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in all their forms; “time,” in all its influence over ment,” “rhythm," and metre. These modifications of voice have all been discussed and exemplified. But to all these,
expression” adds the effect of " drift,” as it has been termed by Dr. Rush,-or, in other words, the impression produced on the ear by the frequent or successive recurrence of any mode or element of “expression.”
“ Drift,” accordingly, is either an excellence or a fault, according to the circumstances in which it is adopted as a mode of effect. When a passage is so pervaded by one mood of feeling, and by one style of language and of structure, and even by one form of phrase, that a special unity of effect is obviously designed, as a result in audible expression, a frequent trait of declamatory eloquence and even of poetic emotion, to which metre still farther contributes, – the “drift," - or frequently recurring " quality,” force, “stress, “ melody,” pitch, " slide, " " movement,” or “ rhythm,” – for a “ drift ” may be constituted by the frequent recurrence of one, or of several, or of all of these accidents of voice, — has the effect of deepening the impression arising from the sentiment as a whole. Hence we may observe that the “drift,” of recurring “melody,” or what, in popular language, is termed a tone,” is often a means of powerful and deep impression on the ear and on the external sympathies of an audience, when there is little of unity, force, or weight, in the sentiment which the speaker utters.
The ear of discerning judgment and of true taste, however, is always offended, rather than pleased, by any perceptible drift not authorized by a predominating emotion associated with the language of a speaker, or the composition in the hands of a reader. Still, a gentle and chaste “ drift” is one of the natural secrets of effect, in elocution, and should be carefully observed and closely analyzed, by every student who is desirous of securing a master-key to the human heart.
It is unnecessary to dwell on this subject after the discussion and exemplification of emphasis. We will conclude with referring to two examples which will fully illustrate the effect of " drift.” Let the student read aloud, with well-marked “ expression,” the first example of “impassioned emphasis,” (the reply of Coriolanus to the tribunes,) and watch the impression produced on the ear by the recurrence of those vehement and infuriated downward " slides,” which occur in the words marked by italics and capitals : and he will obtain a clear idea of the effect arising from the “ drift” of that "slide.” The student may then turn to the Appendix, and read aloud, for the sake of a wide contrast in “ drift," the tender, pathetic, and chromatic” lines illustrative of “ feminine grief and sorrow," under the head of " SEMITONE,” in which will be found the opposite “ drift” of recurring semitone,'
," and other prevailing properties of kindred character.
THIRD TABLE OF ORTHOPHONY.
EXERCISES ON THE ELEMENTS OF “EXPRESSION.
“ All 's hushed as midnight, yet!
No noise! and enter."
Very soft :-“Oh! lightly, lightly tread!”
Impassioned Explosive Radical :—"Up! comrades, up! In
Ne’er be it said our courage falls !” Unimpassioned Radical :-"A clear, distinct articulation is
an invaluable accomplishment." Median Stress: “Oh! I have lost you all, parents, and home
“ The shades of eve came slowly down.” Vanishing Stress : .“ For Heaven's sake, Hubert, let me not
be bound !! " While a single foreign troop remained on my native
shore, I would never lay down my arms. Never, NEVER, NEVER!"
1 Repeat, after every example, in its peculiar tone, the elements and a selection from the syllables and words in the first and second tables of Orthophony. Compound Stress : .“ What! to attribute the sacred sanc
tions of God and nature to the massacres of the
Indian scalping-knife!” Thorough Stress :—" Awake! arise ! or be forever fallen!”
Lowest : .“ Silence how dead! and darkness how pro
found !” Low:
.“ Dark flow thy tides o'er manhood's noble head.” Middle : Lovely art thou, O Peace, and lovely are thy
“ He leadeth me by the still waters." High: .“ Now even now, my joys run high!” Highest :
:-“Wheel the wild dance, till the morning break !”
Slowest : -“Creation sleeps:—’T is as the general pulse
Of life stood still, and Nature made a pause, —
An awful pause,-prophetic of her end !” Slow :- -“ Now fades the glimmering landscape from the
sight, And all the air a solemn stillness holds." Moderate :-“One great end to which all knowledge ought
to be employed, is the welfare of humanity.” Lively :-" Crowned with her pail, the tripping milkmaid
sings!” Brisk :-“ Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee
Mirth and youthful jollity!” Rapid :-"And rushing and flushing and brushing and
gushing, And flapping and rapping and clapping and slap
ping, And curling and whirling and purling and twirl
ing, Advancing and glancing and prancing and danc
ing, 'Tis this
the water comes down at Lodore.”
FOURTI TABLE OF ORTHOPHONY.
COMBINATIONS OF EXPRESSION, IN TONES OF EMOTION.
Pitch, Brisk Movement.
Half Whisper, Suppressed Force, Explosive Radical Stress,
Highest Pitch, Rapid Movement. “ While thronged the citizens, with terror dumb, Or whispering with white lips, . The foe! they come, they
Orotund Quality, Loudest Utterance, Thorough Stress, High
Pitch, Lively Movement.
Orotund Quality, Subdued Force, Vanishing Stress and
Tremor, Middle Pitch, Slow Movement.
Orotund, slightly aspirated, Suppressed Force, Median Stress,
Lowest Pitch, Slowest Movement.
Aspirated Orotund, Loudest Utterance, Explosive Radical
Stress, Middle Pitch, Rapid Movement. “ Back to thy punishment, false fugitive!”
Pure Tone, Earnest Utterance, Median Stress, High Pitch,
Aspirated Orotund, Loudest Utterance, Explosive Radical
Stress, Middle Pitch, Rapid Movement.
Pitch, Slow Movement. “O’er all the peaceful world the smile of heaven shall lie !"
1 After practising each example, repeat the elements and the words containing them, in the peculiar style of the example.
FIFTH TABLE OF ORT II O PHONY.
EXERCISES IN THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF VERSE.
Blank Verse :-"And earthly pride' | is like the passing
That springs to fall, and blossoms | but to die." Heroic Verse :-“ Like leaves on trees | the race of man | is
found; Now green in youth, now withering on the ground." Octosyllabic Verse :-" The spacious firmament | on high,
With all the blue ethereal sky,
Their great Original proclaim.”
To Thee my thoughts would soar:
That mercy | I adore."
Softly sweet, in Lydian measures,
“How fleet | is a glance of the mind !
Compared with the speed of its flight,
And the swift-winged arrows of light.”
1 The careful observance of these shorter pauses, is the surest means of avoiding the tendency to a jingling style in reading verse.