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Art. XIII. An Outline of Mineralogy and Geology. By
W. Phillips: 193 pp. 3s.6d. Phillips. 1813.
As an elementary treatise upon mineralogy, we have not seen a book that has given us so mitch satisfaction. The arrangement is good, the explanations clear, and the descriptions sufficiently copious for the beginner. - : The following is the description of salt deposites: “Clay, sandstone, and gypsum, almost invariably accompany rock salt, either above or below it; sometimes both above and elow it. - r
“The countries in which large deposites of salt are found, are
for the most part flat; they do not often exceed that elevation which is termed hilly. - . . . . . . . . .
“In Germany, but few instances of the rock salt formation occur; but it is said that an uncommonly great deposition of it may be traced with little interruption from the Black Sea nearly to the Alps. It abounds in Spain; but is not yery common in Russia or generally in northern countries. Nevertheless there ar.
said to be two, whole mountains in Astracan entirely composed o
it. It is abundant in Persia; the isle of Ormus in the Persian. Gulph almost wholly consists of rock salt. Whole mountains of it also occur in Tunis and Algiers, in Africa. It is found in New South Wales; and not long, sinée a mogntain, of salt of an immense height was discovered near the Missouri river in America, eighty miles long and forty-five miles wide, the surface of which
is barely covered with earth; neither tree nor shrub is growing
upon it. “But many countries are nearly without salt. At Delhi and Agra, the capitals of Hindustan, its price is 2s. 6d. per pound: and it is said to be so scarce in the interior of that country, west of Thibet, that the natives used cakes of salt, sealed up and bearing the stamp of their prince, as money. “Perhaps the most extensive deposition of rock salt in the world occurs in Wielitska, near Cracow in Poland, at the northern extremity of a branch of the Carpathian mountains. It has been worked as a mine since the year 1251, and its excavations are said to extend more than a league from east to west. The salt ; of an iron grey colour, in which are found cubes of a pure white.” . 153, . - - . . . .
The following description of the salt mines at Northwich, in Cheshire, may prove interesting to some of our readers.
“These beds are known to extend one mile and a half, north
east and south west, and are upwards of three quarters of a mile wide: there are two beds, lying one beneath the other. - H 2 “ The “The strata above the upper bed, consist of gypsum, and of alternating beds of variously coloured marl, red, blue, and brown; some of them are so porous as that it has been ascertained that 360 gallons of water rise through them in a minute; a circumstance that greatly impedes the sinking of the pits. It is remarkable, but it is well ascertained, that the various strata above the upper bed of rock salt contain no marine fossils. These strata are from 105
... to 120 feet thick; they repose on the first bed of salt which is from
sixty to ninety feet thick: between the first and second beds of salt lies a stratum of indurated marl, thirty-fix to forty feet in thickness. So that the surface of the second or lower bed of rock salt is about 220 feet from the surface of the land. Into this second bed of salt they have sunk 132 feet, without having found the bottom of it. - “ The salt of these mines is for the most part of a reddish hue, arising from some admixturé of iron; and it is generally so hard, that the blast by §. is employed in breaking it down. The lower part of the lower bed is the purest; and in it there are considerable cavities about 16 feet in height; in which, occasionally, pillars of salt are left, six or eight yards square, which form the supports of the roof. The cavities are worked into aisles or streets; which, when illuminated by candles fixed to the sides of the rock, give a brilliancy of effect that is singularly striking; and, it is said, almost appear to realize the magic palaces of the eastern 06tS. - r
* Some idea of the vast magnitude of the Cheshire salt deposites may be formed, when it is mentioned that its many mines yield 16,000 tons for home consumption annually, and that i40,000 tons more are annually exported from Liverpool.” P. 157.
We strongly recommend this little work, as a most useful
and cheap companion to the young mineralogist.
ART. XIV. Researches about Atmospheric Phaenomena. * T. Forster. F.L.S. 8vo pp. 271. Ios. 6d. Plates. Baldwin. 1815. ,
MR.FOR STER appears to be agentleman of an ardent, though somewhat of a positive turm of mind, devoid neither of ingemuiy or science. Various readers will be amused in various ways by the perusal of this volume. The plates are very pretty, and in no small degree illustrate the observations of the work. Our author treats of the origin, the modification, and the peculiarities of clouds; indications of future changes of the i. - - " * - - - ther; ther; and the influence of all its varieties upon organized bodies; with observations on the regimen to be pursued in the various diseases resulting from such changes. Now although we are far from agreeing with our author in his opinions upon all these subjects, upon some of which he has suffered his judgment to run wild, we cannot in justice deny him the credit of having written an original, useful, and very amusing volume.
Aar. XV. A Fisit to Paris in 1814. By John Scott, Editor of the Champion. .. 8vo. pp. 409. 12s. 1815.
