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To the Rev. Mr. Maurice, Author of the Indian Antiquities, on
Pagan Trinities, including Remarks on Passages of Pausanias, on Appian, and on the 43d C. of Tacitus's Germany,
Since I wrote my last Letter to you, I have met with the following passage in Pausanias (B. 2. c. 22.)': “Beyond the tomb [of Pelasgus] is a small structure of brass, which supports the images of Diana, of Jupiter, and of Minerva, a work of some antiquity : Lyceas has in some verses recorded the fact that this [tria nity] is the representation of Jupiter. Machinator.” This passage, which establishes the fact that the Grecians worshipped a trinity in unity, fully justifies the translation, which I gave in my first Letter, of another passage in this valuable antiquary.
Pausanias says in B. 1. c. 28., when he is describing the Areopagite district of Athens : “ Here are the images of Pluto, of Mere cury, and of Tellus, to whom all such persons, whether citizens or strangers, as have vindicated their innocence in the Court of Areopagus, are required to sacrifice.” Again, in B. 1. c. 2.3 “ In a temple of Ceres, at the entrance of Athens, there are images of the Goddess herself, of her daughter, and of Bacchus, with a torch in his hand.” Here you see the same doctrine of a trinity in unity : it was the temple of Ceres, but a trinity in unity was worshipped there : thus, in the passage above, the structure, which is there said
1 πέραν δε του τάφου χαλκελόν έστιν ου μέγα, ανέχει δε αυτό αγάλματα αρχαία, 'Αρτέμιδος, και Διός, και Αθηνάς: Λυκίας δε ούν εποίησε Μηχανέως το άγαλμα είναι Διός, και 'Αργείων έφη τους επί "Ιλιον στρατεύσαντας, ενταύθα ομόσαι παραμένειν πολεμούντας, έστ' ών ή το "Ιλιον έλωσιν, ή μαχομένους τελευτή σφάς επιλάβη. κ. τ. λ.
* Κείται δε και Πλούτων, και Ερμής, και Γης άγαλμα ενταύθα θύουσι μεν όσοις εν Αρείω Πάγω την αιτίαν εξεγένετο απολύσασθαι· θύουσι τε και άλλως ξένοι τε ομοίως και αστοί. .
3 Πλησίον ναός έστι Δήμητρος: αγάλματα δε αυτή τε, και η παίς, και "δα έχων 'laxxos.
to have supported three images, is called the image of Jupiter Machinator : thus the temple at Rome, which was consecrated to the joint worship of Jupiter, of Juno, and of Minerva, was called the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Perhaps, Sir, you may suppose that this trinity, which consisted of Ceres, of Proserpine, and of Bacchus, was an accidental assemblage: these three divine personages, however, often represented the Grecian trinity': thus Pausanias groups them together in B. 2. c. xi.': these were the three deities, who were worshipped in the Eleusinian mysteries, as the following passage from Pausanias - (B. 8. c. 25.) will “ The river Lado then continues its course to the temple of the Eleusinian Ceres, which is situated in the territories of the Thelpusians: the three statues in it are each seven feet high, and all of marble; they represent Ceres, Proserpine, and Bacchus.” I shall submit to your consideration, in the present Letter, two other passages of Pausanias (whose work forms a complete summary of the Grecian religion, and should, therefore, be the constant study of all those scholars, who undertake to illustrate this important subject), and shall reserve some other passages for a future Letter. Pausanias says in 3 B. 2. c. 2. that “ by a temple dedicated to all the Gods, there were placed three statues of. Jupiter in the open air, of which one had no title, a second was styled the terrestrial, and the third was styled the highest.” Here you see another representation of the trinity: Pausanias says that one of these images had no title ; what the title should have been, will immediately occur to you,
consider that the other titles were the God of the Heaven, and the God of the Earth : the title should have been [Oandcrus] the God of the Sea. The subsequent passage of Pausanias from B. 2. c. 24. will con
' 'Εν αριστερά της όδου---Πυραία καλούμενόν έστιν άλσος, ιερον δε εν αυτώ Προστασίας Δήμητρος και Κόρης: ενταύθα εφ' εαυτών οι άνδρες εορτήν άγουσι τον δέ νυμφώνα καλούμενον, ταϊς γυναιξίν εορτάζειν παρείχασι και αγάλματα Διονύσου, και Δήμητρος, και Κόρης, τα πρόσωπα εν τω νυμφώνι εστίν.
