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ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS,

633

JEWISH CHURCH,

MISHNA. The oral law consisting of tradi

tions handed down respecting the law of

Moses. MONTHS-JEWISH.

Nisan, March 20 to April 16. Iyar, April 19 to May 17. Sivan, May 18 to June 16. Tamuz, June 17 to July 15. Ab, July 16 to August 14. Elul, August 16 to September 13. Tishri, September 14 to October 13. Marchesvan, October 14 to November 13. Kisley, November 14 to December 13. Tebeth, December 14 to January 12. Shebat, January 13 to February 12. Adar, February 13 to March 15. The Jewish months have 29 and 30 days, and Leap year has 13 months, the last being known as 2d Adar. NEBIM. PROPHETS. Containing that portion

of the Bible from the Book of Joshua to

the end of the Prophets. PAROCHES. The curtain before the holy

shrine in the Synagogne. PESACH. PASSOVER. The feast of Spring, be

ginning on the fourteenth day of the month Nisan and lasting seven days. It is the celebration of the Passover and commemorates the delivery of the Jews from Egyptian bondage, and the passing over of the last plague from the houses of the Israelites.

AARON-HAKADISH. The holy ark used in the

Synagogue as a depository of the scrolls

of the law. ATONEMENT, DAY OF. Celebrated on the ninth

and tenth days of Tishri. It was instituted by Moses, as a general day of ex

piation and sacrifice for sins. BENSHEN. A corruption of the Latin word

benedicto. The prayer after meals recited

by Israelites. BROCHO. BLESSING. A grace recited before

partaking of food. CHANUKKAH. DEDICATION. A day of celebra

tion on the ninth day of Kisley to rejoice
in the victory of the Hasmoneans, or
Maccabees over Antiochus, King of

Syria.
EPHOD, from Aphad, to put on.

An upper garment worn by Hebrew priests. There

two kinds; that worn by the priests, of plain linen, and that by the high priests, of embroidered linen. It was a sort of girdle, which brought from the back of the neck over the shoulders, hung down in front, and was crossed at the waist and carried back and used as a

girdle to the tunic. GEMARA. A commentary on the Mishna. KADDISH. A prayer recited in the Synagogue

for the souls of departed parents, KELAI KADESH. HOLY VESSELS. Silver orna

ments used in the Synagogue t) adorn

the scrolls of the law. KETHUBIM. WRITINGS. Containing the Psalms,

Proverbs and the remaining books of the

Bible. KIDDUSH and HABDALLA. Prayers recited in

Jewish houses; the first at the beginning, the latter at the close of Sabbaths and festivals. They are recited by the chief of the house, holding a glass of wine in his hand, at the conclusion of which he drinks and passes it around

the table. MESUSA. DOORPOST. A little scroll of parch

ment containing this passage of Scripture : “ Thou shalt write them on the doorposts of thy house, and upon thy gates.” It is enclosed in a tin box, and fastened to the right doorpost'of Jewish houses.

were

PHYLACTERY. In Hebrew, tephelin. Strips of

parchment on which were inscribed passages from the Pentateuch. They were enclosed in a small box and worn on the forehead between the eyes, or on the arm near the heart, in accordance with the

command in Exodus xiii, 16. PURIM. Lot. A feast day, on the fourteenth

of the month Adar, in remembrance of God's providence in saving the Israelites from the destruction, through Mordecai and Esther, planned by Haman, accord

ing to the book of Esther. Rosh HASHANAH. New YEAR. Kept on the

first day of the seventh month, Tishri, the Jewish civil New Year, Nisan being the religious. The biblical name of the

feast is “Day of the Trumpet." SEPTUAGINT. SEVENTY. The Old Testament,

so called, from the number of translators engaged on the original Greek version. It was commenced by the Alexandrian Jews, 280 B. C. There were many disputes as to its correctness, but it was the basis of all subsequent translations.

SHEBUOTH. FEAST OF WEEKS. A celebration

of the completion of the seven weeks of harvest, according to Deut. xvi, 9. At the present time the main object of the feast is to thank God for the giving of the commandments.

