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in all their forms; “time,” in all its influence over ment,” “rhythm," and metre. These modifications of voice have all been discussed and exemplified. But to all these,

expression” adds the effect of " drift,” as it has been termed by Dr. Rush,-or, in other words, the impression produced on the ear by the frequent or successive recurrence of any mode or element of “expression.”

“ Drift,” accordingly, is either an excellence or a fault, according to the circumstances in which it is adopted as a mode of effect. When a passage is so pervaded by one mood of feeling, and by one style of language and of structure, and even by one form of phrase, that a special unity of effect is obviously designed, as a result in audible expression, a frequent trait of declamatory eloquence and even of poetic emotion, to which metre still farther contributes, – the “drift," - or frequently recurring " quality,” force, “stress, “ melody,” pitch, " slide, " " movement,” or “ rhythm,” – for a “ drift ” may be constituted by the frequent recurrence of one, or of several, or of all of these accidents of voice, — has the effect of deepening the impression arising from the sentiment as a whole. Hence we may observe that the “drift,” of recurring “melody,” or what, in popular language, is termed a tone,” is often a means of powerful and deep impression on the ear and on the external sympathies of an audience, when there is little of unity, force, or weight, in the sentiment which the speaker utters.

The ear of discerning judgment and of true taste, however, is always offended, rather than pleased, by any perceptible drift not authorized by a predominating emotion associated with the language of a speaker, or the composition in the hands of a reader. Still, a gentle and chaste “ drift” is one of the natural secrets of effect, in elocution, and should be carefully observed and closely analyzed, by every student who is desirous of securing a master-key to the human heart.

It is unnecessary to dwell on this subject after the discussion and exemplification of emphasis. We will conclude with referring to two examples which will fully illustrate the effect of " drift.” Let the student read aloud, with well-marked “ expression,” the first example of “impassioned emphasis,” (the reply of Coriolanus to the tribunes,) and watch the impression produced on the ear by the recurrence of those vehement and infuriated downward " slides,” which occur in the words marked by italics and capitals : and he will obtain a clear idea of the effect arising from the “ drift” of that "slide.” The student may then turn to the Appendix, and read aloud, for the sake of a wide contrast in “ drift," the tender, pathetic, and chromatic” lines illustrative of “ feminine grief and sorrow," under the head of " SEMITONE,” in which will be found the opposite “ drift” of recurring semitone,'

," and other prevailing properties of kindred character.




“ All 's hushed as midnight, yet!

No noise! and enter."

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“Step softly, and speak low,
For the old year lies a dying !”

“ Pale mourned the lily where the rose had died '"
“Oh! that this lovely vale were mine!”
Joy! joy forever! My task is done!”

“ Farewell! a long farewell to all my greatness!”
“Hail! holy Light, - offspring of heaven, first-born !"
“ Sound drums and trumpets, boldly and cheerfully!”


Very soft :-“Oh! lightly, lightly tread!”
Soft: “ Take, holy Earth, all that my soul holds dear!”
Moderate : - .“ The breath of spring awakens the flowers."
Loud : Up! let us to the fields away!”
Very loud : -" Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead!”


Impassioned Explosive Radical :"Up! comrades, up! In

Rokeby's halls

Ne’er be it said our courage falls !” Unimpassioned Radical :-"A clear, distinct articulation is

an invaluable accomplishment." Median Stress: “Oh! I have lost you all, parents, and home

and friends!”
“O Lord, my God, Thou art very great!”

“ The shades of eve came slowly down.” Vanishing Stress : .“ For Heaven's sake, Hubert, let me not

be bound !! " While a single foreign troop remained on my native

shore, I would never lay down my arms. Never, NEVER, NEVER!"

1 Repeat, after every example, in its peculiar tone, the elements and a selection from the syllables and words in the first and second tables of Orthophony. Compound Stress : .“ What! to attribute the sacred sanc

tions of God and nature to the massacres of the

Indian scalping-knife!” Thorough Stress :—" Awake! arise ! or be forever fallen!”