2 Επί Δήμητρος ιερόν κάτεισιν Ελευσινιάς: το δε ιερόν τούτο έστι μεν Θέλπουσίων εν όροις: αγάλματα δε εν αυτώ, ποδων επτά ουκ αποδεών έκαστον, Δήμητρος έστι τε η παίς, και ο Διόνυσος τα πάντα ομοίως λίθου.
3 Τα δε του Διός και ταύτα όντα εν υπαίθρω, το μεν επίκλησιν ουκ είχε, τον δε αυτών χθόνιος, και τον τρίτον καλούσιν ΥΨΙΣΤΟΣ.
4 'Ενταύθα δε αναθήματα κείνται και άλλα, και Ζευς ξόανον, δύο μέν ή πεφύκαμεν έχoν οφθαλμούς, τρίτον δε επί του μετώπου τούτου το Δία Πριάμω φασίν
firm the conjecture: he there says, that “ in a temple of Minerva was placed a wooden image of Jupiter with three eyes; two of them were placed in the natural position, and the other was placed on the forehead :” He adds, “ one may naturally suppose that Jupiter is represented with three eyes as the God of the Heaven, as the God of the Earth, and as the God of the Sea.” But this Jupi. ter with his three eyes was, though Pausanias was ignorant of the fact, an emblem of the trinity. This inquisitive antiquary has recorded the curious tradition that it came from Troy. Now, Sir, you will immediately recollect that the Trojans acknowledged a trinity in the divine nature, and that the Dii Penates, or the Cabiri, of the Romans, came from Troy! The Scholiast upon Apollonius of Rhodes' (in B. 1. v.
917.) supposes that the Cabiri derived their name from a district of Phrygia ; so well known was it to have been their parent country! I may add, as a confirmation of the supposed eastern origin of this three-eyed Jupiter, that it is an oriental emblem of the trinity, as will appear by the subsequent quotations from the Atlas Chinesis of Montanus, translated by Ogilby. We read in p. 569, vol. 2 & 3, « The modern learned, or followers of this first sect, who are overwhelmed in idolatry, divide generally their idols, or false gods, into three orders, viz. celestial, terrestrial, and infernal: In the celestial they acknowledge a
είναι τα λαομέδοντος πατρώον, έν υπαίθρο της αυλής ίδρυμένον, και ότε ηλίσκετο υπό Ελλήνων "Ιλιον, επί τούτου κατέφυγεν ο Πρίαμος τον βωμόν έπει δε τα λάφυρα ενέμοντο, λαμβάνει Σθένελος, ο Καπανέως, αυτόν, και ανήκειται μεν διά τούτο ενταύθα τρείς δε οφθαλμούς έχειν επί τώδε άν τις τεκμαίροιτο αυτόν Διά γαρ εν Ουρανώ βασιλεύειν, ούτος μέν λόγος κοινός πάντων έστιν ανθρώπων· δν δε άρχειν φασίν υπό γης, έστιν έπος των ομήρου Διά ονομάζον και τούτου,
Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος, και επαινή Περσεφόνεια. [II. θ, ν. 457.] Αισχύλος δε, ο Ευφοριώνος, καλεί Διά και τον έν θαλάσση τρισίν ούν δρώντα εποίησεν οφθαλμοίς· όστις δη ούν και ποιήσας, άτε εν ταις τρισι ταϊς λεγομέναις λήξεσιν άρχοντα τον αυτόν τούτον Θεόν. Pausanias says here, that Eschylus calls Jupiter the God of the Sea. I have met with one other instance in the poems of C. S. Sidonius Apollinaris (Carmen xxii. v. 158.)
Sacra tridentiferi Jovis hic armenta profundo.
Pluto is styled by the Latin Poets Jupiter inferus, Stygius.
1 Κάβειροι δε δοκούσι, προσαγορεύσθαι από Καβείρων των κατά Φρυγιάν όρων· έπει ΕΝΤΕΥΘΕΝ METHNEΧΘΗΣΑΝ.
trinity of one godhead, which they worship, and serve by the name of a Goddess called Pussa ; which, with the Greeks, we might call Cybele, and with the Egyptians Isis, and Mother of the Gods: This Pussa (according to the Chinese saying) is the governess of nature, or, to speak properly, the Chinese Isis, or Cybele, by whose power they believe that all things are preserved and made fruitful, as the three inserted figures relate :" We are then told, that in the first figure, “ on her forehead, just above her eyes, is a round speck, or 0, in form of a third eye.” Again, in the description of the second print, p. 570, “ on her forehead is a speck, or 0, in manner of a third eye, for a testimony of her being able to see all things.” Again, in the description of the fourth print, p. 572, " The fourth fgure appearing in the middle represents the idol Fe, or Fo, which signifies Preserver : on his forehead is a speck, or 0, instead of a third eye; on the right side sits the Goddess Pussa, and hath likewise a sign for a third eye on the forehead.” Again, in the account of the deified Xekia, (who is said, in p. 574, to have received his knowledge “ from four Gioghis, which are hermits of India") we are told in p. 576, that “his image is represented in the temples, in the shape of a fair youth, with a third eye in his forehead.”
