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Carthusians stand at the centre of the altar, the initial words only being said from that place, the remainder being finished at the missal. At the conclu. sion thereof the priest stoops and kisses the altar, when he salutes the congregation with “Dominus vobiscum"_** The

Lord be with you."
GLORIA PATRI. "Glory be to the Father."

The doxology reads, “Glory be to the
Father, and to the Son and to the Holy

Ghost, &c."
Host. The altar bread, which is circular in

shape and has been since the third cen. tury. It is differently stamped, some bearing the letters I. H. S., others a cross, &c. The Greek Host has a square projection rising from the surface which is called the Holy Lamb and cut off, is used for the sacrificial Host. The remainder of the loaf is divided and the particles grouped and dedicated to the Virgin, apostles, saints and martyrs. The Coptic Host has on one side Ay105 Αγιος, Αγιος, Κνριος Σαβέωε” Holy, Holy, Holy Lord of Hosts, and on the other side Ayios loxupos Holy, strong

one.

the feast of Whitsunday, the fourteenth of September, and the thirteenth of December, all being fast days. The week in which these days fall is called Ember Week, and the Sunday in December which begins it is always the third Sun

day in Advent. ENI HRONISATION. The placing of a bishop in his stall or on the throne in his cathedral.

Hook's Church Dictionary. EPIGONATON. A lozenge-shaped appendage

hung from the girdle and worn on the right side. It represents the napkin with which our Lord girded himself at the last supper and has either His head or a cross embroidered on it. In the Catholic church, none but the pope is allowed to use it, but in the Greek church permission is granted to all the

bishop EXARCH. An officer in the Greek church

whose business it is to visit the provinces in his charge to acquaint himself with lives and manners of the clergy, the manner of celebrating Divine service, and administering the sacraments, confession in particular; also monastic discipline, affairs of marriage, divorces,

etc. FALDISTORY. Lat. Faldistorium. The bishop's

chair near the altar, which he occupies when addressing the candidates for orders. This name is also given to the

episcopal chair within the chancel. FLAGON. A vessel for holding the wine be

fore and at the consecration in the Holy Eucharist. It differs from the chalice in being the vessel in which some of the wine is placed for consecration, if more

than one vessel is used. Font. The baptismal vase or basin. It

supplies the place of rivers, etc., where the rite of Baptism was formerly admin

istered. FORMULARY. A book containing the cere

monies, rites and forms of the Church. In the Church of England it is the Book

of Common Prayer. FRIDAY, Good. The Friday in Passion Week,

and so called from the good effects on us of our Lord's sufferings. It was called

Long Friday by the Saxons. GIRDLE. A cincture fastening the alb around

the waist. It was formerly broad and flat, but is now a cord with tassels at the

ends. GLORIA IN EXCELSIS. "Glory to God in the

highest." As this is a hymn of joy it is not sung during seasons of penance and mourning, consequently is never heard during Lent or Masses for the Dead. It is recited while the Dominicans

HYMN, ANGELIC. The Doxology beginning,

“Glory be to God on high." It is so named from having been sung by the angels when they appeared to the Beth.

lehem shepherds. I. H. S. Formerly written 1. H. C. The first

three letters of the Lord's name in the Greek language ΙΗΣΟΥΣ which were often used, during the age of persecution, on the tombs of Christians. The interpretation, Jesus, the Saviour of men, originated with St. Bernardine in 443. Ho disapproved of devices on some cards which were being sold by a peddler and induced him to change them, substituting the letters I. H. S., which he said

stood for Jesus Hominum Salvator. INQUISITION. A court of justice in Roman

Catholic countries for the trial and pun

ishment of heretics. INTERDICT. An ecclesiastical censure by

which the Church of Rome forbids the performance of Divine service and the administration of the sacraments to a

kingdom, town, etc. INTROIT. The beginning of the Mass for the

day, principally passages taken from the Psalms, followed by the minor dos.

ology. INVESTITURE. The act of conferring a bish.

opric by giving a pastoral staff or ring. JUBILATE Deo. “O be joyful in God.” One

of the Psalms used after the second les. son in the morning service.

ECCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.