Lowest : .“ Silence how dead! and darkness how pro

found !” Low:

.“ Dark flow thy tides o'er manhood's noble head.” Middle : Lovely art thou, O Peace, and lovely are thy


“ He leadeth me by the still waters." High: .“ Now even now, my joys run high!” Highest :

:-“Wheel the wild dance, till the morning break !”


Slowest : -“Creation sleeps:—’T is as the general pulse

Of life stood still, and Nature made a pause, —

An awful pause,-prophetic of her end !” Slow :- -“ Now fades the glimmering landscape from the

sight, And all the air a solemn stillness holds." Moderate :-“One great end to which all knowledge ought

to be employed, is the welfare of humanity.” Lively :-" Crowned with her pail, the tripping milkmaid

sings!” Brisk :-“ Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee

Mirth and youthful jollity!” Rapid :-"And rushing and flushing and brushing and

gushing, And flapping and rapping and clapping and slap

ping, And curling and whirling and purling and twirl

ing, Advancing and glancing and prancing and danc

ing, 'Tis this


the water comes down at Lodore.”



Orotund Quality, Loud Utterance, Thorough Stress, High

Pitch, Brisk Movement.
“Come one, come all, — this rock shall fly
From its firm base as soon as I.'


Half Whisper, Suppressed Force, Explosive Radical Stress,

Highest Pitch, Rapid Movement. “ While thronged the citizens, with terror dumb, Or whispering with white lips, . The foe! they come, they




Orotund Quality, Loudest Utterance, Thorough Stress, High

Pitch, Lively Movement.
Joy, joy! shout, shout aloud for joy!”


Orotund Quality, Subdued Force, Vanishing Stress and

Tremor, Middle Pitch, Slow Movement.
“Oh! pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth!”


Orotund, slightly aspirated, Suppressed Force, Median Stress,

Lowest Pitch, Slowest Movement.
“ It thunders !-sons of dust in reverence bow!”


Aspirated Orotund, Loudest Utterance, Explosive Radical

Stress, Middle Pitch, Rapid Movement. “ Back to thy punishment, false fugitive!”


Pure Tone, Earnest Utterance, Median Stress, High Pitch,

Lively Movement.
“Oh! speak again, bright angel!”


Aspirated Orotund, Loudest Utterance, Explosive Radical

Stress, Middle Pitch, Rapid Movement.
“Send out more horses ! skirr the country round !”

Orotund Quality, Gentle Utterance, Median Stress, Middle

Pitch, Slow Movement. “O’er all the peaceful world the smile of heaven shall lie !"

1 After practising each example, repeat the elements and the words containing them, in the peculiar style of the example.




Blank Verse :-"And earthly pride' | is like the passing


That springs to fall, and blossoms | but to die." Heroic Verse :-“ Like leaves on trees | the race of man | is

found; Now green in youth, now withering on the ground." Octosyllabic Verse :-" The spacious firmament | on high,

With all the blue ethereal sky,
And spangled heavens, a shining frame,

Their great Original proclaim.”
Common Metre:-—" Thy love the power of thought bestowed;

To Thee my thoughts would soar:
Thy mercy | o'er my life has flowed,

That mercy | I adore."


Softly sweet, in Lydian measures,
Soon he soothed his soul to pleasures :
War, he sung, is toil and trouble,–
Honor | but an empty bubble.”


“How fleet | is a glance of the mind !

Compared with the speed of its flight,
The tempest itself | lags behind,

And the swift-winged arrows of light.”
“The evening was glorious, and light, through the trees,
Played the sunshine | and raindrops, the birds | and the breeze;
The landscape, outstretching in loveliness, lay |
On the lap of the year, in the beauty of May.”

1 The careful observance of these shorter pauses, is the surest means of avoiding the tendency to a jingling style in reading verse.

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