I hasten now to make my promised remarks upon
passage, which I quoted in my first letter, from the 43d c. of Tacitus's Germany: it is thus translated in the concise, and, I may add, the accurate version of Dr. Aikin." " In the country of the latter [Naharvali] is a grove consecrated to religious rites of great antiquity : a priest presides over them, dressed in woman's apparel; but the gods worshipped there, are said, according to the Roman interpretation, to be Castor and Pollux : their attributes are the same; their name Alcis: no images, indeed, or vestiges of foreign superstition appear in their worship, but they are revered under the character of young men and brothers.” Not one of the commentators upon Tacitus, whom I have seen, has thrown any light upon
Apud Naharvalos antiquæ religionis lucus ostenditur: præsidet sacerdos muliebri ornatu ; sed deos, interpretatione Romanà, Castorem Pollucemquc memorant : ea vis numini : nomen Alcis: nulla simulacra, nullum peregrinæ superstitionis vestigium ; ut fratres tamen, ut juvenes venerantur.
this curious passage : it is, however, evident that there was a twofold distinction in this divinity, that his name was Alcis, and that the priest, who attended him, was dressed in the clothes of a woman ; but Tacitus must be mistaken in referring this duality to Castor, and Pollux : perhaps the reason why the priest was enjoined to wear a female dress, was to point out the androgynous nature of the deity ; for we know, from the Northern Antiquities of Mallet, that the Scandinavians considered their deity as a hermaphrodite. With respect to the word Alcis, I find it to be the name of a woman in Pausanias (B. ix. c. 17.), and the name of a man in B. iv. c. 9. Lempriere, in his Classical Dictionary, says from Apollodorus that one of the daughters of Ægyptus was called Alcis; and Livy,' in the 51st c. of his 42d B. says that the Macedonians call their Minerva Alcis, and informs us that Perseus made to her a royal sacrifice of one hundred victims: Cicero says, if I mistake not, in his Nature of the Gods, that one person, in one of the three orders of Anaces, whom he mentions, is named Alco. A friend has suggested that the word Alcis is derived froin the Hebrew 5x Al, i. e. ful one.” The two last hypostases of the trinity were, as you well know, considered as emanations from Jupiter : in the course of time, these, the real Dioscuri, were confounded with Castor and Pollux, the fabulous Dioscuri, who were known only to the Grecians, as Herodotuso expressly asserts in the 43d c. of his 2d B. Castor and Pollux were always represented as brothers, and as young men ; and the real Dioscuri, or Cherubim of the Classics, were also represented as brothers, and as youths. I hope that I have proved to your satisfaction, in my first Letter, that the Samothracian Cabiri were the Pelasgic trinity. Now it is well known to every scholar,
" the power
* Citium (Macedoniæ oppidum est) copias omnes contrahit; ipse centum hostiis sacrificio regaliter Minervæ, quam vocat Alciden, confecto-, profectus Citium est.
Αιγύπτιοι ούτε Ποσειδέωνος, ούτε Διοσκούρων, τα ονόματά φασι ειδέναι, ουδε σφι Θεοί ούτοι εν τoίσι άλλοισι Θεοίσι αποδεδέχαται.
3 Heyne, in the 9th Excursus of the Second Æneid on the Dii Penates, says, “ Quia, duorum adolescentum, prisco more, tanquam fratrum junctorum, signa oculis occurrebunt, confusi tandem illi sunt cum Dioscuris.” This profound scholar had before mentioned a very curious fact from Dionysius of Halicarnassus, which I shall give in his own words: “ Dion. Halic. 1, 63: Romæ in Æde Deum Penatium sub Velià—duos Genios, seu Adolescentes, sedentium habitu et hastam manu tenentium, viderat, eòque Timæi fidem elevat, qui mera xmpúxecce [sc. Penates), caduceos, esse ab indigenis audierat; fortè tamen nec hoc falso, si id ad informia rudis artis opera referas."