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bility upon the reporter's love of truth, or his attatchment to calumny.

The objections to the ministerial Orders open with the following profound observations:

“ You evidently plume yourself upon your Holy Orders.“ Grant the genuineness and validity of your Orders, you must see they give you no authority out of your communion. Presbyte. rians and Methodists on the one side, and Roman Catholics, on the other smile at them; the former say that you can trace your pedia gree to the apostles only by proving your kindred to the Church of Rome ;--the latter say, and they are the best judges of their own powers and intentions, that they neither gave, nor could give, their priests and bishops, who separated from them at the Reformation—any orders to give Orders." P. 9. • The people know, if you have still to discover, that you have

exclusive' possession or gift; and that you use words which have lost their original meaning when you talk of giving and receiving the Holy Ghost. Miracles only can establish your legiti« mate descent from the apostles; these you prudently leave to the elder Church of Rome; but without them, you stand in temporalities upon Acts of Parliament, in spiritualities, upon your talents and characters." P, 10.

It is difficult to determine, whether the learning exhibited in the former remark, or the ingenuity displayed in the subses quent, be chiefly entitled to our adıniration. That Presbyterians who admit our bishops to be presbyters, and Methodists, who allow them to be bishops, should impeach the validity of our Orders, if taken, as appears, by conjecture, exhibits a rare talent at guessing. But that the Roman Catholics stand in the same predicament is we confess a still more fortunate discovery; as the very best defence of " the Validity of English Ordinations” is by a priest, who lived and died in the Romnish communion* But whether “ the people know that the Romanists, without disputing the power of our bishops, have merely combated the fact that it was derived to them by a regular ordination*; and that, even abandoning this ground, ihey acknowledged, under Queen Mary, during the primacy of Cardinal Pole, the orders conferred by our schismatical bishops ; are points, which we readily grant the objector, we “ have still to discover." The Unitariang, however, the Dissenters from the Dissenters, still make their objections ; and propose miracles as the test of our spiritual anthority. When they acquire sagacity enough to dis. cover, whether this test evinces “a legitimate descent from the

* P. Courayer. Dissert, sur la Valid. des Ordin. Angl. Brux. 1723. 4 Massuet. Dissert. Präv. in Iren. cap.cviii.


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apostles," or, a direct mission from Heaven, we shall undertake to reply to their objections. Begging leave, in the mean while, to refer them for satisfaction on this point to the idolatrous Church of Rome; we shall borrow, from themselves, a proof of all that we are concerned in evincing.

16 One short sentence of the apostle Paul is with me” says Mr. Robert Aspland, " of more authority than the purest episcopal ordination, even though in the elder and superior Roman Catholic Church :- the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart.""

P.16, n. May we now ask this Solomon of modern interpreters, on what authority he receives the book in which “ this short sentence” is contained, as the work of the Apostle? When he has answered this question for us, he will possibly have acquired wit to perceive, that he has answered himself; and that the tradition of the Church, which he holds so very light, in impugning our Orders, is nécessary to support the abortion of an argument, by which he has undertaken to oppose them; and that granting the received proofs of the authenticity of Scripture to have any weight, the certainty of the apostolical succession directly follows as a matter of necessary consequence. Without entering into a subject which would lead us very far from our object, we wish to abide by our fisrt declaration, that our adversaries shall be made to refute their own objections by the very proofs that they use to establish them. To those, therefore, who put us down with “ a short sentence of Scripture," we in the mean time reply, that as we have one way for proving all matters of fact, which we leave our opponents to conjecture; we hold ourselves pledged to establish the apostolical succession by the same proofs, that they establish the apostolical writings.

The next objection respects no matter of fact; but a question of casuistry, on which we gladly seize this opportunity of speaking our sentiments, in order to clear up some difficulties which have given occasion to much slander and misrepresentation.

The candidate for Orders, (according to the Office for the Ordination of Priests and Deacons) is asked by the ordaining Bishop, · Whether he trusts that he is inwardly moved by the Holy Ghost to take upon him this office.' He declares as in God's presence, that..he trusts he is so moved. Upon this Bishop Burnet observes, (Past. Care) Certainly, this answer, I trust I am so moved, ought well to be considered; for if any say, I trust so, who yet knows nothing of any such motion, and can give no account of it, he lies to the Holy Ghost.” P. 10.

