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Sic templa' Persam Delphica inanibus
Dextram hominum superante dextrâ.
Nutritus ergo sanguine Brittonum
Sceptra dabit moderanda Paci.
Nec vana fingo somnia ; dum loquor,
Ense premit radiante Vindex.
Hinc spem recentem suscipio; velut
Efferat Oceano capillos,
Omen diei laudat, et aureâ
Axe fuget trepidamque noctem.
In Comitiis Maximis.
1 Vide Herodot, lib. 8. cap. 38.
EPIGRAMMATA NUMISMATE ANNUO DIGNATA,
ET IN CURIA CANTABRIGIENSI RECITATA.
Η ΣΙΓΗΝ ΚΑΙΡΙΟΝ Η ΛΟΓΟΝ ΩΦΕΛΙΜΟΝ.
EI φρονέεις, πάντων αφρονέστατος έσσεαι ανδρών,
Τον λόγον έγκρύπτων έν πραπίσι δνοφεραϊς:
Ούτις ανήρ, των νύν, μάλλον εύφρονέει.
Σιγώσ' αφροσύνη σωφροσύνη πέλεται:
Quam bellè minio rubent et auro
Coll. Trin. alum.
In Comitiis Maximis.
On the English Version of the Old Testament.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL.
EXODUS. Chap. I.
.ויהי כל נפש יצאי ירך יעקב שבעים נפש
V. 1. The English version gives the sense with sufficient exactness; but there is a want of conciseness in the translation, which is apparent when the original is consulted. This is an objection which frequently recurs ;—the fault may lie in the structure of our language.
V. 5. And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls. This version gives the meaning without offence to delicacy, which is precisely the case in the criginal, -.
Jerome has most absurdly translated these words, Erunt igitur omnes anime eorum, qui egressi sunt de femore Jacob. septuaginta. Thus the readers of the vulgate must suppose, that Jacob's powers of procreation resided in his thigh. The LXX, in
'The LXX, in no very classical Greek, avoid the literal interpretation, while they yet express the general meaning ;-"Ήσαν δε πάσαι ψυχαί εξ Ιακω3 πέντε και εβδομήκοντα. The Greek numbers are inaccurate.
And all that generation. I do not mean to object to this translation ; but I must observe, that 797 does not properly signify a generation. The Lexicographers, indeed, give it this interpretation, as if it were a primitive sense of the word: but this seems erroneous. implies circuit, or revolution; and, therefore, when applied to a family, or race of men, is properly understood to signify a generation.
דור The original meaning of
V. 11. Pithom and Raamses. The LXX either found a remarkable addition in the codices from which they translated, or they introduced of their own accord an extraordinary interpolation. They add, Kai "Nv, ý to TW 'HABÚTodos----and On, which is Heliopolis, or, “ city of the Sun.” But in the 41st chapter of Genesis, the LXX expressly say, that Joseph was married to the daughter of the Priest of Heliopolis. This city then was already built at the period, to which the present chapter refers ; and there is consequently an apparent contradiction. Now I can scarcely believe, that the Alexandrian Jews, who were employed in translating the Pentateuch, would have been guilty of such a useless deviation from the original ; and that the whole interpolation amounted to this, that they added, by way of explanation after the word On, « which is Heliopolis.” In Genesis they do not give the word On at all, but substitute for it Heliopolis, because On appears to have been the Egyptian name of the city of the Sun. But the LXX evidently fell into a mistake, when they wrote Heliopolis for On in Genesis. The Egyptians called their cities by the names of their Gods, without any addition, such as we find in Hebrew, Phænician, and Greek—(Kirjath-Baal, Bith-Shemosh, Heliopolis, &c. for example,) and named them simply Buto, Bubastis, Canobus, Busiris, &c. In the same manner the city was called On, after the God On, who, as Cyrillus attests, was no other than the Sun; and Joseph's wife was the daughter of the Priest, not of On “ the city,” but of On “ the God.” This reconciles the scriptures with themselves, if in the ancient codices the word On really did occur in this place, which I am much inclined to believe it did. It
appears evident to me, that the persecution of the Israelites by Pharaoh was not less a religious than a political persecution. Pharaoh knew not Joseph, and he acknowledged not Jehovah. It was, then, extremely likely, in order fully to subjugate and humiliate the Hebrews, that he should make them build treasure cities, which were called by the names, and erected in honor of the idols of Egypt. I am inclined to think, that Pithom and Raamses were the names of two Egyptian deities. The first name is clearly Egyptian ; but we may suspect, that it has been Hebraised in its form. I imagine that it must have
been pronounced in Egyptian, III-XOU_Pi-dsom; for we have here the article pi, and dsom, which was a solar title in Egypt, (see Jablonski, l. ii. c. 3.) Dsom, likewise called Chon, was the same with Hercules ; and was, like him, a type of the Sun in his annual course through the signs of the zodiac.
Raamses (DDDYn) is interpreted in the Onomasticon fregit tributo. The Egyptians then gave a Hebrew name to one of their cities. This does not appear very probable : according to the Syrians, the daughter of Pharaoh was called Loveys; Raamusa; and I suspect, that Raamses, and Raamusa, are very nearly allied in signification. The word ruam, or ram, signifying concussion, but more particularly the concussion of the air occasioned by thunder, appears to have been in very general use throughout the East : but as the Sun was considered as the God of Thunder, the title was transferred to that luminary The Rama of the Indians, according to Sir W. Jones, was no other than that type of the Sun, called Dionysus by the Greeks. Some etymologists have gone so far as to denominate Abraham, Ab-Ram, Sol-pater. Even in the West this name of Ram became a title which was given to the God of Thunder; and Bochart derives the Celtic Taramis from
He seems, however, manifestly to err, when he says, that the word is ayun, then being servile, and prefixed to by raam, thunder. The Sun was worshipped over great part of the East, and in all the Northern regions of Europe, under the Chaldean name of 1 or, tor, or thor, (the Bull,) and the symbol of the Sun. Now I have no great doubt, that the word Taramis is composed of tor (variously pronounced taur, tur, &c.) and raam, or ram, thunder. But to return to Raamses, it is evident, that this was an Egyptian name, and clearly the same with Rhameses, which Mr. Bryant, in his 4th volume shows to have been a solar title in Egypt. The word Dyn raam, appears, as I have already said, to have been of very general and ancient usage ; and, therefore, I do not presume too much, especially after finding the Egyptian names Raamusi, and Rhameses, in concluding, that it was known to the Egyptians, as well as to the Hebrews, the Syrians, the Chaldeans, and the Indians, in the East, and to the Celts in the
Vol. iv. No, VII.