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cial exhibit illustrating the life and works of John Ericsson. The exhibit, which was displayed in four exhibition cases in the west hall, contained many original letters and other memorabilia as well as many models of interesting mechanical contrivances invented by Ericsson, including such things as hot-air engines, steam engines, ordnance, and steamship propellers.

The listing, arranging, and storing of patent models received for preservation in the division of mechanical technology as the result of the work of the commission appointed by Congress to dispose of the large accumulation of Patent Office models, have consumed much valuable time of the preparators and the aid.

In the textile halls eighteen installations of new exhibit material or rearrangements of exhibits already on view were made during the year, the principal changes being in the cotton section, where plain, piece-dyed, and printed fabrics were entirely replaced with fresh material.

Forty installations of new material and rearrangements of old exhibits were made in the sections of organic chemistry and of food during this year, the rubber exhibit receiving most of the attention. All of the cases of this exhibit were rearranged and many entirely relabeled.

Thirty-eight installations were made in the wood court, of which 24 were of new material, 11 were specimens on exhibition requiring rearrangement, and 2 were exhibits that had formerly been retired in favor of something else and had to await the refinishing of cases. One of the most important of these was a special exhibit arranged primarily for American Forest Week-April 18 to 24, 1926. The keynotes for its observance this year were "Grow timber" and "Prevent forest fires," so that illustrations of tree planting and a realistic animated model of a forest fire were made features of the special exhibit.

In the medicine gallery and hall of health 40 new or rearranged installations were made, including the mounting of the 65 childhealth panels above the cases in the hall of health. One-half of this hall was wired to provide power for operating mechanical devices and for properly illuminating exhibits. The hygiene and sanitation exhibits were rearranged to conform more closely to the plan drawn up when the work was undertaken.

The collections under the care of the curator of textiles were carefully inspected for deterioration; perishable material like wools and foodstuffs fumigated, and the preserving fluid on fresh anatomical specimens changed as usual during the year. Some 365 wood specimens were made ready for distribution, and a study collection of planed pieces, 3 by 4 by 14 inches in dimension, was prepared, representing every species in the wood collection. This latter has rendered

much easier investigations on the identification and relationships of tropical woods.

Little rearrangement of the permanent collections was undertaken in the division of graphic arts this year. Four new traveling exhibits were prepared and put in circulation, and much time was given to arranging and caring for the special exhibitions brought to the Museum as loans. These included this year nine special exhibits of prints displayed in the Smithsonian Building and five exhibits of pictorial photographs shown in the Arts and Industries Building, as follows:

In Smithsonian Building.-October 3 to November 3, 1925: Etchings and dry points by George E. Resler and H. Lindley Hosford of St. Paul, Minn. November 3 to December 1: Aquatints in color by Georges Plasse and other French artists. December 2, 1925, to January 1, 1926: Etchings, dry points, block prints, and lithographs-traveling exhibit of the Print Makers Society of California. January 2 to 29: Etchings by Ernest D. Roth of New York City. January 30 to February 26: Etchings by Miss Katharine Merrill of New York City. February 27 to March 26: Etchings by John W. Winkler of San Francisco. March 27 to April 23: Etchings by Arthur W. Heintzelman of New York City. April 24 to May 21: Etchings, dry points, and lithographs by George T. Plowman of Cambridge, Mass. June 12 to July 15: Water colors and acquatints by Capt. W. Francis Longstaff.

In Arts and Industries Building.—September 15 to November 15, 1925: Pictorial photographs by the Wales and Monmouthshire Photographic Federation of Cardiff, Wales. December, 1925, and January, 1926: Bromoils and bromoil transfers by Dr. Emil Mayer of Vienna, Austria. February 1 to March 15: Portrait and landscape photography in bromide and bromoil by A. C. Banfield of London, England. April: Pictorial photographs by the members of the Camera Club of New York. May and June: Pictorial photographs from the Cleveland Photographic Society of Cleveland, Ohio.

In the division of history the numismatic collections were reinstalled so that the numismatic hall by the present arrangement of cases is divided into four alcoves. The first contains coins of North, Central, and South America and the West Indies; the second contains ancient, medieval, and modern coins of Europe; the third is devoted to an exhibit of United States medals, and the fourth to an exhibit of European medals. The interior of the large circular case in the center of the hall is installed with electrotype copies of ancient coins and the exterior with modern European coins.

The facilities of the division of history were improved by the assignment to the division of additional space on the second floor of the northeast pavilion, Arts and Industries Building, where three large rooms are now available for laboratory and storage purposes.

Present condition of the collections.-The status of the collections of mineral and mechanical technology is better now than at any time in the past, both as to physical condition and arrangement.

The collections under the curator of textiles are presented in a more attractive manner than heretofore. The materials in all

charge are fresher, with less Many industrial contributors

the divisions and sections under his deterioration, and more up to date. now cooperate to keep the exhibit in their individual line supplied with samples of new material as fast as it comes upon the market. These collections are increasingly useful to the Patent Office, industrial concerns, and others as sources of reference.

Gaps in the technical series in the division of graphic arts are slowly being filled. This is necessarily the case, since the Museum is almost entirely dependent upon the generosity of its friends for the acquisition of specimens, and each object has an intrinsic value. Of the section of photography, Floyd Vail, writing in a recent trade journal, says:

All photographers, especially those interested on the pictorial side, should not fail to go to the Smithsonian Institution when visiting Washington and view the permanent collection. It is a credit to our Government, and one of which all her citizens should be proud. Embracing prints from the earliest days of photography, the work of the first and foremost workers down through all the years and of to-day, this collection is worthy of careful study, attention, and pride of all Americans, as nothing like it in extent or excellence is available anywhere else in the world.