How far the terms motion and motive, which stand in the same relation to the verb move,' may be taken as synonimous on the


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other side of the Tweed, we will not take opon ourselves to determine." Let stubstitute the latter term for the fornier, and whatever difficulty is found in the question before us, will rest, we conceivė, with those only, who are ignorant of the language and doctrine of the Reformers, who compiled the office before us. As it was agreeable to their theology, to consider all holy desires, all good counsels, and all just works, as proceeding froin God; they have defined, in their context, the motives, on the truth and purity of which, they require from the candidates a solemn assurance, that they trust they are inspired by the Spirit of God.' To the questions proposed to them, relative to their

purpose of administering the Word and Sacraments, giving attention to Prayer, forming their life according to God's word, and living in obedience to their Ordinary,' the following words are subjoined, “ God who hath given you this will to do all these things, grant also unto you strength and power to perform the

*." And if this declaration, relative to the will' and 'purpose of the candidates, had not been sufficient to fix the meaning, in which they used the term moved;' it might be infallibly col. lected from that formulary which contains a professed definition of the Call to the Ministry. All internal motions, or perceptions of the Spirit, are notonly superseded in it; but the subject before us, thus briefly and fully explained: “And those we ought to judge lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and called to this work, by men, who have publick authority given unto them in the congregation, to call and send ministers into the Lord's vineyard ."


* Farm. of Order. Deacons.

# XXXIX. Art. l. xxiii. That this is the sense in which the question before us has been understood, by every sane divine, since the time of.the Reformation, may be collected from the fole lowing authorities, which are above all exception : Bp. Latim, Serm. on Gosp. for St. Andr. day, fol. 121, “Let us learne 1 say, that when we be meete, and that God will have us to bear offices, he will call us thereunto by lawfid means by his magistrates," &c. Stebb. Treat. conc. Oper. of Hol. Spir. p. 67.~" no one ought to take this office upon himself, unless he be first of all possessed of à due sense of the dignity and importance of it, of a sincere desire, and firm resolutions of advancing the glory of God, therein to the atmost of his power. Now these good dispositions of mind being all of them

* effects of the divine grace, a man who is endued with them may well enough be said to be called by the Spirit ; and such a call as this our Church expects and requires

. But this is not the call which these men contend for. ' For the call which they con tend for is such a call as carries with it a special designation of the person to the office of minister, and by consequence, actually invests him with the ministerial authority."


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The next stroke is levelled against the temporalities of the Ministry. The titles and secular honours of the highest ranks in the Church are proved profane and unscriptural, by the following learned remark, directed against the titleg-Lord, and Father God, by which they are designated,

“ Luke xxii. 25, 26. “The kings of the Gentiles exercise Lordship :--but ye shall not be so. Matt. xxiii. 9, 10. no man your Father upon the earth, for one is your Father, which is in Heaven. Neither be ye called Masters, for one is your

Master even Christ. You cannot evade the force of these precepts of our Lord, which were. addressed to his disciples amongst others, by the same ingenuity with which you press James iii. 1. into your service. P. 11.

Were our ingenuity as acute, and our reading as enlarged as our opponents', we might probably perceive the difficulty of escaping the force of this invincible objection ; which, to give every person his due, originated with that mighty master of reason, Micaiah Towgood, in his vigorous attack upon the established religion*. Yet such is the structure of our understanding, that if there exist any difficulty in these passages, we conceive it to exist in the Bevtian wit of the objector.

On turning from the version of these passages to the original, and looking from the text to the context of the Evangelists, it is directly apparent, that the titles proscribed by our Lord, are those of the Jewish, and Gentile rulers. The terms which he uses in referring to the former, are Publi, Ilzrna, Kenintás ť; those which he uses in referring to the latter, are Bxoine vs, Kúgios, Evegrérns. The former titles are rendered in the Hebrew version of St. Matthew, published by Munster, and Til. let, Bishop of St. Brieue, 37, 38, nobo 3: but the last term is rendered in Syriac 3370... When reduced to this forny, the passage of St. Matthew exhibits no difficulty; as these were the titles of the three ranks in the great national consistory of the Jewish nation; the Prince, Father, and Doctors of the Sanhedrim l. The terms used in St. Luke, admit of as certain and

satisfactory Towgood, Dissent. ful. just, and proyed. p. v. 11. 243, 244. ed. 12th.

