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exchanges comprising lots of 1,000 specimens and over were sent to the Arnold Arboretum; Botanical Garden and Museum, BerlinDahlem, Berlin, Germany; University of California; Botanical Museum of the University, Copenhagen, Denmark; Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Ill.; Gray Herbarium, Harvard University; Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, Hungary; New York Botanical Garden; Herbarium of the Natural History Museum, Paris, France; and the botanical section of the National Museum, Stockholm, Sweden.

NUMBER OF SPECIMENS UNDER DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

The number of specimens, including duplicates, as far as it has been ascertained by count and subsequent estimate, or by estimate alone, now exceeds seven and one-half millions. The total number is probably much greater, since several collections, such as the helminths and the corals, have not been included in the estimates, nor does the number of plants given below include unmounted material or the lower cryptogams.

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REPORT ON THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY

GEORGE P. MERRILL, Head Curator'

INTRODUCTION

Gratifying progress in the care and increase of the collections and in the accomplishment of work planned is reported from all divisions of the department, the result in part of cooperation with other institutions and individuals. The recorded accessions show a decided increase, and although the total of specimens received is less than last year, very choice and much needed materials are included. To retain a satisfactory esprit de corps, travel and intercourse with other workers are essential, with occasional field trips for broadening knowledge and outlook. These are at present available only at personal expense, which rarely can be afforded, or through cooperation with other institutions. Fortunately various members of the staff were enabled to make arrangements whereby expeditions over widely scattered areas were financed. This is particularly true in the paleontological divisions, where expeditions to Great Britain and the Continent as well as to various localities in America, including the Central States, New York, British Columbia, the Grand Canyon in Arizona, and Florida, were undertaken with satisfactory results both in the collecting of materials and in knowledge ac quired from field observations. Nor did such cooperation cease with the field work, since further assistance was rendered in the preparation and study of the materials thus obtained. Without such help on the part of friends of the Smithsonian Institution, the present small staff could have done little more than keep the extensive series of materials now in hand in proper condition for study by others.

Late in the fiscal year the head curator was detailed to attend the meeting of the International Geological Congress at Madrid as representative of the Institution, and later to visit various museums throughout Europe. The assistant curator of mineralogy and petrology, under the auspices of Harvard University, also was detailed for extended work in Mexico. Reports on these journeys must necessarily be deferred until next year.

* Report prepared by R. S. Bassler, as acting head curator, during temporary absence of Doctor Merrill on official detail.

ACCESSIONS FOR THE YEAR

The accessions for 1924-25 numbered 198, with an estimated total of 79,674 specimens; those for the present year are tabulated below.

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These figures represent permanent acquisitions and do not include deposits or duplicates.

As in previous years, the main mass of the material received in the division of geology was transferred from the United States Geological Survey, 28 of the recorded accessions being credited to that organization. The bulk of this material is so great as to present some difficulty in its proper distribution and preservation. Principal among these acquisitions in both quantity and value of specimens is a reference collection, chiefly of ores of the rarer metals, assembled by Frank L. Hess during many years of field work, which unquestionably constitutes the most complete series of American uranium, vanadium, nickel, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, and tin ores in existence. Series of ores from the chromite deposits of Kenai Peninsula and the tin areas of Seward Peninsula illustrate some phases of the economic geology of Alaska. Collections characterizing various ore deposits of the United States constitute the majority of other lots transferred, among which should be noted a suite from the Michigan copper district, to be described by B. S. Butler in a forthcoming professional paper; a series showing the unusual strontium deposits of California; and a set illustrating the geology of the Homestake Mine at Lead, S. Dak. Two additional collections consist of carnotitebearing materials from southern Nevada and sediments of Tertiary and Cretaceous age from Bighorn Basin, Wyo. Ten small lots illustrate published reports on chrome, manganese, and tin ores. Folio sets covering the Quarryville and McCalls Ferry quadrangles, Pennsylvania, should also be specially mentioned.

Noteworthy accessions to the building-stone collection include a model in Quincy granite of a monument erected in commemoration of the tercentenary of the founding of Quincy, presented by J. S. Swingle, and a massive cube of pink granite, gift of the Harris Granite Quarries Co., of Salisbury, N. C.

A fine series of well-trimmed hand specimens illustrating the formation of the aluminum mineral beauxite through surface weathering of a syenitic rock, furnished by the Aluminum Co. of America, was contributed by Frank L. Hess. These have unusual scientific and educational interest and will be installed as a special exhibit. Nine large sections of fossil logs from the petrified forest of Arizona were acquired by exchange with R. F. Pettigrew, of Sioux Falls, S. Dak., the equivalent being furnished in ethnological material through cooperation of the department of anthropology.

