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JUSTIN EMENDATED, AND ÆSCHYLUS
HOMINIBUS (sc. Scythis) inter se nulli fines ; neque enim agrum exercent; nec domus ulla, aut tectum, aut sedes est, arménta et pecora semper pascentibus, et per incultas solitudines errare solitis : uxores, liberosque secum in plaustris vehunt, quibus, coriis imbrium hyemisque causâ tectis, pro domibus uruntur: justitia gentis ingeniis culta, non legibus: nullum scelus apud eos furto gravius; quippe sine tecti munimento pecora et armenta habentibus quid salvum esset, si furari liceret? Aurum et argentum non perinde ac reliqui mortales appetunt: lacte et melle vescuntur : lanæ iis usus ac vestium ignotus ; et quanquam continuis frigoribus urantur, pellibus tamen ferinis, aut murinis utun ir : hæc continentia illis morum quoque justitiam edidit, nihil alienum concupiscentibus ; quippe ibidem divitiarum cupido est, ubi et usus : atque utinam reliquis mortalibus similis moderatio et abstinentia alieni foret! profectò non tantum bellorum per omnia secula terris omnibus continuaretur, neque plus hominum ferrum et arma quàm naturalis fatorum conditio raperet : prorsùs ut admirabile videatur, hoc illis naturam dare, quod Græci longâ sapientium doctrina, præceptisque philosophorum consequi nequeunt; cultosque mores incultæ barbariæ collatione superari : tantò plus in illis proficit vitiorum ignoratio, quàm in his cognitio virtutis. Justin. 1. ii. c. 2.
It is a remarkable circumstance that none of the editors of this valuable, but neglected historian, have, as far as I know, observed the dislocation of a sentence in the passage, which is quoted above ; yet, as soon as the error is shown, the most scrupulous critic will, perhaps, readily acknowledge it: I read the passage thus : Hominibus inter se nulli fines ; neque enim agruin exercent; nec domus illis ulla, aut tectum, aut sedes
est, armenta et pecora semper pascentibus, et per incultas solitudines errare solitis : uxores, liberosque secum in plaustris vehunt, quibus, coriis, imbrium hyemisque causâ, tectis, pro domibus utuntur: lacte et melle vescuntur : lanæ iis usus ac vestium ignotus ; et quanquam continuis frigoribus urantur, pellibus tamen ferinis, aut murinis utuntur : justitia gentis ingeniis culta, non legibus: nullum scelus apud eos furto gravius ; quippe sine tecti munimento pecora, et armenta habentibus quid salvum esset, si furari liceret ? Aurum, et argentum non perinde ac reliqui mortales appetunt: hæc continentia illis morum quoque justitiam edidit, nihil alienum concupiscentibus, quippe ibidem divitiarum cupido est, ubi et usus, etc.
I shall now proceed to offer some remarks, which were suggested by the perusal of this passage: Justin says, Uxores, liberosque secum in plaustris vehunt, quibus coriis, imbrium hyemisque causâ, tectis, pro domibus utuntur. In the Variorum Edition of 1669 we have the following note of Berneggeri : « Vix inhibeo manum rescripturientem corticibus, quæ vox è curribus, quod coriis in MS. quodam suprascriptum Bongarsius affirmat, facili literarum ductu formatur : certè plaustra Scythica corticibus tecta facit et Amm. Marcellinus xxii. 19. xxxi. 6. Alanos ait vagari supersedentes plaustris, quæ operimentis curvatis corticum (tanquam imbricibus) per solitudines conserunt.”
This ingenious conjecture will derive an additional probability from the following accounts of modern Scythian houses : Mr. Bell of Antermony, in his relation of a journey to Pekin through .China, says (Vol. 1. p. 225:) “ The Tonqusy—have no houses, where they remain for any time, but range through the woods, and along rivers at pleasure ; and wherever they come, they erect a few spars, inclining one to another at the top ; these they COVER WITH PIECES OF BIRCHEN BARK, SEWED TOGETHER, leaving a hole at the top to let out the smoke: the fire is placed in the middle.” Again, he says (in Vol. 11. p. 144 :) “ Their (the Osteaks) manner of life. is nearly the same with that of the Tonguse, who border with them to the eastward : in summer they live in the woods, in huts COVERED WITH BIRCHEN BARK."
Æschylus, in his Prometheus Desmotes (v. 734. edition Blomfield) says:
Σκύθας δ' αφίξει νομάδας, οι πλεκτας στέγας
εκηβόλοις τόξοισιν εξηρτημένοι. . The learned Editor of this play presents us with the following note: “Faytas atéyas suspicatur Dacierus, quòd putat Horatium hunc poetæ nostri versum expressisse in Ode 24, L. iii. 10. Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos : Sed neuter Scho, liastes ingeniosæ suspicioni favet. L. Theobald.” The opinion of Dacier that Horace alludes to this passage of Æschylus is just as absurd, as to suppose that Herodotus alluded to Æschylus, who describes the Scythians in the same way (1. iv. c. 19.) φερέοικοι εόντες πάντες, έωσι ιπποτοξόται, ζώντες μη από αρότου, αλλ' από κτηνέων, οικήματά τέ σφι ή επί ζευγέων κ. τ. λ. The fact is that the Scythian mode of life was well known, and we have no'occasion to suppose that either Herodotus borrowed from Æschylus, or Horace borrowed from Æschylus : the conjecture of πλαγκτάς for πλεκτας, whatever ingenuity it may possess, seems unfortunately to betray the ignorance of Dacier, who, because he, probably, did not comprehend the meaning of Flexta's atéyas, supposed the passage to be corrupt.