That the Loeb collection now represents a wide field of research activities may be judged from the fact that the substances in the collection represent the work of or contributions from 228 individuals or sources. In this list of preparators and donors are included the following universities and colleges: Barnard, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Earlham, Harvard, Hawaii, Illinois, Fordham, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Carolina, Notre Dame, Northwestern, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Princeton, Stanford, Teacher's, Tufts, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Yale.

The intrinsic, scientific, and patriotic value of the collections in the division of history is unsurpassed by any similar collection in the United States. The present exhibition and storage accommodations of these priceless collections, however, are inadequate, preventing the greatest possible use of the materials and detracting from efficient administration. It is hoped that some measure of relief may soon be found.

The National Museum possesses, in its department of arts and industries and its division of history, vast collections of great potential industrial and patriotic value to the Nation. Mere possession, however, is of little avail. It is the use made of the collections. which determines their worth, and every effort is being put forth by the small force available to make these collections more readily accessible and correspondingly more useful to the public.


Research by members of the staff.-Pure research and experimentation can not be said to constitute an activity of the divisions of

mineral and mechanical technology, the members of the staff being concerned primarily in visual education of industrial progress. As intimated in previous reports, however, the presentation of correct information on industrial developments, whether by actual objects or publications, requires a considerable amount of preliminary study and research for the determination of truth and accuracy of detail. Typical of this kind of work are investigations made as to the details of the Conestoga wagon, an important vehicle of the early nineteenth century; the airplane devised by Sir Hiram Maxim; and early types of steam engines.

In the division of textiles, a systematic study of the New World species of Gossypium and other genera related to the cotton plant, begun sometime ago by the curator, Frederick L. Lewton, was continued during the year, but was not completed for the lack of greenhouse facilities and opportunity for field work. Research concerning the oldest cotton carding and spinning machinery in the United States developed a number of unknown facts and has resulted in the preparation of an article for a forthcoming annual report of the Smithsonian Institution. As routine work permitted, the preparation of comprehensive technical definitions of textile fabrics based upon authentic specimens in the collections and the examination of available current textile literature was continued.

In the section of wood technology, the assistant curator spent much time on microscopic examinations and analyses of several groups of foreign commercial woods, particularly those sold under the name mahogany. Cross, tangential, and radial sections of each specimen were made and checked against such descriptions of known woods as have been published. A set of 49 specimens of woods collected in Surinam in 1916 was similarly studied.

A study of American medicial history was continued by the assistant curator, division of medicine, Dr. Charles Whitebread, and work done on a paper descriptive of the early medical practices of the pioneers of this country.

In the division of graphic arts investigations carried on by the assistant curator, Ruel P. Tolman, resulted in the publication of two articles regarding plumbeotypes and human hair as a pigment. R. C. Smith, aid, continued study and publication on wood engravers and other subjects.

In the division of history, the curator, T. T. Belote, continued, with many interruptions, work on a monograph of the collection of American and foreign swords. The assistant curator, Capt. Charles Carey, devoted much time to the preparation of manuscript for a printed catalogue of the firearms in the care of the division.

Research of outside investigators aided by Museum material.The divisions of mineral and mechanical technology assisted out

siders with investigations in innumerable subjects, from the manufacture of pins to the construction of models of early locomotives. While this type of assistance does not involve to any great extent the use of museum materials it draws on the individual experience and knowledge of the staff.

In the section of wood technology, Dr. Samuel J. Record, professor of forest products at Yale University, was assisted in his investigations of tropical woods by study samples of 30 species of woods collected in the Dominican Republic which were sent as an exchange to the Yale School of Forestry. Miss Eliza F. W. Taft, of Wellesley, Mass., an expert textile designer, studied the collection of hand-woven textiles in the Museum and made drafts of the more interesting specimens in the exhibition series. Her investigations developed many interesting examples of the evolution of one design from another.

Representatives of the United States Department of Agriculture and other persons made use of the materia medica collection for the identification of crude drugs, while members of the United States Pharmacopoeial Convention frequently consulted the historical documents relating to the United States Pharmacopoeia which are exhibited in the Museum. Investigators in the hygienic laboratory of the United States Public Health Service were also assisted by printed information.

Samples of two substances in the Loeb collection of chemical types were donated to research workers, with the approval of the advisory committee, to assist investigations, as follows: Gray tin, to Julius A. Nieuwland, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind.; and indirubin, to William D. Appel, United States Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. In a number of other instances the curator of the Loeb collection, Maj. O. E. Roberts, jr., was able to assist research workers in locating commercial sources of substances which were not readily available. The work of the collection, it is felt, is now generally appreciated and recognized by chemists throughout the country.

The collections of the division of history were utilized by a number of outside investigators, among them Maj. Calvin H. Goddard, Bureau of Forensic Ballistics, New York City, and Dr. S. A. Barrett, director of the Milwaukee Public Museum. Each of these gentlemen spent several days in the Museum studying the firearms collection.

Assistance of members of the staff to other Government bureaus and private individuals.-From September, 1925, to June, 1926, Mr. Mitman and Mr. Lewton represented the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the commission appointed according to act of Congress to examine and dispose of the large number of Patent


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