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In the division of Old World archeology additions were installed in the exhibit of Judaism and in the prehistoric collection from Palestine. In the Mohammedan case models of religious buildings from Sumatra were installed, as also the lately added collection of Chinese and Tibetan religious specimens. The Parsee collection and the Warner collection of Buddhism were reinstalled. The collections of Paleolithic remains from France and other localities were classified and placed in storage.
During the year the division of physical anthropology added to the public exhibits of early man; prepared three cases of exhibits of Alaskan archeological material obtained by the curator last summer; and prepared three cases of exhibits on the variation of human teeth and jaws as a special exhibit from April 19 to 23 for the dental convention held at that time. In the office rooms it was necessary to
rearrange a large part of the collection, due to new accessions of the last four years, and to endeavor, under difficulties, to keep the collections for which no racks exist in something approaching order.
Mr. Hugo Worch, collaborator of the section of musical instruments, prepared labels for the excellent collection of pianos given by him. One of the real improvements of the violin, invented by Emile Berliner, was tested by Mrs. Duff-Lewis before the Friday Morning Club with success. G. D. McCoy, of the head curator's office, assisted in the care of the collection of pianos.
The art textiles and ceramics have been put under the special care of R. A. Allen. The Barney French church panel paintings and a number of small lots of laces were installed in the section of art textiles. Thirteen cases holding brocades are being fitted with sashes. Miss Edith Long rearranged the cases of the Misses Long, containing specimens illustrating the art of the thread.
In the anthropological laboratory, under the direction of W. H. Egberts, a figure was made for the dress of Mrs. Calvin Coolidge to be exhibited in the period costume collection. A cast of a large iron meteorite was made for the department of geology, and various restorations and repairs of pottery were undertaken for the Bureau of American Ethnology. Of especial interest was the restoration of white salt glaze tableware from the fragments from the excavations around the foundation of the Washington home at Wakefield, Va. Much work was done on modeling and repairing lay figures. A death mask of the late Secretary Charles D. Walcott, made by Doctor Hrdlička, was developed and appropriately mounted on a pedestal. Participation in the Sesquicentennial necessitated a great amount of dismantling and setting up of cases of exhibits.
INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH
Research by members of the staff in ethnology was chiefly limited to the study of collections obtained in the field during the previous season. Research by outside investigators was aided by Museum specimens from Polynesia, the Pueblo region, Berber, and other North African material, Tibetan and west Chinese collections, the Catlin collection, and Northwest coast designs. Much information was given to persons bringing in specimens and material was determined in several instances for other museums. A number of inquiries concerned the preservation of ethnological material of various kinds. The head curator completed a research on the use of fire from the material in the heating and illumination collection of the Museum and prepared a memoir that will appear in the autumn. Dr. A. V. Kidder, of Phillips Academy, with Mrs. Kidder made an extended study of our great collection of modern Zuni Indian pottery, with the intention of preparing a report on the subject. Miss Irene Mermet of Washington was given much advice and made extensive use of the head curator's library in preparing for ethnological work in Mexico. Miss Frances Densmore completed researches on the collection of musical instruments and finished the manuscript of a handbook dealing with this subject which was printed. M. R. Harrington, of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York City, arranged for study of the costume collection with a view of publishing a work on the subject of American Indian costume. Miss Mary Lois Kissell, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, studied the material on Salish weavings for a paper for the Bureau of American Ethnology. H. D. Skinner, of Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand, on a traveling fellowship from Oxford, made a study of the Polynesian collections of the Museum, especially those of the Maori.
Individual Boy Scouts were aided with advice as to fire making. The custom houses of Georgetown and Baltimore were aided in determining the age of materials passing through customs.
In the division of American archeology at the time of this report the curator, Mr. Judd, is directing the National Geographic Society's explorations in Pueblo Bonito. Among investigators from other institutions who have visited the Museum for examination and study of its archeological collections may be mentioned Dr. and Mrs. A. V. Kidder and Warren K. Moorehead, of the Peabody Museum at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.; Superintendent and Mrs. Jesse L. Nusbaum, of the Mesa Verde National Park, Colo.; Dr. W. B. Hinsdale, of the department of anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; H. C. Shetrone, of the Ohio State Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio; S. W. McCallie, State geologist, Atlanta, Ga.; E. H. Morris and Karl Ruppert, Carnegie Institution of Wash
ington; Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, Casa Alvarado, Coyoacan, D. F., Mexico; and Dr. Manuel Gamio, former director of antiquities, Mexico City. In addition, Miss J. Dolores Calahan, of the National Geographic Society's Pueblo Bonito expedition, beginning March 1, was engaged in work on the expedition's collections. Twenty lots of material were received for examination and report. As opportunty offered the curator has, at his own expense, visited other institutions for study of their archeological collections. These have included the New Mexico State Museum at Santa Fe; the Arizona State Museum at Tucson; the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, Calif.; the University Museum and the Academy of Science, Philadelphia Pa.; the Museum of the American Indians, Heye Foundation, and the American Museum of Natural History, in New York City, and the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. During the early part of March the curator visited the Etowah Mound group, near Cartersville, Ga., where Mr. Moorehead, of the Peabody Museum, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., was conducting explorations. As a result of this brief sojourn the Museum's collections from Etowah Mound may shortly be exhibited to greater advantage.
Warren K. Moorehead made a census of the stone implements in our collections, a work in which he expects to cover the museums of the country. P. E. Cox, State archeologist of Tennessee, advised with the Museum as to problems encountered in his work. Dr. Manuel Gamio, distinguished archeologist of Mexico, spent much time in the Museum writing a report on his collections from old sites in Guatemala, where he explored for the Archaeological Society of Washington.