Additions to the meteorite collection were, with one exception, secured by exchanges; a number of examples of falls new to the collections was secured. Among these are represented the following: Avoca, Ollague, Britstown, Cumpas, Gun Creek, and Mount Ouray, received from Harvard University; Bishop Canyon, South Byron, Santa Luzia, and Coldwater, from the Field Museum of Natural History; Cangas de Onis and Bur-Gheluai, from C. Wendler, Geneva; and Santa Isabel from the Museo Nacional, Buenos Aires. In addition a large slab of the Estherville meteoric stony iron was obtained from the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, and a portion of an 85-pound mass of the Brenham pallasite, from H. H. Nininger, McPherson, Kans. The Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver, presented a complete individual, weighing 370 grams, of the Johnstown, Colo., fall.

The late Col. W. A. Roebling, of Trenton, N. J., was again the chief contributor to the mineral collection through donation of a further sum of money for the purchase of needed materials. Eleven accessions are recorded in his name, the materials comprising choice exhibition specimens as well as valuable additions to the study collections. A large, massive pink beryl from Buckfield, Me., weighing about 100 pounds, a blue topaz from California, and a cut section of tourmaline of unusual color, from Maine, are notable exhibition specimens thus secured, while additions to the study collections through Colonel Roebling's aid comprise new phosphates from Hagendorf, Bavaria, manganese silicates from Switzerland, and various minerals from Russia.

The transfer by the Treasury Department of minerals, chiefly gold nuggets, formerly a part of the numismatic collection of the United States Mint at Philadelphia, added considerably to the special exhibit of gold nuggets. These include a nugget weighing 14 pounds; an interesting specimen showing gold encrusting a quartz pebble; a group of gold crystals weighing 13 pounds; and numerous smaller nuggets and samples of gold dust.

Mr. Jack Hyland, of Washington, who has been connected with the tin-mining industry in Bolivia for several years, presented a number

of rare minerals and ores, and also deposited his private collection, consisting chiefly of choice Bolivian tin minerals. The Museum is privileged to use this collection for exhibition and study for an indefinite time.

The Government of British Guiana, through Sir John Harrison, presented a small nugget of a rare palladium amalgam locally termed "potarite," found among concentrates from diamond-bearing gravels in that country. This mineral is of great rarity, only 39 grams having been found, which have been sparingly distributed to leading museums. The specimen presented to the National Museum is probably the only one in North America. Also of importance are minerals from Greenland and Bolivia, gift of George Vaux, Bryn Mawr, Pa., and examples of the rare stibiotantalite from Mesa Grande, Calif., presented by Ernest Schernikow.

Of outstanding importance for exhibition purposes is a large group of fluorite crystals 25 inches in length, presented by the Benzon Fluorspar Co., Cave-in-Rock, Ill. This specimen, on account of its large size and perfect form of crystallization, is thought to be the most unusual example of this mineral yet brought to public attention in America. The generous spirit of the company in placing it for permanent preservation in the national collections is greatly appreciated.

Exchanges in the division of mineralogy include large masses of augite, hornblende, and lepidomelane, as well as other Canadian minerals, received from the Royal Ontario Museum of Mineralogy; examples of the new silicate mineral pumpellyite and its associates, from Harvard University; a number of rare minerals from Langban, Sweden, furnished by Dr. Harry von Eckermann; Bolivian minerals, including S. G. Gordon's new species penroseite and trudellite, from the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; rare Swedish minerals sent by the Riksmuseets Mineralogiska Avdelning, Stockholm; and exhibition specimens of Nevada opal and California chrysoprase, from Ward's Natural Science Establishment.

A set of glauconite specimens, upon which C. S. Ross based his studies on the optical properties and chemical composition of this important phosphate, was transferred by the United States Geological Survey.

Through the efforts of Messrs. Foshag, Shannon, and Benn, of the staff, various collections of mineral and petrologic specimens were secured in near-by localities in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia.

Additions to the Isaac Lea collection of gems, through the Chamberlain fund, include five moss agates-the so-called "landscape agates"-from Montana; two cut stones of green tourmaline, weighing 17 and 12 carats, from Paris, Me.; three cut yellow topazes; miscellaneous cut gems of rose quartz, onyx, lapis-lazuli, and jasper;

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