SUKKOTH. FEAST OF TABERNACLES. It lasts

seven days, commencing on the fourteenth day of the seventh month, Tishri, the first day only being a holy day. This is also a harvest feast, and is in obedience to the command in Levit. xxiii, 40: “And ye shall take unto yourselves on the first day the fruit of the tree, hadar, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of the myrtle tree, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the Eternal seven days."'

ligations. They contained the thread of blue spoken of by Moses, a symbol to

direct the eye and heart to God. TALMUD. This book contains the complete

civil and canonical law of the Jewish people, embracing both the Mishna and the Gemara, the former being the earliest text. It is a book of doctrine, as the name implies, and this doctrine is elucidated and commented upon in a series of dialogues, in many cases of a fanciful character. The Mishna (doctrine) and the Gemara (teaching) contain, however, many curious and interesting statements regarding legal, medical, physical, ethical and astronomical subjects. They reveal much of the customs, practices, and decisions of the Jewish nation in the ages of antiquity. The word Talmud is from the Hebrew word lamed, and

signifies, to learn. TEFILLA. A prayer known as Shimona esreth,

on account of the eighteen benedictions

that it originally contained. TORAH. LAW. The five books of Moses,

known as the Pentateuch.

TALITH, and ARBA-CANFORTH. Vestments for

merly worn during Divine service, to guard man against trespass and to remind him of his moral and religious ob

4

QUOTED AUTHORS. .

NATIVITY, DATES OF BIRTH AND DEATH.

NOTE.-The first line of figures gives year of birth, the second death. The letter L signifies living.

ABD-EL-KADER,
Algeria..

L.
ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY,
America...

1767-1848 ADAMS, SARAH FLOWER, England..

1805-1848 ADDISON, JOSEPH, England..

1672-1719 AESCHINES, Greece...

.B. C. 389- 314 ESCHYLUS, Greece..

.B. C. 525- 456 AFRICANUS, SCIPIO, Italy..

...B. C. 235 or 4- 183 AKENSIDE, MARK, England.

1721-1770 AIRD, THOMAS, Scotland..

1802-1876 ALCOTT, Amos BRONSON, America

1799- L. ALDRICH, JAMES, America..

1810-1856 ALDRICH, THOMAS BAILEY, America...

1836- L. ALDRIDGE, IRA, America...

1810-1867 ALEXANDER, WILLIAM (Earl of Sterling', Scotland..

1590-1640 ALFIERI, Italy.

1749–1803 ALFONSO V., King of Aragon, Spain.

1385-1458 ALI (Ali Ben Abu Taleb,

Arabia.... Flourished 655- 661 ALLEN, ELIZABETH AKERS, America....

1832- L, ALLINGHAM, WILLIAM, Ireland.

1828- L. ALLISON, RICHARD. ANDERSON, HANS CHRISTIAN, Island of Fünen.

1805-1875 ANGELO, MICHAEL, Italy....

1474-1564 ANTONIUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, Italy.

121- 180 APPOLODORUS,

Greece..... Flourished B. C. - 104 ARBITER, PETRONIUS,

Flourished 50- 66 ARCHIAS, AULUS LICINIUS,

Syria....... ..Circa B. C. 120

ARCHILOCHUS,

Island of Paros...Circa B. C. 714- 676 ARETINO,

Italy
ARIOSTO, LUDOVICO,
Italy.

1474-1533 ARISTOPHANES,

Greece... .Circa B. C. 450-
ARISTOTLE,
Greece..

B. C. 384-322
ARMSTRONG, JOHN,
Scotland.

1709-1779 ARNOLD, EDWIN, England...

1832- L. ARNOLD, MATTHEW, England..

1822– L. ARNOLD, SAMUEL J., England....

-1852 AUERBACH, BERTHOLD, Germany.

1812- L. AUERSPUG, COUNT (Anastasius Grün). AUFFEN BERG, JOSEPH, Germany

1798-1857 AUGUSTUS, CAIUS JULIUS CÆSAR OCTAVIANUS, Italy..

.B. C. 63 A. D. 14 AUNGERVYLE, RICHARD (Richard de Bury), England..

1281-1345 ANSONIUS, DECIUS MAGNUS, France...

309- 392 AVELINE, E, L. AYTOUN, WILLIAM EDMONDSTOUNE, Scotland..

1813-1865

Bacon, LORD FRANCIS,
England

1561-1626 BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES, England..

1826- L. BAILLIE, JOANNA, Scotland.

..... 1762-1851 BALDUR, C. C. BALLANTINE, JAMES, Scotland.

1808-1833 BALLOU, HOSEA, America...

1771-1852 BALLOU, MATURIN M., America...

1820- L. BALZAC, JOHN LOUIS GUEZ DE, France,

1594-1624 BANCROFT, GEORGE, America...

