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ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS,
MISHNA. The oral law consisting of tradi
tions handed down respecting the law of
Nisan, March 20 to April 16. Iyar, April 19 to May 17. Sivan, May 18 to June 16. Tamuz, June 17 to July 15. Ab, July 16 to August 14. Elul, August 16 to September 13. Tishri, September 14 to October 13. Marchesvan, October 14 to November 13. Kisley, November 14 to December 13. Tebeth, December 14 to January 12. Shebat, January 13 to February 12. Adar, February 13 to March 15. The Jewish months have 29 and 30 days, and Leap year has 13 months, the last being known as 2d Adar. NEBIM. PROPHETS. Containing that portion
of the Bible from the Book of Joshua to
the end of the Prophets. PAROCHES. The curtain before the holy
shrine in the Synagogne. PESACH. PASSOVER. The feast of Spring, be
ginning on the fourteenth day of the month Nisan and lasting seven days. It is the celebration of the Passover and commemorates the delivery of the Jews from Egyptian bondage, and the passing over of the last plague from the houses of the Israelites.
AARON-HAKADISH. The holy ark used in the
Synagogue as a depository of the scrolls
of the law. ATONEMENT, DAY OF. Celebrated on the ninth
and tenth days of Tishri. It was instituted by Moses, as a general day of ex
piation and sacrifice for sins. BENSHEN. A corruption of the Latin word
benedicto. The prayer after meals recited
by Israelites. BROCHO. BLESSING. A grace recited before
partaking of food. CHANUKKAH. DEDICATION. A day of celebra
tion on the ninth day of Kisley to rejoice
An upper garment worn by Hebrew priests. There
two kinds; that worn by the priests, of plain linen, and that by the high priests, of embroidered linen. It was a sort of girdle, which brought from the back of the neck over the shoulders, hung down in front, and was crossed at the waist and carried back and used as a
girdle to the tunic. GEMARA. A commentary on the Mishna. KADDISH. A prayer recited in the Synagogue
for the souls of departed parents, KELAI KADESH. HOLY VESSELS. Silver orna
ments used in the Synagogue t) adorn
the scrolls of the law. KETHUBIM. WRITINGS. Containing the Psalms,
Proverbs and the remaining books of the
Bible. KIDDUSH and HABDALLA. Prayers recited in
Jewish houses; the first at the beginning, the latter at the close of Sabbaths and festivals. They are recited by the chief of the house, holding a glass of wine in his hand, at the conclusion of which he drinks and passes it around
the table. MESUSA. DOORPOST. A little scroll of parch
ment containing this passage of Scripture : “ Thou shalt write them on the doorposts of thy house, and upon thy gates.” It is enclosed in a tin box, and fastened to the right doorpost'of Jewish houses.
PHYLACTERY. In Hebrew, tephelin. Strips of
parchment on which were inscribed passages from the Pentateuch. They were enclosed in a small box and worn on the forehead between the eyes, or on the arm near the heart, in accordance with the
command in Exodus xiii, 16. PURIM. Lot. A feast day, on the fourteenth
of the month Adar, in remembrance of God's providence in saving the Israelites from the destruction, through Mordecai and Esther, planned by Haman, accord
ing to the book of Esther. Rosh HASHANAH. New YEAR. Kept on the
first day of the seventh month, Tishri, the Jewish civil New Year, Nisan being the religious. The biblical name of the
feast is “Day of the Trumpet." SEPTUAGINT. SEVENTY. The Old Testament,
so called, from the number of translators engaged on the original Greek version. It was commenced by the Alexandrian Jews, 280 B. C. There were many disputes as to its correctness, but it was the basis of all subsequent translations.
SHEBUOTH. FEAST OF WEEKS. A celebration
of the completion of the seven weeks of harvest, according to Deut. xvi, 9. At the present time the main object of the feast is to thank God for the giving of the commandments.