629

JUBILEE. A solemn season recurring every

quarter of a century in the Church of Rome, marked chiefly by the indulgences granted by the pope to all of his com

munion. JURE DIVINO. "By Divine right." An ex

pression frequently found in contro

versial writings. KEYS, POWER OF THE. The authority held by

the priesthood of administering the discipline of the church and granting or

withholding its privileges. KYRIE ELEISON. *Lord have mercy on us."

The name given to the minor Litany which is recited after the Introits. The only Eastern Liturgy which enjoins its

recital on the priest is that of St. James. LANTERN. The middle tower of a cruciform

church when it is open over the cross.

three crosses, one in the middle and one at each end. It is worn on the left wrist and is about two feet long and fourinches wide, and when on, hangs equally on both sides, The Greeks wear two, one on each arm, and they are usually called Epimanikia, signifying something worn

on the hand. Mass, Missa or Missio, dismissal. The ori

gin of the word mass is disputed, but the general opinion of Roman Catholic writers is in favor of the above. They relate to the ancient custom of a two fold dismissal--the Catechumens before the Mass and the faithful at the end. The entire service was known by the plurals

missæ or missiones. Mass, BRIDAL OR NUPTIAL. In the Missal is

found a Latin “Missa pro_ Sponso Et Sponsa,” i. e., Mass for the Bridegroom

and Bride. Mass, CONVENTUAL. The mass which the

rectors and canons attached to a cathedral are required to celebrate each day after the hour of Tierce, which is about

nine o'clock. Mass, Dry. So called when the consecration

and consumption of the elements are omitted. Not now in use.

Mass, Low. The mass repeated in a low

tone of voice.

LAURA, A name given to a collection of cells

in a wilderness inhabited by monks, each of whom provided for his own wants. Formerly the monasteries in

Ireland were called Lauras. LECTURN. The reading desk placed in the

choir of churches. It was generally made of wood, but sometimes of brass, the shape being an eagle with extended

wings. LENT. A movable fast coming in the spring

of the year, and lasting from Ash Wednesday to Easter Sunday. It commemorates the fasting of the Saviour for forty days and also his passion, death and resurrection. Lent is observed in the Catholic and some Protestant churches, and Good Friday is, in England and other countries observed by a general suspension of business. In the Greek church the fast of Lent is rigorously observed and there are several repeti

tions throughout the year. LITURGIA. Formerly the name most fre

quently applied to the mass and now in

use through the East. Logos. The Word. One of the titles of our

Lord. As men make known their sentiments to each other by speech, so God reveals His designs by His Son, the

Word. LYCHNOSCOPE. A narrow window near the

ground, generally found at one end of the chancel, but sometimes in other parts of the church. There have been various opinions as to their use, but now they are supposed to have been confes

sionals. MANIPLE. A small strip of precious cloth,

of the same substance as the Stole and chasuble, on which are embroidered

MASS, GOLDEN. MISSA AUREA. Out of use,

but formerly celebrated on the Wednesnesdays of the quarter tenses of Advent in honor of the Mother of God; the bishops and all his canons assisting, at which time it was customary to distribute very costly gifts to those who took part.

It was

a splendid and Solemn High Mass, often lasting three or four hours. It is celebrated yearly in Brussels, at the Church of St. Gudule, on Dec. 23d.

MASS, MIGNIGHT. Also called Nocturnal.

Was frequently celebrated during the persecution of Christians because they were forbidden to meet during the day. It is yet celebrated in many places at Christmas.

MASS OF JUDGMENT. An ancient custom used

to prove or disprove the innocence of accused persons; unknown in the church at the present time, and condemned as early as A. D. 592.

MASS OF REQUIEM. A mass said in behalf of

the dead.

Mass OF THE PRESANCTIFIED. The mass so

called because celebrated with a previously consecrated Host, and without the consecration of either element.

Mass, PRIVATE, The mass when quietly

celebrated in some oratory or chapel,

not accessible to all. MASS, SHOES WORN AT. While bishops are

not limited as to color, for the lower order of the clergy black is always pre

cribed. Mass, SIMPLE HIGH, OR Missa CANTATA. The

mass where there is neither deacon or

sub-deacon ministering. Mass, SOLEMN High. So called when mass

is solemnized with deacon and subdeacon and a full corps of inferior ministers. It is sometimes called grand, because of its ritualistic display. Also high, on account of the greater part of it being chanted in a high tone of voice.

