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extremely generous offer of Charles T. Simpson, of Little River, Fla., to assist financially in researches on West Indian land shells through a fund established for the purpose. Through special services provided by this means there has been considerable progress in measuring shells, in taking and transcribing shorthand descriptions, and retouching photographs for illustrations to be utilized in reports on this subject.

The curator of echinoderms reports that Dr. Th. Mortensen, of the Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark, has completed a report to the Museum on the Cidaridae of the Albatross Philippine Expedition. Dr. H. L. Clark is still engaged in work on the holothurians of the same expedition. Prof. Walter K. Fisher, of Stanford University, continued studies on starfishes in connection with the preparation of the second part of a monograph on the Asteroidea of the North Pacific, which is now well toward completion.

The National Herbarium has been used freely by members of the scientific staff of the Department of Agriculture. Dr. S. F. Blake has revised identifications of many Compositae, especially species of the western United States and tropical America. He has assisted also in classification of current material of this and other groups. Ivar Tidestrom has determined and revised many southwestern plants in connection with his studies of the flora of Arizona. In several groups, it has been necessary to enlist outside help in classification and identification. Among these investigators the herbarum is especially indebted to Dr. G. K. Merrill (lichens); Mrs. N. L. Britton and R. S. Williams (mosses); Dr. B. L. Robinson (Compositae); Dr. J. M. Greenman, St. Louis (Senecio); Oakes Ames (orchids); Dr. William Trelease (Piperaceae, Quercus, Agave); Kenneth K. Mackenzie (Carex).

Researches of outside investigators aided by Museum material.— The liberality with which the National Museum opens its doors and lends its material to investigators of proven scientific worth is everywhere known and appreciated. Our most precious treasures may be freely examined while they remain under the care of their responsible custodians, who are always ready to assist the earnest student even though he may be making his first steps in original research, a fact attested by the large number of investigators from this continent or from those most distant, who annually visit and work in our laboratories. In addition, the Museum lends many specimens here and abroad as an aid in promoting researches and solving scientific problems. The scientific investigators of other branches of the Government in Washington are on practically even footing with the staff of the Museum in the daily use of its material.

Dr. Cora D. Reeves, teacher of biology in Ginling College, a school for Chinese girls, Nanking, China, spent considerable time in the Museum, including several days in the divisions of mammals and birds and at least a month in the division of reptiles, to familiarize herself with the vertebrate fauna of eastern China. Dr. Wilhelm Marinelli, assistant in the Second Zoological Institute of the University of Vienna, Austria, worked several days in the division of mammals studying bear skulls. Miss Fannye A. Cook, Crystal Springs, Miss., studied mammals and birds and the Museum records of specimens from Mississippi over a period of several months as an aid in writing a report on their occurrence and distribution in her State. Dr. Glover M. Allen, Museum of Comparative Zoology, did some work on a monograph of the American bats of the genus Myotis. Dr. O. P. Hay, Carnegie Institution of Washington, made constant use of the osteological collections in connection with his work on fossil vertebrates of the Pleistocene. Members of the staff of the Biological Survey have made much use of certain vertebrate collections; A. B. Howell was permitted office room in the division of mammals, and Remington Kellogg had use at need of a table in the reptile collection.

Rev. D. C. Graham, of Szechwan, China, during approximately two weeks' stay in Washington, was given instruction in collecting and preparing study specimens of mammals and birds. Dr. Peter P. Sushkin, director of the Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, Russia, spent several weeks studying various Asiatic birds and in work on the collection of bird skeletons. Dr. John C. Phillips, Wenham, Mass., examined many birds, chiefly ducks and geese, during winter and early spring. Jean Delacour, Château de Clères, Seine Inférieure, France, on his return from Indo-China, examined bird material particularly from eastern Asia. Dr. Hugo Weigold, director of the natural history collections in the Provincial Museum of Hanover, Germany, studied methods of installation and preservation, including construction of storage cases, in use in the National Museum. During a brief visit W. W. Bowen, of the museum at Khartum, Sudan, examined some African birds and likewise studied our methods of installation and labeling. Dr. Frederick Wood Jones, Adelaide, South Australia, inspected Australian species of albatrosses. Dr. Stepan Soudek, assistant at the Zoological Institution of the College of Agriculture and Forestry, Brno, Czechoslovakia, examined certain palearctic birds. Dr. Herbert Friedmann, Cambridge, Mass., brought a series of African birds for comparison during a visit of several days. Prof. E. H. Forbush, Boston, Mass., examined the series of North American hawks. Dr. Walter Koelz, Ann Arbor, Mich., studied Arctic species of birds, particularly shore birds and birds of prey. Among other ornithologists who