SUKKOTH. FEAST OF TABERNACLES. It lasts
seven days, commencing on the fourteenth day of the seventh month, Tishri, the first day only being a holy day. This is also a harvest feast, and is in obedience to the command in Levit. xxiii, 40: “And ye shall take unto yourselves on the first day the fruit of the tree, hadar, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of the myrtle tree, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the Eternal seven days."'
ligations. They contained the thread of blue spoken of by Moses, a symbol to
direct the eye and heart to God. TALMUD. This book contains the complete
civil and canonical law of the Jewish people, embracing both the Mishna and the Gemara, the former being the earliest text. It is a book of doctrine, as the name implies, and this doctrine is elucidated and commented upon in a series of dialogues, in many cases of a fanciful character. The Mishna (doctrine) and the Gemara (teaching) contain, however, many curious and interesting statements regarding legal, medical, physical, ethical and astronomical subjects. They reveal much of the customs, practices, and decisions of the Jewish nation in the ages of antiquity. The word Talmud is from the Hebrew word lamed, and
signifies, to learn. TEFILLA. A prayer known as Shimona esreth,
on account of the eighteen benedictions
that it originally contained. TORAH. LAW. The five books of Moses,
known as the Pentateuch.
TALITH, and ARBA-CANFORTH. Vestments for
merly worn during Divine service, to guard man against trespass and to remind him of his moral and religious ob
QUOTED AUTHORS. .
NATIVITY, DATES OF BIRTH AND DEATH.
NOTE.-The first line of figures gives year of birth, the second death. The letter L signifies living.
1767-1848 ADAMS, SARAH FLOWER, England..
1805-1848 ADDISON, JOSEPH, England..
1672-1719 AESCHINES, Greece...
.B. C. 389- 314 ESCHYLUS, Greece..
.B. C. 525- 456 AFRICANUS, SCIPIO, Italy..
...B. C. 235 or 4- 183 AKENSIDE, MARK, England.
1721-1770 AIRD, THOMAS, Scotland..
1802-1876 ALCOTT, Amos BRONSON, America
1799- L. ALDRICH, JAMES, America..
1810-1856 ALDRICH, THOMAS BAILEY, America...
1836- L. ALDRIDGE, IRA, America...
1810-1867 ALEXANDER, WILLIAM (Earl of Sterling', Scotland..
1590-1640 ALFIERI, Italy.
1749–1803 ALFONSO V., King of Aragon, Spain.
1385-1458 ALI (Ali Ben Abu Taleb,
Arabia.... Flourished 655- 661 ALLEN, ELIZABETH AKERS, America....
1832- L, ALLINGHAM, WILLIAM, Ireland.
1828- L. ALLISON, RICHARD. ANDERSON, HANS CHRISTIAN, Island of Fünen.
1805-1875 ANGELO, MICHAEL, Italy....
1474-1564 ANTONIUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, Italy.
121- 180 APPOLODORUS,
Greece..... Flourished B. C. - 104 ARBITER, PETRONIUS,
Flourished 50- 66 ARCHIAS, AULUS LICINIUS,
Syria....... ..Circa B. C. 120
Island of Paros...Circa B. C. 714- 676 ARETINO,
Greece... .Circa B. C. 450-
B. C. 384-322
1709-1779 ARNOLD, EDWIN, England...
1832- L. ARNOLD, MATTHEW, England..
1822– L. ARNOLD, SAMUEL J., England....
-1852 AUERBACH, BERTHOLD, Germany.
1812- L. AUERSPUG, COUNT (Anastasius Grün). AUFFEN BERG, JOSEPH, Germany
1798-1857 AUGUSTUS, CAIUS JULIUS CÆSAR OCTAVIANUS, Italy..
.B. C. 63 A. D. 14 AUNGERVYLE, RICHARD (Richard de Bury), England..
1281-1345 ANSONIUS, DECIUS MAGNUS, France...
309- 392 AVELINE, E, L. AYTOUN, WILLIAM EDMONDSTOUNE, Scotland..
Bacon, LORD FRANCIS,
1561-1626 BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES, England..
1826- L. BAILLIE, JOANNA, Scotland.
..... 1762-1851 BALDUR, C. C. BALLANTINE, JAMES, Scotland.
1808-1833 BALLOU, HOSEA, America...
1771-1852 BALLOU, MATURIN M., America...