PALL. A stiff piece of linen, about five

inches square, with a worked cross in the centre. It is used as a cover for the

mouth of the chalice. PARCLOSE. Screens which separate the chapel

from the body of the church, especially

those at the east end of the aisles. PARVISE. The room over a church porch. It

is used as a private room by some officer of the church, and sometimes as a tempo

rary lodging for a priest. PATEN. A small saucer-like dish, used to

cover the mouth of the chalice, and made of the same material, on which is placed the large bread for consecration.

Mass, SOLITARY. Mass said by a priest alone,

without the attendance of the people or

even a server.

Mass, VOTIVE. Mass said by a priest, either

to satisfy his own wishes or some member of his congregation.

MATINS. The ancient name for those prayers

offered about day-break.

VISERERE. 1st. The psalm usually selected for

penitential acts, being the 51st psalm. 2d. The seat of a stall made to turn up or down, so that it might be used for a seat or in long standing for a support. They are generally carved, and sometimes very handsomely.

MISSAL. Lat. LIBER MISSALES. Book of the

mass. The Greeks use eighteen books in the service of the altar.

MONSTRANCE. The large appurtenance in

which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed at Benediction , sometimes carried in solemn procession. It has a large stem, the upper part resembling the rays of the sun. In its centre there is a circular aperture in which the lunette with the Blessed Sacrament enclosed is placed during the exposition. The material is the same as that of other vessels. None but the clergy are allowed to touch the

sacred vessels. MYSTERION. The mass of mysteries. MYSTAGOGIA. The mass, so called by St.

Dyonysius from its being a participation

of the sacred mysteries. NAVE. The central portion of a church ex

tending from the choir to the principal

entrance. NIPTER. Lat. PEDILUVIUM. The ceremony of

washing the feet. It is performed by Greek Christians on Good Friday, in imitation of our Lord.

PATER NOSTER. “Our Father.” The Lord's

prayer, having this preface : “ Being admonished by salutary precepts, and taught by divine institution, we pre

sume to say.” Pax, PEACE. An elaborately ornamented

metal tablet used in the mediaval church to receive the kiss of peace by

priests and people. Pax VOBISCUM. “Peace be with you." A

form of greeting used in the offices of

the ancient Christian church. PORCH. A part of the church where formerly

marriage and baptismal services were partly performed and then completed in

the church. POSTILS. The ancient name for sermons or

homilies. PRIORY. A house occupied by an order of

monks or nuns, the chief of whom was

called a prior or prioress. PROSPHORA. The mass so called from the fact

that through it we eventually obtain

eternal happiness. PROTHESIS. Also called CREDENCE. It is that

place in a church on which the Euchar. istic elements are put before being con.

secrated on the altar. PULPIT. An elevated desk, generally placed

in the nave of the church, from which the preacher addresses his congregation. Formerly sermons were delivered from

the steps of the altar. PURIFICATOR. Also called the Mundatory, is

a piece of linen about twenty inches long, and when folded in three, four inches wide. In the centre there is a small cross, and it is kept wrapped in

the Amice when not used. Pyx. A small box of gold or silver about the

size and shape of a watch. It is used for carrying the Blessed Sacrament to the sick,

EOCLESIASTICAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.

631

SEE. The seat of episcopal dignity and juris.

diction, where the bishop has his throne or cathedra.

Hook's Church Dictionary.

SEPTUM. The enclosure made by the altar

rails for the holy table.

RELICS. It is the custom among Roman

Catholics of placing some portion of the body of a saintor martyr in newly consccrated altars. The relics are enclosed in a metal box-silver is preferable-and this bears the name of the saint and the

bishop who officiates at the ceremony. REREDOS. A screen behind an altar. In

large conventional churches, where there is a space behind the altar, this was the universal termination of the ritual presbytery.

Hook's Church Dictionary. RITUAL. A book containing the order and

forms to be observed in celebrating the Divine service and all matters connected with external order, in the performance of sacred offices.

SEPULCHRE. A niche usually at the north

side of the altar used in the representations of our Lord's burial, resurrection and tomb, on Good Friday, Easter and before the Reformation. It is sometimes quite plain, at others very elaborate. The general subjects are the Roman sol. diers sleeping and the angels.