visited the division of birds to examine specimens, records, or literature may be noted the following: Henry B. Conover, Chicago, Ill.; James Bond and R. M. de Schauensee, Philadelphia, Pa.; Stuart T. Danforth, Ithaca, N. Y.; Robert Cushman Murphy, American Museum of Natural History, New York City; Dr. L. C. Sanford, New Haven, Conn.; Hashima Muryama, Washington, D. C.; Herbert W. Brandt, Cleveland, Ohio; W. E. Clyde Todd, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Dr. C. W. Townsend, Boston, Mass.; James R. Gillin, Ambler, Pa.; R. Williams, Washington, D. C., and John K. Magneder, Clarendon, Va. Dr. Malcolm Smith, former director of the natural history museum at Bangkok, Siam, visited the division of reptiles and batrachians to examine collections, particularly of the marine snakes, on which he is preparing a monograph. Other herpetologists, some of whom made repeated visits were Dr. Thomas Barbour, Museum of Comparative Zoology; Karl P. Schmidt, Field Museum of Natural History; Dr. E. R. Dunn, Smith College, and Dr. Afranio do Amaral, formerly of Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

In the division of fishes Dr. Henry W. Fowler, of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, has spent several weeks from time to time in connection with the forthcoming report on the Philippine Island fishes.

A considerable number of entomologists not on the staff worked with the insect collections for periods varying from a day to several months in connection with various studies and researches. Officials of the Bureau of Entomology not on the custodial staff of the Museum naturally utilized the collections to the greatest extent. Thus, C. F. W. Muesebeck, of the gipsy moth laboratory, spent about six weeks in the Museum studying Braconid flies; R. A. St. George, of the Bureau of Entomology, continued his investigations on the larvae of beetles belonging to the family Tenebrionidae, conducting all his studies with materials in the national collection, and working most of his time in the Museum; J. E. Walters, of the Federal Horticultural Board, made studies on thrips in the Museum after office hours; Prof. J. B. Parker, of the Catholic University, continued. studies on Sphecoid wasps, spending approximately one day a week working in the Museum; Dr. H. C. Huckett, Riverhead, N. Y., spent two weeks examining material of Anthomyiid flies of the genus Hylemyia; Dr. W. T. M. Forbes, of Cornell University, for about 10 days studied types and other specimens of macro- and microlepidoptera in the collections; J. Douglas Hood, University of Rochester, for a similar length of time studied types of Thysanoptera. Among many others who availed themselves of the facilities of the division may be mentioned Miss Grace Sandhouse, Robert M. Fouts, Dr. Ray T. Webber, L. G. Gentner, Dr. Joseph Bequaert, Boston; Dr. William A. Hoffman, Johns Hopkins University;

S. W. Bromley, New York City; H. C. Fall, Tyngsboro, Mass.; M. L. Liljeblad, Field Museum of Natural History; W. J. Holland, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Harold S. Peters, University of Ohio; H. F. Schwarz, American Museum of Natural History, New York City; and Dr. W. V. Balduf, University of Illinois.

Miss M. M. Stadnischenko, of the Geological Survey, spent some time in studying the mounted series of Foraminifera in the division of marine invertebrates. A number of the collaborators of that division have visited the Museum on business connected with research studies on which they are engaged, based in part, or wholly, on Museum material. Among such visitors were Dr. J. A. Cushman, Dr. C. B. Wilson, Dr. C. Dwight Marsh, Dr. Wm. H. Longley, Dr. H. B. Bigelow, Dr. Charles J. Fish, Dr. H. Boschma, and Dr. A. G. Huntsman.