1820- L. BALZAC, JOHN LOUIS GUEZ DE, France,
1594-1624 BANCROFT, GEORGE, America...
1800- L. BARBAULD, ANNA LETITIA AIKIN, England......
BARKER, JAMES NELSON,
1784-1858 BARLOW, JOEL, America...
1754-1812 BARNES, BARNABE, England...
1569-1607 BARNES, KATE B. W., Anierica...
1836- L. BARNFIELD, RICHARD, England...
1574-1627 BARON, MARIE L. BARR, MARY A., Scotland..
1852- L. BARRETT, EATON STANNARD, Ireland....
1785-1820 BARRINGTON, GEORGE, England...
1755-1835 BARRY, MICHAEL JOSEPH. BARTAS, GUILLAUME DE SALLUSTE DU, France.
1544-1590 BARTOL, CYRUS AUGUSTUS, America....
1813- L. BARTON, BERNARD, England...
1784-1849 BASSE, WILLIAM, England..
1613-1648 BATES, LEWIS J., America....
1832- L. BAXTER, RICHARD, England.
1615-1691 BAYLY, THOMAS HAYNES, England...
1797-1839 BEACONSFIELD, LORD (Benjamin Disraeli), England..
1805-1881 BEARD, DR. THOMAS,
1735-1803 BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, Englard...
1586–1615 or 16 BEECHER, ESTHER CATHERINE, America...
1800-1878 BEECHER, HENRY WARD, America...
1813- L. BEERS, ETHEL LYNN (Ethelinda Elliott), America...
1827-1879 BENJAMIN, PARK, South America.
1809-1864 BENSERADE, ISAAC DE, France...
1612-1691 BENTHAM. BENTZEL-STERNAŬ, CHRISTIAN ERNEST, Germany...
1767-1850 BERKLEY, Bishop GEORGE, Ireland
1684-1753 BIAS, OF PRIENE,
Greece Flourished B. C. - 750 BICKERSTAFF, ISAAC, Ireland...
1735-1787 BINNEY, HORACE, America...
1780-1847 BIRD, ROBERT MONTGOMERY, America...
1803-1854 BLACKIE, JOHN STUART, Scotland...
1809- L. BLAIR. ROBERT, Scotland...
1699-1746 BLAKE, WILLIAM, England.
BLANCHARD, SAMUEL LAMAN,
1766-1823 BLŮMAŬER, LEWIS.
Circa 1598-1679 BODENSTEDT, FRIEDERICH MARTIN VOX, Hanover..
1819BOËTHIUS, ANCIUS MAN,
Circa 475- 525 BOHN, HENRY G., England
1795- L BOISTE, PIERRE CLAUDE VICTOIRE, France
1765-1824 BOKER, GEORGE HENRY, America.
1823 L. BOLINGBROKE, LORD (Henry St. John), England.
1678-1751 BONAR, HORATIUS, Scotland.
1808-1869 BONIFACE, JOSEPH XAVIER (J. X. B. Saintine', France..
1798-1865 BONSTETTEN, CHARLES VICTOR DE, Switzerland..
1745-1832 BOOTH, BARTON, England...
1681-1733 BOSWELL, JAMES, Scotland...
1740-1822 BOTTA, Anna C. LYNCH, America...
Circa 1820 L. BOVEE, C. NESTELL, America.....
1820- L. BOWLES, WILLIAM LISLE, England..
1762-1850 BOYESEN, HJALMAR HJORTH, Norway.
1848. L. BRADLEY, MARY E., America...
1835- L. BRADSTREET, ANNE, England..
1613-1672 BRADY, NICHOLAS, Ireland..
1659-1726 BRAINARD, John G. C., America....
1796-1828 BREBEUF, GUILLAUMEDE, France.
1618-1661 BRONTÉ, CHARLOTTE, Ireland.
1816-1855, BROOKE, LORD (Fulke Greville), England..
1544-1628 BROOKS, MARIA GOWEN, America..
1795-1845 Brown, Tom, England..
1663-1704 BROWNE, SIR THOMAS, England..
1605-1682 BROWNE, WILLIAM, England..
