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members of the division assisted in this work, with the result that the biologic series of Paleozoic corals was greatly enlarged; the peculiar spongelike organisms, stromatoporoids, were assembled into one series; the Paleozoic sponges were all brought together; and a large number of Ordovician and Silurian fossils hitherto stored in the loft were made more accessible for study by their transfer to their proper place on the office floor. Some time was devoted to the labeling of the Teller collection, with very satisfactory progress, and a considerable advance was made in the preparation and installation of the Museum's very abundant Ozarkian and early Ordovician collections, the latter being made possible only through the assistance of R. D. Mesler, of the Geological Survey, and the additional help of Arthur Brown, whose services were furnished by the secretary. At no time in the history of the division have the enormous collections of Paleozoic fossils been so logically arranged and so available for study.
Although most of the efforts of the staff were devoted to the general rearrangement noted above, the work of classifying and installing new accessions and building up of the biologic series were kept up. With the publication of a monograph on the conodonts, a biologic series of that group was inaugurated, which, by the end of the year, had grown to considerable proportions. Many additions were also made to the study series of brachiopods, ostracods, and bryozoans.
The field covered by invertebrate paleontology is so large that it has been found expedient to prepare illustrated catalogues, particularly of those groups containing the most abundant species. During the past year such work was concentrated upon the bryozoans, fossil and recent, owing to numerous calls for information along this line. Miss Beach undertook the preparation of this catalogue and has practically completed cards covering the many thousands of described species.
As in previous years, Doctor Resser has spent practically all of his time in work on the Cambrian collections in cooperation with Secretary Walcott. Four months were occupied in an arrangement of the stratigraphic series into geographic and stratigraphic order to facilitate the secretary's studies on the stratigraphy of British Columbia. Doctor Resser also began a rearrangement of the vast collection of Cambrian brachiopods.
With the ever-increasing number of negatives prepared for the illustration of Cambrian fossils, a system for their recording was perfected and 3,000 negatives catalogued. Upward of 1,200 negatives were made during the year, all relating to work on the Cambrian and allied systems under study by Doctors Walcott and Ulrich.
Field parties of the United States Geological Survey have furnished the principal additions to the Mesozoic collections, and while most of them are not formally transferred to the National Museum until their study is completed, they are kept in the Museum building as a matter of convenience, and virtually become a part of our collections as soon as received. The most noteworthy collections of the past year are those made from the Cretaceous of Utah and Colorado; from the Comanche of Texas; from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal plain of Texas and Arkansas; from the Jurassic of southwestern Alaska; and from the Triassic and Jurassic of the Tonopah and Hawthorne quadrangles in Nevada. There have been unpacked, recorded, and given preliminary preparation, 516 separate lots, involving that number of locality entries during the year. This work, as well as the general care of the Mesozoic collections, has been carried out by Dr. T. W. Stanton and his assistants. Dr. John B. Reeside, of the survey staff, has made a beginning on the large task of rearranging and condensing the study collections stored in the loft.
Dr. W. H. Dall, in charge of the Cenozoic collections, reports them to be in good condition and fully indexed, although a part still lacks preparation. This is being done as rapidly as possible by the survey preparator.
W. C. Mansfield, also of the survey staff, has supervised the arrangement, numbering, and cataloguing of the Cenozoic collections, and in addition, with the help of W. P. Popenoe, has placed 1,350 slides of foraminifera in form for permanent preservation.
The work of assembling, cleaning, and supplying fresh labels for the fossil plant study series was continued by Erwin Pohl, and many duplicates were eliminated. This lightened the load in the loft considerably, since the newly arranged study material is removed to the floor below and the duplicates placed elsewhere. The specimens were made more readily accessible by the installation of additional storage cases.
While the above outlines the more extensive pieces of work carried on in the division, it does not include the routine work incidental to the preparation of materials variously distributed or the time spent upon the manuscripts which have passed through the office.
The main energies of the preparatory force in vertebrate paleontology have been devoted to the preparation of the Diplodocus skeleton. It can now be reported that practically all of the skeleton except the neck has been completely freed from the matrix. It is estimated that a year or 18 months more will be needed to complete the preparation of this gigantic dinosaur. This work was suspended only for the preparation of material forming the exhibit at the
Sesquicentennial Exposition and to prepare casts or specimens needed for study.
Acknowledgment should be made of Remington Kellogg's assistance in the systematic arrangement of the fossil cetacean collection, which is now in better condition than ever before.
Miss Moodey's time has been fully occupied in looking after the records of the department, assisting in the general care of the collection, preparing and revising manuscripts, proof reading, and general routine. James Benn, in addition to work noted above, has assisted in the care of the collections, and Harry Warner has continued his usual work of preparing specimens for study and exhibition. One lengthy piece of work accomplished by Mr. Warner was the casting of a mold of the great Tucson, or Ring, meteorite.
INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH
Research by members of the staff.-The head curator has continued his investigations on meteorites to some extent, and has practically completed the manuscript for a semipopular article on that subject prepared at the request of the secretary.
A large amount of Mr. Shannon's time was devoted to research, the results of part of his minor investigations having already been published. Considerable progress was made on his work on the minerals of Maryland and some analytical work was accomplished on the minerals of Connecticut. A beginning was made on a handbook on the ore collections. Several slaglike materials of supposed meteoric origin were analyzed, and, by a cooperative arrangement with the Harvard University mineralogical museum, analyses were made of three meteorites and several minerals and work on the wardite group of minerals continued. In collaboration with Dr. C. S. Ross, of the United States Geological Survey, investigations of clay minerals were continued, and the preliminary results published during the year. The nickel ores of North Carolina were studied, also in collaboration with Doctor Ross, and nickel-iron sulphides were investigated in collaboration with M. N. Short, of the Geological Survey.