The time of the assistant curator in charge of the division of Old World archeology was mainly occupied in the study of the collections concerning historic religions and in the preparation of a publication on the subject. Henry Field, of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Ill., examined the prehistoric collections of the division.
Research by the curator of physical anthropology has been continued in the two major lines of man's evolution and antiquity and of the origin and antiquity of the American aborigines. In addition, a survey was made, at a request of the "Committee on the Negro" of the National Research Council, of what has been done to date on the anthropology of the American negro. Henry B. Collins, jr., of the division of ethnology, conducted an investigation on the temporofrontal articulation in the human skull. Among researches carried on with our material, under the curator's guidance that have been completed and published, may be mentioned those of C. J. Connolly, of the Catholic University, Washington, D. C., On the Location of the Nasion, and On the Relation of the Orbital Plane in the Human Skull to Position of Teeth. In addition, the following have carried
on investigations in this division: Dr. E. R. Reynolds, of Boston, Mass., November 3, 1926, to February 24, 1927, anthropological studies on the pelvis; Dr. Francis W. Nash, of Washington, D. C., November 5, 1926, and subsequently, study of jaws and teeth; Dr. E. C. Kirk, Philadelphia, Pa., March 29 to April 2, 1927, study of jaws; Miss Frances Dennets, Brown University, March 30-31, instruction in anthropometry; Miss Alice M. Townsley, Brown University, May 2-6, 1927, instruction in anthropometry; and Dr. A. Wolfson, East Orange, N. J., June 7-8, 1927, facial anthropology.
From duplicate specimens the division has furnished 42 Indian teeth and 26 old Egyptian teeth to Dr. T. Okumura, Dean of the Tokyo Dental College, and casts of Ameghino's "diprothomo," "tetraprothomo," and "tertiary" atlas to Prof. J. Matiegka, Chief of the Anthropological Institute, Prague, Czechoslovakia.
The head curator read a paper on dolls and anthropomorphic images before the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Philadelphia which attracted wide attention, and a popularized article on the subject appeared later in the Sunday New York Times. A tentative plan for an exhibit for the exposition to be held in October 1928 in Seville, Spain, was drawn up by the head curator to cover in part the proposed participation of the Smithsonian.
Among distinguished visitors in the department were four members of the faculty and administration of the University of Paris, who considered the exhibit series unique and excellent. Dr. H. H. Juynboll, Director of the Leiden Museum inspected the collections.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF SPECIMENS
During the year the division of ethnology presented the Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Mich., with 47 patent models of lamps. Exchanges made during the same period comprised six sendings totaling 97 specimens, as follows: The Amerindian Museum, Paterson, N. J., 4 specimens of American Indian handiwork; National Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark, 50 pieces of American Indian ethnologica from North America and Panama; H. T. Harding, Walla Walla, Wash., 8 specimens of basketry, pottery, and similar material from the Indians of the western United States; W. T. Jewell, East Falls Church, Va., a Philippine kris; Public Library, Museum, and Art Galley, Perth, Australia, 33 pieces of North and South American pottery, and J. T. Watkins, Lakeport, Calif., a bed-warming pan. Four loans have been made as follows: New Public Library, Birmingham, Ala., 47 specimens of Eskimo and Chinese handicraft; Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, Fla., 11 ceremonial objects of carved wood from Alaska, British Columbia, United States, and Panama; New Haven Progress Exposition, New Haven, Conn., 14
examples of pewter ware from Europe and the United States; and the Public Library, Washington, D. C., 74 specimens of Oriental art, Mrs. George Kennan, Medina, N. Y., withdrew seven weapons from her collection on exhibit.
Six lots of material have gone out from the division of American archeology during the year to aid other institutions: To the Indian Museum, Calcutta, India, 94 aboriginal stone implements in exchange for similar material for the division of Old World archeology; to the National Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark, 21 archeological specimens in exchange for ethnological material; to the Hastings Museum, Hastings, Nebr., 96 stone implements from the United States and the West Indies, as gifts; to W. C. Marsh, Anchorage, Alaska, cast of a leaf-shaped flint blade in exchange for the original; to the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, Calif., a lot of miscellaneous potsherds, unaccessioned, from Eldon Pueblo, near Flagstaff, Ariz.; and to the North Carolina State Museum at Raleigh, casts of a bannerstone and a steatite bowl in exchange for the courtesy of reproducing the originals for the national collections.
The division of physical anthropology forwarded as a gift 11 samples of human hair to Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Mass., and loaned a human skull to the Office of Motion Pictures, United States Department of Agriculture. A human skull, probably a mix-blood, from Cuba was exchanged with W. H. Egberts for the skull of a white man.
NUMBER OF SPECIMENS UNDER DEPARTMENT
There were 148 accessions with the remarkably large total of 12,974 specimens received in the department of anthropology during the year just ended. Of these, 10 accessions, comprising 755 specimens, were loans, the permanent accretion to the national collections being 12,219 specimens, as compared with 4,005 specimens for the previous year. The additions were distributed as follows: Ethnology, 57 accessions with 5,648 specimens; American archeology, 44 accessions and 5,039 specimens; Old World archeology, 13 accessions of 1,546 specimens; physical anthropology, 36 accessions with 638 specimens; musical instruments, 3 accessions and 5 specimens; ceramics, 5 accessions of 74 specimens; and art textiles, 7 accessions with 24 specimens. On June 30, 1927, the total number of specimens in the department was 668,312, as follows: