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Almighty! Thine this universal frame
Thus wondrous fair, — Thyself how wondrous then!
Unspeakable! who sitt'st above these heavens
To us invisible, or dimly seen
'Midst these thy lowest works.
Yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought
And power divine!"


Thee, Father, first they sung, omnipotent,
Immutable, immortal, infinite,
Eternal King: Thee Author of all being,
Fountain of light, thyself invisible
Amidst the glorious brightness where Thou sitt'st
Throned inaccessible, but when Thou shad'st
The full blaze of thy beams, and, through a cloud
Drawn round about Thee, like a radiant shrine,
Dark with excessive bright, thy skirts appear,
Yet dazzle Heaven that brightest seraphim
Approach not, but with both wings veil their eyes.”


I. — DeclamatoryStyle.

1.-Oratorical Invective.

[AGAINST WARREN HASTINGS.] — Burke. “ By the order of the House of Commons of Great Britain, I impeach Warren Hastings of high crimes and misdemeanors.

“ I impeach him in the name of the Commons of Great Britain in Parliament assembled, whose parliamentary trust he has abused.

“I impeach him in the name of the Commons of Great Britain, whose national character he has dishonored.

“I impeach him in the name of the people of India, whose laws, rights, and liberties he has subverted.

“I impeach him in the name of the people of India, whose property he has destroyed, whose country he has laid waste and desolate.

"I impeach him in the name of human nature itself, which he has cruelly outraged, injured, and oppressed, in both sexes. And I impeach him in the name and by the virtue of those eternal laws of justice, which ought equally to pervade every age, condition, rank, and situation, in the world.”

2.- Oratorical Apostrophe and Interrogation.

[FROM CICERO's ACCUSATION OF VERPES.] “O Liberty!—0 sound once delightful to every Roman ear! O sacred privilege of Roman citizenship! — Once sacred, now trampled upon. But what then? Is it come to this? Shall an inferior magistrate, a governor, who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, bind, scourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen? Shall neither the cries of innocence expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, nor the fear of the justice of his country, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who, in confidence of his riches, strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance?"

3. — Vehement Oratorical Address.

[From PATRICK Henry's War SPEECH.] " They tell us, sir, that we are weak, unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. Three millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us.

“ But, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God, who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone: it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave.

Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery. Our chains are forged. Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston. The war is inevita

and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come! “ It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter.

Gentlemen may cry, Peace, peace! - but there is no peace : the war is actually begun! - The next gale that sweeps from the north, will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms ! Our brethren are already in the field ! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have ? --- Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?- Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death !


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II. - "Impassioned Expression."

1.- Poetic Invective : Epic Style.

[Moloch's ADDRESS.] – Milton.
“My sentence is for open war: of wiles,
More unexpert, I boast not: them let those
Contrive who need, or when they need,
For, while they sit contriving, shall the rest,
Millions that stand in arms, and, longing, wait
The signal to ascend, sit lingering here,
Heaven's fugitives, and for their dwelling-place
Accept this dark opprobrious den of shame,
The prison of his tyranny who reigns
By our delay ? No! let us rather choose,
Armed with hell flames and fury, all at once
O’er heaven's high towers to force resistless way,
Turning our tortures into horrid arms
Against the Torturer; when, to meet the noise
Of his almighty engine, he shall hear
Infernal thunder, and, for lightning, see
Black fire and horror shot, with equal rage,
Among his angels, and his throne itself
Mixed with Tartarean sulphur and strange fire,
His own invented torments.'

2. — Poetic Apostrophe. [FROM COLERIDGE'S HYMN TO MONT BLANC.) “ Ye ice-falls ! ye that from the mountain's brow Adown enormous ravines slope amain, Torrents, methinks, that heard a mighty voice, And stopped at once amid their maddest plunge! Motionless torrents! silent cataracts ! Who made you glorious as the gates of heaven Beneath the keen full moon? Who bade the sun Clothe

you with rainbows? Who with living flowers Of loveliest blue, spread garlands at your feet? God! let the torrents, like a shout of nations, Answer! and let the ice-plains echo, God! And they, too, have a voice, — yon piles of snow, And in their perilous fall shall thunder, God!

"Ye living flowers that skirt the eternal frost !
Ye wild goats sporting round the eagle's nest !
Ye eagles, playmates of the mountain storm!
Ye lightnings, the dread arrows of the clouds !
Ye signs and wonders of the elements !
Utter forth God, and fill the hills with praise !

3.- Poetic Invective : Lyric Style.
“False wizard, avaunt! I have marshalled my clan :
Their swords are a thousand, their bosoms are one !
They are true to the last of their blood and their breath,
And like reapers descend to the harvest of death.
Then welcome be Cumberland's steed to the shock!
Let him dash his proud foam like a wave on the rock.
But woe to his kindred, and woe to his cause,
When Albyn her claymore indignantly draws;
When her bonneted chieftains to victory crowd,
Clan Ranald, the dauntless, and Moray the proud;
All plaided and plumed in their tartan array !

4. — Ecstatic Poetic Apostrophe. [THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST.] — Young. “ Hear, 0 ye nations ! hear it, 0 ye dead ! He rose, He rose, - he burst the bars of death. The theme, the joy, how then shall men sustain ? Oh! the burst gates! crushed sting! demolished throne ! Last

gasp of vanquished Death! Shout, earth and heaven,
That sum of good to man! whose nature then
Took wing, and mounted with him from the tomb.

Man, all immortal, hail !
Hail, Heaven, all lavish of strange gifts to man!
Thine all the glory! man's the boundless bliss !


Shakspeare. “ Come, brands, ho! fire-brands ! — To Brutus’! to Cassius'! burn all! Some to Decius' house, and some to Casca's ; some to Ligarius': - away! go !”


J. S. Knowles.
“Ye crags and peaks, I'm with you once again!
I hold to you the hands you first beheld,
To show they still are free.

“ Ye guards of liberty,
I'm with you, once again! I call to you
With all my voice !—I hold my hands to you,
To show they still are free!

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1. — Anger, excited to Rage.

[FROM THE LORD OF THE Isles.] — Scott.
Lorn, [about to assault Bruce.]

6. Talk not to me
Of odds or match!— When Comyn died,
Three daggers clashed within his side!
Talk not to me of sheltering hall !
The Church of God saw Comyn fall!
On God's own altar streamed his blood;
While o'er my prostrate kinsman stood
The ruthless murderer, even as now, –
With armed hand and scornful brow.-
Up! all who love me!— blow on blow !
And lay the outlawed felons low !'

2. - Wrath and Scorn.

[FROM THE LADY OF THE LAKE.] — Scott. Roderick Dhu, (to Malcom Græme.] « Back! beardless boy!

Back! minion! – Holdst thou thus at naught
The lesson I so lately taught ?
This roof, the Douglas, and that maid,
Thank thou for punishment delayed !

Anger and Defiance. Perish my name, if aught afford

Its chieftain safety, save his sword !

Indignant Rebuke. Douglas. Chieftains, forego !

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