1590-1645 BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT, England....
1809-1861 BROWNING, ROBERT, England..
1812 L. BRUCE, MICHAEL, Scotland..
NAMES, NATIVITY, ETC., OF QUOTED AUTHORS.
BRUYERE, JEAN DE LA,
1794-1878 BRYDGES, SIR SAMUEL EGERTON, England.
1762-1836 BUCHANAN, ROBERT, Scotland.
1841- L. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, JOHN SHEFFIELD, DUKE OF, England...
1649-1720 BUCKLEY, THEODORE WILLIAM ALOIS, England....
1825-1856 BUDDHA. BUNGAY, GEORGE W., America....
1825- L. BUNYAN, JOHN, England
1628-1688 BURGUILLOS, TOME. BURKE, EDMUND, Ireland.
1728 or 9-1797 BURLEIGH, WILLIAM HENRY, America.
1812-1871 BURNS, JAMES DRUMMOND..
1823-1864 BURNS, ROBERT, Scotland..
1759-1796 BURTON, ROBERT, England.
1576-1640 BURY, RICHARD DE (Richard Aungervyle), England.....
1281-1345 BUSENBAUM, HERMAN, Prussia..
1600-1668 BUTLER, SAMUEL, England
1612-1680 BYROM, JOHN, England....
1691-1763 BYRON, LORD GEORGE GORDON NOEL, England.
CASE, LUELLA J. BARTLETT,
1832- L. CATO, MARCUS PORCIUS,
B. O. 234- 149 CATULLUS, Caius VALERIUS,
Italy.. .... Circa B. O. 77- 45 CENTLIVRE, SUSANNAH, England
1680-1723 CERVANTES, MIGUEL DE, Spain...
1547-1616 CHANDLER, ELIZABETH MARGARET, America..
1807-1834 CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, America.
1780-1842 CHATEAUBRIAND. CHATHAM, WILLIAM PITT, Earl of, England..
1708-1778 CHATTERTON, THOMAS, England
1752-1770 CHAUCER, GEOFFREY, England..
1328 1400 CHESTERFIELD, (Philip Domer Stanhope) Earl of, England.
1694-1773 CHILD, LYDIA MARIA, America ..
Greece. ... Flourished B. C. - 556 CHOATE, RUFUS, America..
1799-1859 CHORLEY, HENRY FOTHERGILL, England...
1808-1872 CHURCHILL, CHARLES, England..
1731-1764 CIBBER, COLLEY, England.
1671-1757 CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS, Italy.
B. C. 106- 43 CLARE, JOHN England...
1793-1864 CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE, England.
1608-1674 CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN, England
1787–1877 CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN, America
1810. L. CLARKE, JAMES GOWDREY, America.
1830CLARKE, M'DONALD, America.
1798-1842 CLARKE, SIMEON TUCKER, America.
1836- L. CLAUDIANUS, CLAUDIUS, Egypt..
.Circa 365- 410 CLEMMER, MARY ANN, America.
1839- L. CLEOBULUS,
Greece.... Flourished B. C. - 560 CLEVELAND, JOHN, England..
..1613 Circa 1658 CLODIA. CLOUGH, AUTHUR HUGH, England....
1819-1861 CODRINGTON, CHRISTOPHER,
Island of Barbadoes. ... 1668-1710 COECILLIUS. COKE, SIR EDWARD,
England... ... 1551 or 2-1633
CÆSAR, JULIUS CAIUS,
.B. C. 100- 44
Greece Flourished Circa B. C. - 250 CAMDEN, WILLIAM, England..
1551-1623 CAMPBELL, THOMAS, Scotland..
1777-1844 CANNING, GEORGE, England..
1770-1827 CAPILUSUS. CAREW, THOMAS, England..
1589-1639 CAREY, HENRY, England.
1663-1743 CAREY, HENRY, America...
.Circa 1700-1743 CARLETON, WILL, America..
1845- L. CARLYLE, THOMAS, Scotland.
1795-1881 CAROLINE MATILDA, Queen of Denmark, England.
1751 -1775 CARY, ALICE, America.
1820-1871 CARY, PHOEBE, America.