1800- L. BARBAULD, ANNA LETITIA AIKIN, England......

1743-1825

BARKER, JAMES NELSON,
America...

1784-1858 BARLOW, JOEL, America...

1754-1812 BARNES, BARNABE, England...

1569-1607 BARNES, KATE B. W., Anierica...

1836- L. BARNFIELD, RICHARD, England...

1574-1627 BARON, MARIE L. BARR, MARY A., Scotland..

1852- L. BARRETT, EATON STANNARD, Ireland....

1785-1820 BARRINGTON, GEORGE, England...

1755-1835 BARRY, MICHAEL JOSEPH. BARTAS, GUILLAUME DE SALLUSTE DU, France.

1544-1590 BARTOL, CYRUS AUGUSTUS, America....

1813- L. BARTON, BERNARD, England...

1784-1849 BASSE, WILLIAM, England..

1613-1648 BATES, LEWIS J., America....

1832- L. BAXTER, RICHARD, England.

1615-1691 BAYLY, THOMAS HAYNES, England...

1797-1839 BEACONSFIELD, LORD (Benjamin Disraeli), England..

1805-1881 BEARD, DR. THOMAS,

Circa 1560-
BEATTIE, JAMES,
Scotland..

1735-1803 BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, Englard...

1586–1615 or 16 BEECHER, ESTHER CATHERINE, America...

1800-1878 BEECHER, HENRY WARD, America...

1813- L. BEERS, ETHEL LYNN (Ethelinda Elliott), America...

1827-1879 BENJAMIN, PARK, South America.

1809-1864 BENSERADE, ISAAC DE, France...

1612-1691 BENTHAM. BENTZEL-STERNAŬ, CHRISTIAN ERNEST, Germany...

1767-1850 BERKLEY, Bishop GEORGE, Ireland

1684-1753 BIAS, OF PRIENE,

Greece Flourished B. C. - 750 BICKERSTAFF, ISAAC, Ireland...

1735-1787 BINNEY, HORACE, America...

1780-1847 BIRD, ROBERT MONTGOMERY, America...

1803-1854 BLACKIE, JOHN STUART, Scotland...

1809- L. BLAIR. ROBERT, Scotland...

1699-1746 BLAKE, WILLIAM, England.

1757-1828

BLANCHARD, SAMUEL LAMAN,
England

1803-1845
BLAND).
BLEEKER, ANNE ELIZABETH,
America...

1752-1783
BLOOMFIELD, ROBERT,
England..

1766-1823 BLŮMAŬER, LEWIS.

1755-1795
BOARDMAN, S. L.
ВоВАКТ, ЈАСов,
Germany.

Circa 1598-1679 BODENSTEDT, FRIEDERICH MARTIN VOX, Hanover..

1819BOËTHIUS, ANCIUS MAN,

Circa 475- 525 BOHN, HENRY G., England

1795- L BOISTE, PIERRE CLAUDE VICTOIRE, France

1765-1824 BOKER, GEORGE HENRY, America.

1823 L. BOLINGBROKE, LORD (Henry St. John), England.

1678-1751 BONAR, HORATIUS, Scotland.

1808-1869 BONIFACE, JOSEPH XAVIER (J. X. B. Saintine', France..

1798-1865 BONSTETTEN, CHARLES VICTOR DE, Switzerland..

1745-1832 BOOTH, BARTON, England...

1681-1733 BOSWELL, JAMES, Scotland...

1740-1822 BOTTA, Anna C. LYNCH, America...

Circa 1820 L. BOVEE, C. NESTELL, America.....

1820- L. BOWLES, WILLIAM LISLE, England..

1762-1850 BOYESEN, HJALMAR HJORTH, Norway.

1848. L. BRADLEY, MARY E., America...

1835- L. BRADSTREET, ANNE, England..

1613-1672 BRADY, NICHOLAS, Ireland..

1659-1726 BRAINARD, John G. C., America....

1796-1828 BREBEUF, GUILLAUMEDE, France.

1618-1661 BRONTÉ, CHARLOTTE, Ireland.

1816-1855, BROOKE, LORD (Fulke Greville), England..

1544-1628 BROOKS, MARIA GOWEN, America..

1795-1845 Brown, Tom, England..

1663-1704 BROWNE, SIR THOMAS, England..

1605-1682 BROWNE, WILLIAM, England..

1590-1645 BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT, England....

