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2.-Cheerfulness, and Scorn.
Cheerfulness : (S. g.) (THE BANISHED Duke, IN THE FOREST, TO HIS FRIENDS.) - Shakspeare.
Now my co-mates, and brothers in exile,
Scorn: (L. 9.)
durst not soar.”
3.-Reproachful Interrogation, and Indignant Surprise.
Reproachful Interrogation : (S. q.)
[DEMOSTHENES TO THE ATHENIANS.] “Will you forever, Athenians, do nothing but walk up and down the city, asking one another · What news ?'
Indignant Surprise : (L. q.) 6. What news!' Can anything be more new than that a man of Macedonia should lord it over Athens, and give laws to all Greece ?"
4. - Surprise, and Contempt.
Surprise : (S. q.) [BANQUO, TO MACBETH, ON THE VANISHING OF THE WITCHES.) --Shaks.
Contempt : (L. q.)
War, he sung, was toil and trouble, -
5.-Impatience, and Awe.
Impatience : (S. q.)
Awe: (L. 9.)
“Let the great gods,
6. — Tranquillity, and Despair.
Despair: (L. q.)
Time, when applied as a measure of speech, prescribes not only the length, or “ quantity," of sounds, but also that of the pauses, or cessations of voice, which intervene between sentences and between their parts; as the intermissions of the voice are, virtually, though not nominally, constituents of “expression,” whether we regard thought or feeling. Without distinct and appropriate pauses, we cannot understand oral communication ; and without occasional impressive cessations of voice, there can be no true sympathy between speaker and hearer.
Pauses, as classified in elocution, are of two kinds: 1st, those which express emotion ; 2d, those which modify sense, or meaning. Pausing, like utterance, is regulated by the character of the emotion, or the thought which is the subject of expression. The pauses used in the "expression" of all grave, deep, and solemn emotions, which incline to prolonged " quantities," are comparatively long, and thus correspond, in character, to the vocal sounds between which they occur, and which they aid by their harmonious effect, as in the following instances :
1 Moderate quantity.
"Night,' || sable goddess, Il from her ebon throne
Silence || how dead! III and darkness || how profound !” Brisk, gay, and lively feelings, are distinguished by brief “ quantities,” and corresponding short pauses, as in the following example:
“ Haste thee | Nymph, / and bring with thee !
The pauses of sense or meaning, are of various lengths, according to the portions of speech which they are employed to separate; thus, we observe the long pauses between the principal parts of a discourse, the somewhat shorter pauses at its subdivisions, the shorter still at paragraphs, and the shorter than even these, at periods. Within a sentence itself, we can trace distinctly, in some instances, a principal pause at the middle, or the pause of compound clauses; and perhaps an inferior one, at or near the middle of each half, or the pause of simple clauses; and, on still closer examination, we find occasional shorter pauses in these subordinate portions, or the pause of phrases; and slight pauses even between words. The following sentence will exemplify these gradations o: pausing.
“ As we perceive the shadow I to have moved along the dialplate, but did not perceive its moving ; || and it appears that the grass has grown, I though nobody I ever saw it grow: 111 so the advances we make in knowledge, | consist of minute successive steps; ll and we are unconscious of them ! until we look back, / and thus become aware 1 of the distance I to which we have attained.”
1 The marks indicate the value or length of the pauses, from |||| the longest within a sentence, to the shortest.
Pauses have sometimes been classified as follows: 1st, Poetic and oratorical pauses, or those which express emotion, and which are sometimes termed “ impassioned” or “ impressive;" 2d, “Rhetorical pauses,” or those which divide a discourse into its heads and subdivisions, and those which the sense and structure of a sentence demand, when taken in conjunction, as in the prose example preceding. These pauses are addressed to the ear, and, when they occur in a sentence, may, or may not, be indicated to the eye, by the ordinary punctuation ; 3d, Grammatical pauses, — the comma, semicolon, colon, and period, — which are founded on the syntactical structure and subdivision of sentences. These pauses are addressed to the eye, and are always indicated by the usual points; 4th, Prosodial pauses, which are used only in verse.
1.- POETIC AND ORATORICAL PAUSES.
These pauses of emotion,- as they are sometimes termed, - are produced, for the most part, by feelings of solemnity and pathos, or by the affectation of these, - as in the style of intentional exaggeration and bombast, for the effect of burlesque.
Pauses of this description are sometimes superadded to the usual grammatical points, and sometimes are thrown in before or after, (sometimes both before and after,) an impassioned expression or emphatic word, in vivid passages of poetry or of declamatory prose, — without regard to the grammatical punctuation; and their length depends entirely on the feeling expressed in the passage in which they occur; they are long in solemn, and short in lively style.
Young readers, in particular, are often deficient in this most striking and impressive of all the effects of appropriate reading and recitation. It becomes, therefore, a matter of great moment, in practice, to cultivate the habit of watching the effect of full and long pauses, introduced at appropriate places.
Without these the most solemn passages of Scripture, and the poetry of Milton and of Young, produce no effect, comparatively, on the mind; while reading, aided by their “ expressive silence, seems to be inspired with an unlimited power over the sympathies of the soul.
It will be useful, here, to review, once, on purpose, the examples prescribed for practice on long “ quantities” and “o indefinite” syllables, so as to trace the inseparable connection between the effect of these and of long pauses. The repetition of columns of words from the chapter on enunciation, will also be of great service, if the practice is varied occasionally, so as to produce the pauses of various moods of emotion, from the ordinary rate of “ expression ” to the most solemn and impressive.
EXAMPLES OF POETIC AND ORATORICAL PAUSES.
(Impassioned and Impressive Style.)
1.- Alarm, and Fear. [THE BALL AT BRUSSELS, ON THE EVE OF WATERLOO.] — Byron. “ And all went merry as a marriage bell : But hush! || || hark! || || a deep sound || strikes like a rising knell!”
2.- Awe, and Terror.
[SHIPWRECK.] — Wilson. “Many ports will exult at the gleam of her mast : Hush! || hush! || thou vain dreamer! || this hour || || is her last. Il 11
Her keel hath struck on a hidden rock; 11 And her planks are torn asunder; !
And down come her masts with a reeling shock, I And a hideous crash|| like thunder!”
3. — Horror.
[BERNARDO DEL CARPIO, DISCOVERING THAT KING ALPHONSO HAS LED HIM
FORTA TO SALUTE, NOT THE LIVING PERSON, BUT THE LIFELESS BODY,
OF HIS FATHER.] —Mrs. Hemans. “A lowly knee to earth he bent, — his father's hand he took — 11 il What was there in its touch, that all his fiery spirit shook ? || || That hand was cold! || || a frozen thing:- || || it dropped from his like
lead! || 11 He looked up to the face above- || the face was of the dead : || ||
A flume waved o'er the noble brow – || that brow was fixed and
white: || 11 He met, at last, his father's eyes — || || but in them was no sight! |||| Up from the ground he sprang, and gazed - || || but who could paint
that gaze? || They hushed their very hearts, || that saw its horror and amaze."
1 Agitating emotions, such as those of alarm, hurry, terror, and confusion, reduce the usual pauses to the shortest possible duration ; so as to correspond to the rapid and breathless utterance inseparable from such feelings.