Stanley thus explains the word (Vol. 1. p. 230. Butler, 8vo. edition :) « Sunt autem #dextai atéyal, casa : Isidor. Origin. xv. 2. Casa est agreste habitaculum palis, virgultis, arundinibusque contectum : Auctor Pervigilii Veneris v. 6. implicat casas virentes de flagello myrteo.” The first Scholiast says: Οίτινες οι Σκύθαι ναίoυσι και κατοικούσι πλεκτας στέγας, και από της γης έπαιρόμενοι και υψούμενοι και γαρ επάνω αμαξών (τούτο γαρ δηλοί το επ' ευκύκλοις όχις) τας σκηνας οι Σκύθαι ποιούνται τόξα έχοντες : And the 2d Scholiast says: πλεκτας στέγας, πεπληγμένας οικίας. .
The following passage from Bell's Travels (Vol. 1. p. 29.) will be the best comment upon the aréxtau OTémous of Æschylus. “ The [Kalmuck] Tartars had their tents pitched along the river-side : these tents are of a conical figure; there are several long poles erected, inclining to one another, which are fixed at the top into something like a hoop, that forms the circumference of an aperture for letting out the smoke, or admitting
VOL. IY. NO. VII.
the light ; across the poles are laid some small rods from 4 to 6 feet long, and fastened to them with thongs: this frame is covered with pieces of felt, made of coarse wool and hair : these tents afford better shelter than any other kind, and are so contrived, as to be set up, taken down, folded, and packed up with great ease and quickness, and are so light that a camel may carry 5 or 6 of them.” There is a very curious description of a Tartar tent in the travels of the monk William de Rubriquis, inserted in the 1st Vol. of Harris's Collection, p. 559 : “ Their houses, in which they sleep, they raise upon a round foundation of wickers, artificially wrought and compacted together ; the roof consisting of wickers also meeting above in one little roundell, out of which there rises upwards a neck like a chimney, which they cover with white felt, and often they lay mortar, or white earth upon the felt with the powder of bones, that it may shine and look white: sometimes also they cover their houses with black felt : this cupola of their house they adorn with variety of pictures: before the door they hang a felt curiously painted over; for they spend all their colored felt in painting vines, trees, birds, and beasts there. upon : these houses they make so large, that they contain 30 feet in breadth; for measuring once the breadth between the wheel-ruts of one of their carts or wains, I found it to be 20 feet over, and when the house was upon the cart, it stretched over the wheels on each side 5 feet at least: I told 22 oxen in one draught drawing a house upon a cart, 11 in one row according to the breadth of the cart, and 11 more on the other side : the axle-tree of the cart was. of a huge bigness, like the mast of a ship, and a fellow stood in the door of the house upon the forestall of the cart driving the oxen : they likewise make certain four-square baskets of slender twigs as big as great ehests, and afterwards from one side to another they frame a hollow lid, or cover of such-like twigs, and make a door in it before: then they cover the said chest, or house with black felt, rubbed over with tallow, or sheep's milk, to keep the rain from soaking through, which they likewise adorn with painting, or white feathers : into these chests they put their whole household stuff, or treasure, and bind them upon other carts, which are drawn by camels, that they may pass through rivers,
neither do they ever take down these chests from their carts." Dr. Harris gives a print of both these Tartar houses, and these Tartar chests. Æschylus says above én” củxúxãous ögons. This epithet of súxúxnous alludes to the arched covering of these waggons: thus Ammianus Marcellinus says in the passage cited above, that the Alani « vagari supersedentes plaustris, quæ operimentis curvatis corticum (tanquam imbricibus) per solitudines conserunt.” See also the description of the Kalmuck tènts from Mr. Bell, but more particularly the first part of the quotation from Rubriquis.
E. H. BARKER.
Beverley, Feb. 14th.
The following paper contains, it is presumed, some particulars respecting Epaphroditus, very worthy the attention of ecclesiastical inquirers. Suetonius in his life of Domitianus c. 14, 19. has thus written: Epaphroditum à libellis capitali pænâ condemnavit, quod post destitutionem Nero in adipiscendâ morte manu ejus adjutus existimabatur. Denique Flavium Clementem patruelem suum contemtissimæ inertiæ repentè ex tenuissimâ suspicione tantùm non ipso ejus consulatu interemit. “ He (Domitian) capitally condemned Epaphroditus his secretary, because he is supposed to have assisted Nero after the loss of his power, in destroying himself. Finally F. Clement, his own cousin, but a man of the most despicable inertness, he, on a sudden and upon very slight suspicion, put to death, though he had as yet hardly laid down the consulship.”
D. Cassius, Lib. lxxvii. 14. speaks more fully of these transactions. Και εν τω αυτώ έτει άλλους σε πολλούς και τον Φλάβιον Κλήμεντα υπατεύοντα, καίπερ ανέψιον όντα, και γυναίκα και αυτήν συγγενή εαυτού Φλάβιαν Δομιτίλλαν έχοντα, κατέσφαξεν ο Δομιτία