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Thou standst at length before me undisguised, -
Of all earth's grovelling crew the most accursed.
Thou worm! thou viper ! — to thy native earth
Return! — Away!- Thou art too base for man
To tread upon. - Thou scum! thou reptile!”

3. — Revenge.

(“Guttural and Pectoral Quality.”) SHYLOCK, (REFERRING TO THE POUND OF FLESH, THE PENALTY ATTACHED

TO ANTONIO'S BOND.) - Shakspeare. “ If it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge. He hath disgraced me, and hindered me of half a million; laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated my enemies. And what's his reason? I am a Jew! Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? Is he not fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same summer and winter, as a Christian is? If you stab us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that. If a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility ? Revenge. If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? Why, revenge. The villany you teach me, I will execute ; and it shall go hard, but I will better the instruction."

4. Hatred, Rage, Horror.
(“Guttural and Pectoral Quality :”fierce "aspiration.")

SATAN, (IN SOLILOQUY.] – Milton.
“ Be then his love accursed ! since love or hate,
To me alike, it deals eternal woe.
Nay, cursed be thou! since against his thy will
Chose freely what it now so justly rues.
Me miserable! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath and infinite despair ?
Which way I fly is Hell, — myself am Hell;
And in the lowest deep, a lower deep,
Still threatening to devour me, opens wide,
To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heaven !

5. — Horror, Terror, and Alarm.

("Pectoral Quality.")
MACBETH, [TO THE GHOST OF BANQUO.) - Shakspeare.
Avaunt! and quit my sight! Let the earth hide thee!
Thy bones are marrowless, thy blood is cold:
Thou hast no speculation in those eyes
Which thou dost glare with !

“Hence, horrible shadow !
Unreal mockery, hence!”

EXERCISES IN FORCE.

FORCE.

I. — 166 SUPPRESSED

1. - Whispering.
(“Effusive” Utterance.)

Pathos.
[Dying REQUEST.) -Mrs. Hemans.
“Leave me! — thy footstep with its lightest sound,
The

very shadow of thy waving hair,
Wakes in my soul a feeling too profound,
Too strong for aught that lives and dies, to bear:

Oh! bid the conflict cease!"

("Expulsive" utterance.)

Rapture.
[FROM THE DYING CHRISTIAN.] — Pope.
“ Hark! they whisper, — angels say,
• Sister spirit! come away!'”
(“Explosive" utterance.)

Terror.
[FROM BYRON'S LINES ON THE EVE OF WATERLOO.]

6. The foe! they come, they come!”

1 "Suppressed force is not limited exclusively to the forms of the whisper or the half-whisper. Still, it is usually found in one or other of these ; and, on this account, although sometimes intensely earnest and energetic in the expression of feeling, it is a gradation of utterance which, in point of " cality,” ranks below even the “ moderate” and “subdued” forms of " pure tone." We regard, at present, its value in vocal force, - not in " expression.”

VO

Half-whisper.
(“Effusive" utterance.)

Awe.
[FROM THE FATE OF MACGREGOR.] — Hogg.
“ They oared the broad Lomond, so still and serene;
And deep in her bosom how awful the scene !
Over mountains inverted the blue water curled,
And rocked them o'er skies of a far nether world!”

(“Expulsive” utterance.)

Fear.
“ Few minutes had passed, ere they spied on the stream,
A skiff sailing light, where a lady did seem :
Her sail was a web of the gossamer's loom,
The glow-worm her wake-light, the rainbow her boom ;
A dim rayless beam was her prow, and her mast
Like wold-fire at midnight, that glares o'er the waste!”

("Explosive" utterance.)

Terror.
“The fox fled in terror; the eagle awoke,
As slumbering he dozed in the shelve of the rock ;-
Astonished, to hide in the moonbeam he flew,
And screwed the night-heaven, till lost in the blue !"

[blocks in formation]

(“Pure tone:” “Effusive" utterance.)

1.- Pathos.
[FROM THE DEATH OF Körner.] - Mrs. Hemans.
“ It was thy spirit, brother! which had made

The bright world glorious to her youthful eye,
Since first, in childhood, 'midst the vines ye played,

And sent glad singing through the free blue sky.

1 The degree of force implied in the epithet “subdued,is equivalent, in general, to that which, in music, would be indicated by the term “piano," and which suggests an obvious softening of the voice from even its moderate or ordinary energy. Pathos, solemnity, and tranquillity, when so arranged in succession, imply a slight increase of energy at every stage. But all three are still inferior to * moderate" or ordinary force.

Ye were but two, - and when that spirit passed,

Woe to the one, the last !

“Woe, yet not long ; :- she lingered but to trace

Thine image from the image in her breast,
Once, once again to see that buried face

But smile upon her, ere she went to rest.
Too sad a smile! its living light was o'er, –

It answered hers no more.

“ The earth grew silent when thy voice departed,

The home too lonely whence thy step had fled ; —
What then was left for her, the faithful-hearted?

Death, death, to still the yearning for the dead.
Softly she perished : be the Flower deplored

Here with the Lyre and Sword!”

2. — Solemnity.

[DEATH.] — Bryant.
“ Leaves have their time to fall,
And flowers to wither at the north wind's breath,

And stars to set ; – but all,
Thou hast all seasons for thine own, O Death!

66 We know when moons shall wane, When summer birds from far shall cross the sea,

When autumn's hue shall tinge the golden grain : But who shall teach us when to look for thee?"

3. -- Tranquillity.

[EveniNG.] – Moir.
“ 'Tis twilight now:
How deep is the tranquillity! — The trees
Are slumbering through their multitude of boughs,
Even to the leaflet on the frailest twig !
A twilight gloom pervades the distant hills ;
An azure softness mingling with the sky.”

4.- Profound Repose. [Aspect of Death: From BYRON'S DESCRIPTION OF GREECE.)

“ He who hath bent him o'er the dead,
Ere the first day of death is filed, -

The first dark day of nothingness,
The last of danger and distress, –
(Before Decay's effacing fingers
Have swept the lines where Beauty lingers,)
And marked the mild angelic air, –
The rapture of repose that 's there,
The fixed yet tender traits that streak
The languor of the placid cheek,
And, — but for that sad, shrouded eye,

That fires not, — wins not, weeps not, - now,

And but for that chill, changeless brow,
Whose touch thrills with mortality,
And curdles to the gazer's heart,
As if to him it could impart
The doom he dreads, yet dwells upon,-
Yes, — but for these and these alone,
Some moments, ay, one treacherous hour,
He still might doubt the tyrant's power :
So fair, —so calm, so softly sealed,
The first -- last look — by death revealed!”

(1“Orotund quality :” “Effusive" utterance.)

1.- Pathos and Sublimity. WOLSEY, [ON HIS DOWNFALL.] --Shakspeare. Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatness ! This is the state of man: To-day he puts forth The tender leaves of hope, to-morrow blossoms, And bears his blushing honors thick upon him : The third day comes a frost, a killing frost; And, — when he thinks, good easy man,

full surely His greatness is a ripening, - nips his root; And then he falls as I do. I have ventured, Like little wanton boys that swim on bladders, This many summers, in a sea of glory, But far beyond my depth : my high-blown pride At length broke under me, and now has left me,

i The effect of “orotund quality," as transcending "pure tone,” is that of a deeper, fuller, rounder, and more resonant utterance, -implying, therefore, an increase of force, although still a “subdued," or softened force, when compared with even an ordinary degree. In music, the distinction would still be that of “ piano."

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