SHRINE. The place of deposit for relics or

other sacred things.

ROCHET. The garment worn by the bishops

under the chimire. It was made of linen, with narrow sleeves.

SOLIDEO. Lat. Solus and Deus. A tight fit.

ting white cap worn by the pope instead of the berretta. The pope takes this cap off to no earthly person, but to God only, during the more solemn parts of the mass.

ROOD LOFT. A gallery extending along the

top of the rood screen, which in parish churches generally crosses the chancel arch. On this was placed the rood or figure of our Lord on the Cross, and on either side the Blessed Virgin and St. John. The rood loft in large cross churches was usually of stone and occasionally contained a chapel and an altar.

Rood SCREEN. That which separates the

chancel from the nave and formerly sup

ported the rood loft. RUBRICS. Rules and orders formerly printed

in red characters but now in Italics, directing the time, place and manner in which all things in the Divine service should be performed. The English clergy solemnly pledge themselves to observe these rubrics.

STOLE. A band of precious cloth four inches

wide and six feet long, worn around the neck and crossed on the breast, being kept in place by the cincture. A deacon is privileged to wear the stole from the time of his ordination, but only over the left shoulder and fastened at the right side, the priest wearing it around both and crossed, while the bishop wears it pendant on both sides without crossing. În the Greek church this is generally known as the Epitrachelion and differs from the others in being made in one piece with a seam worked along the middie, and having an opening at the top wide enough to allow the priest's head to pass through.

SACRISTAN. The person in whose care are

the sacred vestments. The name is now changed to sexton.

TOUP. A basin for holy water generally

placed near the entrance of a church, and on the right hand of the one who enters.

SACRISTY. Now called vestry. The place

where the sacred vestments are kept.

SUNDAY, Low. Upon the octave of the first

Sunday after Easter day, it was the custom of the ancients to repeat some part of the solemnity which was used upon Easter day whence this Sunday took the name of Low Sunday, being celebrated as a feast though of a lower degree than Easter day itself.

Hook's Church Dictionary.

SANCTE BELL. A small bell which is rung

when the Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus. Dominus, Deus Sabaoth” was said, to prepare the people for the elevation of the Host.

Hook's Church Dictionary. SEDILIA. Seats near to and generally on the

south side of the altar for the ministers officiating at the Holy Eucharist, of which there are generally three, the celebrant, epistoler and gospeller, although the number varies from one to five.

SURCINGLE. A belt used for fastening the

cassock around the waist.

SURPLICE. A white linen garment worn by

the clergy in celebrating the Divine services and on certain days by mem. bers of colleges, whether clerical or not. SYNAXIS. The mass so called by the Fathers

as being the means of union with Christ.

TABERNACLE. A small structure resembling

a church placed in the centre of the altar. It is generally made of wood but sometimes of marble and is then lined with wood, and in it is kept the Holy Eucharist under lock and key.

used at the special feasts of our Lord and the Blessed Virgin, and at those of the angels, virgins and confessors. Red. symbolic of fortitude is used at Pentecost and the feasts of the apostles and martyrs and the Lord's Passion. Green, the symbol of hope is used from the 0€tave of the Epiphany to Septuagesima and from the octave of Pentecost to Advent. Violet, the symbol of penitence is used in times of public sorrow, fasting and penance, and in those processions which do not immediately relate to the Blessed Sacrament. Also at the feast of the Holy Innocents, except when it comes on Sunday, when it is changuu to red, as is also the color of the octave. Black is used in Masses and Offices of the dead and on Good Friday. In the Greek church there are but two colors, red and white, the latter being the general, while red is used in all masses for the dead and through Lent.

TARGUM. A book of hymns used by the Nes

torians. It derived from the Syriac word turgu o-interpretation.

TELEION. The mass signifying the perfect

atonement made by the sacrifice of the Holy Lamb.

THURIBLE. The vessel in which the incense

is burned. This is kept in a small boatshaped vessel and conveyed to the thurible by means of a small spoon.

TIARA. The pope's triple crown. That and

the keys are the badges of his dignity: the tiara of his civil rank, and the keys of his jurisdiction.

VIRGIN MARY, ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED.

A testival appointed by the church for the 25th of March to commemorate the appearance of the angel to Mary with the announcement that she should be the Mother of the Messiah,

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