The collections of recent mollusks have been consulted constantly by Drs. W. P. Woodring, C. W. Cooke, Julia A. Gardner, and W. C. Mansfield, of the Geological Survey staff, in the pursuit of their studies on Tertiary mollusks. Miss Lucy Reardon and Mrs. F. Beij have worked on the anatomy of pearly fresh-water mussels of the District of Columbia; their studies will be offered shortly for publication; Miss Elizabeth Parker has worked upon radulae of the Philippine species of the family Neritidae, and has correlated these anatomical structures with forms of the operculum, both of which have been used independently as a basis of classification; Miss Harriet Bundick has studied the Philippine species of the family Scalidae; Mrs. Ruth Hart has made a series of preparations and drawings of radulae of Philippine melanians; Samuel Koronefsky has worked on the anatomy of the Philippine viviparas, and Louis D'Elia, John Borelli, and Irving Erschler have prepared radulae of West Indian annularids. Mr. Kenneth Smoot devoted odd times to biometric and anatomic studies of mollusks; Mrs. Mary Quick Bowman as time permitted has continued the dissection of 100 specimens of hybrid Cerions from Newfound Harbor Key, Fla., a task of several years standing that, when completed, will furnish basis for a discussion of changes produced in the anatomy of these organisms by hybridization. This work has been done for the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Among others who have spent varying lengths of time, ranging from a few hours to weeks, in the division of mollusks, examining and studying material, the following may be mentioned: Dr. Hugo Weigold, director of the Provincial Museum, Hanover, Germany; Mrs. I. S. Oldroyd, Stanford University, Calif.; Curtis A. Perry, Bridgton, Me.; Dr. R. H. Stevens, Detroit, Mich.; Calvin Goodrich, Newark, N. J.; Mrs. Louis Perry, Sanibel, Fla., Irvin H. Hoffman, Washington,

D. C.; D. LeLabron Perrine, Miami, Fla.; Mrs. J. F. Hicks and her brother Captain McCormick, of Bristol, Tenn.

The coral collections have been used during the year by Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, Dr. J. Edward Hoffmeister, Dr. H. Boschma, and Lieut. Col. Sir Matthew Nathan while visiting in Washington. Dr. Walter K. Fisher, of Stanford University, spent some time in the division of echinoderms studying the collection of starfishes; in addition, specimens were sent to him for examination.

Many professional botanists have visited the herbarium to examine specimens. Among these may be mentioned the following (with the groups in which they were interested): Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y. (United States species of Rubus); Dr. E. W. Berry, Johns Hopkins University (in connection with studies of fossil plants); Dr. Frederick O. Bower, University of Glasgow (ferns); Dr. George Voronoff, Leningrad, Russia (Sapium and rubber-yielding plants); Prof. Bungo Miyazawa, Miyazaki, Japan (flora of Yosemite National Park); Mrs. Mortimer J. Fox, New York City (the genus Lilium); Prof. M. A. Chrysler, Rutgers College (ferns); Dr. J. M. Greenman, Missouri Botanical Garden (Senecio); C. A. Weatherby, Gray Herbarium (ferns); Clarence E. Kobuski, Missouri Botanical Garden (Dyschoriste); Mrs. George C. Wheeler, New York Botanical Garden (ferns); Prof. W. L. Jepson, University of California (flora of California); H. Pittier, Caracas, Venezuela (flora of Venezuela); Dr. P. H. Rolfs, Vicosa, Brazil; Prof. H. H. Bartlett, University of Michigan (identification of prehistoric plants); Dr. William Trelease, University of Illinois (Piperaceae); Dr. M. A. Howe, New York Botanical Garden (algae); Dr. Ivan M. Johnston, Gray Herbarium (Boraginaceae).

Much assistance has been rendered to outside investigators through the loan of specimens. The wealth of the national collections in biology is such that few comprehensive studies can be carried out without material assistance from its treasures, as is amply indicated in the appended bibliography. The incidental benefit derived by the Museum from critical revision of its material in comparison with that preserved elsewhere is of course recognized and gratefully acknowledged. The following includes the most important loans during the year: From the division of mammals, three llama skeletons were lent to the Museum of Paleontology of the University of California, for study and comparison by Chester Stock with a closely related form from the Pleistocene asphalt deposits at McKittrick, Calif. Leg and foot bones of the genus Alouatta were lent to Dr. William L. Straus, jr., Johns Hopkins Medical School, for study in connection with the problem of the nature and inheritance of webbed toes in man. Skins, skeletons, and alcoholics were sent to the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, for Dr. J. Grinnell,

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