FROM the editor of a Sunday paper, we expected little worthy of our attention, and that little calling for our reprobation. We were agreeably disappointed however in the present work. The views of French society and manners are in great measure origimal, the comparison of them with the English just, and the . principles unexceptionable. The following reflections upon the superior decency, as it is termed, of Paris, have more originality than any that we have seen, nor are they more original than just. After speaking of the Palais Royale, the author observes --
“It is very certain, that if there were any similar places of re. sort in London, such abominable conduct would prevail among them, that they would become insufferable nuisances;–whereas, in Paris, there is nothing seen painfully to offend the eye, and this is enough to satisfy the Parisians that they ought not to shock the mind. But the truth is, that grossness of conduct is the natural and becoming barrier that stands between virtue and vice,—it proves that the two are kept totally distinct, that the partizans of the latter feel themselves proscribed, rejected, disowned by the respectable. They thus carry with them the brand of their infamy, the good shudder at it and avoid them,--they disgust instead of alluring-they excite a horror which counteracts the temptations to licentiousness. It is a sign that the virtue of a nation is spurious and debased, not that its vice is scanty and unaggravated, when its manners fail strongly to mark the distinction between the worthy and the reprobate. Where morals are generally loose, where principles are unsettled, and duties ill understood and worse practised, the most vicious will assume a companionable decorum of behaviour, for they will feel that they are not much out
of the common way; and, being on terms of familiarity and communion with all around them, their iniquity will help to form a generally debased standard, instead of remaining distinct and odious, as a contrast to what is pure and valuable. This is the true tecret of what is termed the superior decency of Paris in some respects:
spects:–it cannot be said to exist in any one instance of super riority in what is good;—it is not to be found in a closer regard to the nuptial contract, in a higher sense of what is honourable in transactions between man and man, or in abstinence from sensual indulgences, No, in each and all of these respects, the French are
notoriously less strict than the Eriglish : —but their prostitutes are - - yies gll - - - - p
better behaved, and their public assemblages are not so boisterous, —the causes of which are, that their women of the town are less a peculiar class than those of England, and that the quiet and comfort
of their homes are less sacredly preserved, and fondly esteemed.” "
In his chapter upon the manners and habits of the French females, the same train of thought is applied in a still stronger 19tanner.
“One effect of what I have been describing is, that, amidst this general profligacy, the grosser features of vice are not frequently
seen. A woman who swerves from her sex s point of honour in
England, is aware that she has committed an unpardonable offence, and the coarseness of depravity ensues from the very consciousness of the enormity of her crime. But it is very different in France, A female there who has committed adultery, regards herself, and
is regarded by others, as not more culpable than if she were a little. too extravagant, or too addicted to play, or rather fond of going
from home. Her mind, therefore, experiences little, if any alteration, in consequence of the violation of her person; it is but little, or rather not at all, worse than it was before. It must be admitted, that this is a better state of disposition and feeling than usually
exists in union with a disregard of chastity in England, but how
worthless is it as a general standard of the female heart, and is it
more to the general manners, it lives on an easier and more communicable footing with all around it. Now the truth is, that, for all the interests of virtue, this is the most fatal public symptom of the two The offensive shew in our theatres is highly disgraceful
to the managers who build conveniences for this description of per
sons, that they may derive a profit from assisting the vicious intercourse in question, but one of its most certain effects is to fill the breast of the youthful female, who is not corrupted, with horror, and to strengthen it against every seduction, which, by any possibility, might end in reducing her to so frightful a state of degradation. She sees the votaries of pleasure in an awful state of deformity and abandonment, and if the Greeks found it efficacious, to
confirm their young men in habits of temperance, to expose slaves
before them in the brutality to which drunkemness reduces, surely. it must be still more admonitory and alarming to a young girl of delicate feelings and refined manners, to see her own sex exposed in loathsomeness and misery to the insolence and coarseness of the other. l r . “The dangerous seduction is in Paris, where the harlot sits beside the girl of virtue, pretty, demure, attentive to the play, and coquetting with the surrounding beaux. The young lady is sensible that this woman does little more than her mamma does, and she sees no difference in their carriage. The men behave alike respectfully to both ; they are both, then, entirely on an equality to the eye, and pretty nearly so to the understanding. f “It is, I repeat, most essential to the preservation of virtue, that the distinction between it and vice should be strongly marked. ‘It certainly is not so in France: they unite with each other, and this is an union which must be entirely at the expense of the best party to it, and, at the same time, promote the extension, without lessen ing the mischiefs of the worst.” P. 252.
This view of the subject is masterly and good, and we give great credit to the sound principles of morality, and the just views of human nature by which it is dictated. The gaming tables are described in language animated and just. . : “Gaming, in every country sufficiently injurious, in this is rendered doubly destructive from the small sums that may be staked. At the first tables with which the Palais Royal, and indeed almost
every district of Paris, abounds, and to some of which females are admitted as well as men, so small a sum as two francs, or twenty
pence, may be staked. The evil of this will easily be seen; every artisan who can earn, every shopman or apprentice who can purloin.
that sum, may try his fortune at the gaming table; and, not con
tent with this encouragement to the spirit of play, the government provides in the course of every year, not less than about one hishdred and eighty lotteries, one of which is drawn nearly every other
day, and in which persons may purchase even for the small sum of .
six-pence;—the consequence is, that the family of many a labourer - - is