1809-1861 BROWNING, ROBERT, England..

1812 L. BRUCE, MICHAEL, Scotland..

1746-1767

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NAMES, NATIVITY, ETC., OF QUOTED AUTHORS.

637

BRUYERE, JEAN DE LA,
France..

Circa 1644-
BRYANT, John HOWARD,
America...

1807-
BRYANT, WILLIAM CULLEN,
America...

1794-1878 BRYDGES, SIR SAMUEL EGERTON, England.

1762-1836 BUCHANAN, ROBERT, Scotland.

1841- L. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, JOHN SHEFFIELD, DUKE OF, England...

1649-1720 BUCKLEY, THEODORE WILLIAM ALOIS, England....

1825-1856 BUDDHA. BUNGAY, GEORGE W., America....

1825- L. BUNYAN, JOHN, England

1628-1688 BURGUILLOS, TOME. BURKE, EDMUND, Ireland.

1728 or 9-1797 BURLEIGH, WILLIAM HENRY, America.

1812-1871 BURNS, JAMES DRUMMOND..

1823-1864 BURNS, ROBERT, Scotland..

1759-1796 BURTON, ROBERT, England.

1576-1640 BURY, RICHARD DE (Richard Aungervyle), England.....

1281-1345 BUSENBAUM, HERMAN, Prussia..

1600-1668 BUTLER, SAMUEL, England

1612-1680 BYROM, JOHN, England....

1691-1763 BYRON, LORD GEORGE GORDON NOEL, England.

1788-1824

CASE, LUELLA J. BARTLETT,
America

18-
CASTELAR, EMILO,
Spain..

1832- L. CATO, MARCUS PORCIUS,

B. O. 234- 149 CATULLUS, Caius VALERIUS,

Italy.. .... Circa B. O. 77- 45 CENTLIVRE, SUSANNAH, England

1680-1723 CERVANTES, MIGUEL DE, Spain...

1547-1616 CHANDLER, ELIZABETH MARGARET, America..

1807-1834 CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, America.

1780-1842 CHATEAUBRIAND. CHATHAM, WILLIAM PITT, Earl of, England..

1708-1778 CHATTERTON, THOMAS, England

1752-1770 CHAUCER, GEOFFREY, England..

1328 1400 CHESTERFIELD, (Philip Domer Stanhope) Earl of, England.

1694-1773 CHILD, LYDIA MARIA, America ..

1802-1880 CHILO,

Greece. ... Flourished B. C. - 556 CHOATE, RUFUS, America..

1799-1859 CHORLEY, HENRY FOTHERGILL, England...

1808-1872 CHURCHILL, CHARLES, England..

1731-1764 CIBBER, COLLEY, England.

1671-1757 CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS, Italy.

B. C. 106- 43 CLARE, JOHN England...

1793-1864 CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE, England.

1608-1674 CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN, England

1787–1877 CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN, America

1810. L. CLARKE, JAMES GOWDREY, America.

1830CLARKE, M'DONALD, America.

1798-1842 CLARKE, SIMEON TUCKER, America.

1836- L. CLAUDIANUS, CLAUDIUS, Egypt..

.Circa 365- 410 CLEMMER, MARY ANN, America.

1839- L. CLEOBULUS,

Greece.... Flourished B. C. - 560 CLEVELAND, JOHN, England..

..1613 Circa 1658 CLODIA. CLOUGH, AUTHUR HUGH, England....

1819-1861 CODRINGTON, CHRISTOPHER,

Island of Barbadoes. ... 1668-1710 COECILLIUS. COKE, SIR EDWARD,

England... ... 1551 or 2-1633

CÆSAR, JULIUS CAIUS,
Italy.

.B. C. 100- 44
CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL,
America....

1792-1850 CALLIMACHUS,

Greece Flourished Circa B. C. - 250 CAMDEN, WILLIAM, England..

1551-1623 CAMPBELL, THOMAS, Scotland..

1777-1844 CANNING, GEORGE, England..

1770-1827 CAPILUSUS. CAREW, THOMAS, England..

1589-1639 CAREY, HENRY, England.

1663-1743 CAREY, HENRY, America...

.Circa 1700-1743 CARLETON, WILL, America..

1845- L. CARLYLE, THOMAS, Scotland.

1795-1881 CAROLINE MATILDA, Queen of Denmark, England.

1751 -1775 CARY, ALICE, America.

1820-1871 CARY, PHOEBE, America.

1824-1871

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