+ Matt. xxiii. 8, 9, 10. min xan DñTE PABBI-_x) HATEPA pon xem λέσητε-μηδέ κληθήτε ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΑΙ'. .

I Luc. xxii. 25, 26. i BALIAEIE TWv ébrwv KYPIEYHJ1Y aútão. και οι έξεσι άζοντες αυτων ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΑΙ καλάνται.

♡ Matt. xxiii. 8, 9, 10. ✓ These orders are thus distinguished; Gemar, Babyl. ad Tit." Bicurim; cap. 3. fol. 65. col. 3. §. 3. 131 DJIJ NW, . Quoties ip

gredebatur VOL, IV, DEC, 1815.

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satisfactory an explanation. The common titles, adopted by both dynasties to which the Jews were subject, the Ptolemies and Seleucidæ, were eos, Ewang, Evegyétos *; these idolatrous titles having been given by the Gentiles to their princes; the Jast two were even given by the Jews to their benefactors t.

Having thus fixed the sense of the terms used by our Lord, an application to the context of the Evangelists will deterinine the sense of the passages before us. And the text and context, thus taken together, are so far from subverting the authosity of the Ministry, that they expressly confirm it, not only under the Jewishi but Christian dispensation; while the adduced passages merely provide against the abuse of that authority, by prohibiting the unlawful assumption of the titles of Jews er Gentiles. Matt. ibid. 1, 2, 3. " Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, saying, the Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses' seat, all therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that obscrve and do.Luke, ibid. 28, 29, 30. Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptation: and I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me: that ye may eat and drink at my table

in my kingdom, and sil on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." grediebatur Princeps [*w7], universus assurgebat populus, simul ac conspiciebatur, nec residere cuiquam licuit antequam dixerat ille sedete. Pater [2x] Synedrii quoties ingrediebatur, faciebant ei semitas, adeo ut sive per hanc sive per illam, pro arbitrio transire posset. Ingrediente autem Sapiente [57] alter stabat alter sedebat, usque dum pertransierat et loco suo consederat.' Ap. Seld, de Synedr. Vet. Ebr. Lib. II. cap. x. Ø. 7. p. 266. Conf. Vitring. de Synagog. Vet. Lib. II. cap. iv. p. 513. Lib. III. cap. xvi. p. 852. ed. 1726. Seld. ubi. supr. cap. xvi. 9. 4. p. 406. 407.

* Spanhem. Observ. in Callimach. Hymn. in Del. v. 165. p. 43). ed. Ultraj. 1697. " Ad receptum autem apud Ægyptios morem eorum Reges adhuc superstites, divinis honoribus coli consueverant, uti e Philone Legat, ap. Caium p. 1052. aliisque constat. Unde etiam Ptolemæus una cum conjuge simul eť sorore Arsinoe OENN AAEAONN nominibus, cum in Monumento Adulitano-tum in præclaris nummis quos olim primus in lucem protuli et explanayi signatus legitur. Mitto quod ibidem adtuli, aliquot Seleucidarum nummos, in quibus ad Ptolemæorum exemplum, vesana illa @EOT appellatio ibidem tribuitur.” Id. ibid. ad. v. 166. Lewrngau inator ystos.] Ptolemæi nempe Lagi et Berenices, quí ambo' augustis illis OESN ENTHPSN nominibus, in iisdem præclaris et antiquis monumentis insigniuntur" The Canon of Ptolemy, notices nitoΛΕΜΑΙΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΗΣ and ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡ. Vid. Petar. Rationar. Temp. P. II. p. 286. And both these titles were applied to Antigonus. + Thus Josephus represents the Jews as addressing himself

. $: Vit. 50. Tom. II. p. 34. xahártav EYEPTETHN ME SY ENTHPA.


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