Doctor Foshag investigated a new calcium vanadate called rossite, and analyzed several new minerals. Some work was done on the chemical system sodium borate-calcium borate-water with a view of determining the origin of the natural borates, and work on the Hawthorne, Nev., quadrangle was continued. Messrs. Short, of the Geological Survey; Larsen and Berman, of Harvard University; R. B. Gage, of Trenton, N. J.; and H. G. Clinton, Manhattan, Nev., collaborated in the description of new minerals.
Paleontological research has been actively carried on. Doctor Walcott was engaged chiefly on a monograph dealing with the
stratigraphy of the Cambrian and associated rocks of British Columbia in which the observations of several field seasons are assembled for the benefit of future students. Numerous faunal lists and illustrations of the important geologic sections in the area are incorporated in this extensive work which, at the close of the year, is almost ready for publication.
Dr. C. E. Resser's studies were mainly upon the NeolenusDorypyge group of Cambrian trilobites, with continuation of his work on the Cambrian paleontology of Wisconsin. His monographic study of the trilobite family Agnostidae, in collaboration with Prof. B. F. Howell, of Princeton University, has been so successfully continued that the completion of the work may be expected during the coming year.
Urgent work on the collections has so occupied the time of Doctor Bassler that he was unable to advance his researches to the extent planned. Material progress was made on the illustration of a monograph on the bryozoans of the Philippines in joint authorship with Ferdinand Canu, about 120 plates being prepared. Two papers, one a description of the recent bryozoans of Morocco and the other on the Tertiary bryozoans of Hungary, were completed and printed in foreign publications. In further collaboration with Mr. Canu, a paper on the classification of the cheilostomatous Bryozoa, clearing up a subject of complicated synonymy, was prepared and offered for publication. Doctor Bassler also edited a paper by G. M. Austin on the Richmond group in Warren and Clinton Counties, Ohio, based on the Austin collection of fossils.
On account of its ever-increasing size, Dr. E. O. Ulrich found it impossible to bring his monograph on the Ozarkian and Canadian rocks of North America to a conclusion as planned, but several important sections on the paleontology and stratigraphy were completed and offered to the United States Geological Survey for publication. Notwithstanding continued ill health, Dr. Frank Springer has completed his extensive work on American Silurian crinoids, which has been sent to the Smithsonian for publication in conformity with his volumes on the Crinoidea Flexibilia. The paper is illustrated by 33 quarto plates.
Dr. F. H. Knowlton, in continuation of his studies on the flora of the Puget group of Washington, has prepared the descriptions of about 250 species.
Dr. T. W. Stanton has studied the marine Triassic and Jurassic invertebrates from the Tonopah and Hawthorne quadrangles, Nevada, and has worked out the succession of Triassic faunas in that region. He has also given some time to the study of the Comanche faunas of Texas, and has made comparisons of Cretaceous and Eocene species of Vivipara from Alberta with types of species in the Museum for W. S. Dyer of the Geological Survey of Canada.
A paper descriptive of the fossil footprints from the Grand Canyon, mentioned last year as nearing completion, was finished by Mr. Gilmore and printed, as was a description of a small aetosaurian reptile belonging to the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh. A third manuscript descriptive of some unusually well-preserved turtles from the Pleistocene of Florida is nearing completion.
Doctor Gidley's research work has been confined mainly to studies on the collections made in the Pleistocene of Florida, with reference especially to their bearing on the subject of early man in Florida. A paper prepared in collaboration with Dr. F. B. Loomis and submitted for publication, concludes that man was present in Florida before the extinction of the mammoth and mastodon. Additional study of the San Pedro Valley, Ariz., collections has practically completed Doctor Gidley's work on this material.
In addition to the above, papers were prepared for the publicity service of the Institution by Doctors Merrill and Bassler and Mr. Gilmore.
Research of outside investigators aided by Museum material.While the collections in all divisions have been accessible and used by students, and materials have been transmitted to a number of workers both in this country and abroad, extended research work by outsiders has been confined to the paleontological divisions. Members of the Geological Survey staff, with office accommodations in the department, are at all times actively engaged in studying the collections. L. W. Stephenson has continued work on the Cretaceous faunas of the Coastal Plain, especially those from Texas and Arkansas. John B. Reeside, jr., in continuation of his studies of the Eagle sandstone and related formations in the western interior region, completed and submitted for publication a paper on the cephalopods of this fauna. He has also offered for publication three additional papers, all based on materials in the Mesozoic collections. W. P. Woodring, working on the Tertiary collections, has continued his investigations on Miocene mollusks from Bowden, Jamaica; has prepared an account of the American Tertiary mollusks of the genera Clementia and Egesta, and has arranged the collection of types and topotypes of Tertiary mollusks from tropical America.
Ira Edwards, curator of geology, and Mr. Gilbert Raasch, assistant curator, of the Milwaukee Public Museum, spent several months in researches on the collection of Cambrian brachiopods of Wisconsin and the Cambrian Meristome crustaceans. In the course of this work, our extensive collections of these two groups were carefully studied, identified, and described for publication by the Milwaukee Museum. Dr. S. A. Barrett, director of that institution, spent days here during the course of these researches.