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guards. This mode of warfare, and their incessant incursions, procured them the appropriate name of mountain files. The animosity of the women was of a still more ferocious character than that of the men; and another proof is thus added, if proof was wanting, that the deadliest and fiercest, as well as the softest and tenderest passions, can alike be nursed and ripened in the female breast. The Spanish women dreadfully exemplified this truth ; and not even the sacredness of their cause can prevent our disgust, when we hear of their throwing themselves with horrible shrieks upon the wounded, disputing who should kill them by the most cruel tortures, stabbing their eyes with knives and scissars, and exulting with ferocious joy at the sight of their blood. The conscience of M. Roeca makes him remark too mildly : “ L'exees de leur juste fureur contre ceux qui venaient envahir leur pays, les avait entièrement dénaturées.” What must be the fearful responsibility of that man, whose proud and guilty ambition has been the spring and source of every species of crime, round whom revolve the wicked of every nation on the continent, as the centre of demoralization and enormity; to submit to whom, was to become the associate and partaker of his guilt, while to resist him, was to degenerate into furies and ministers of blood. Sometimes, however, the women are represented as performing a part less unsuited to their character: they would dress themselves in English stuffs, on which the pictures of Ferdinand VII. and the Spanish generals most distinguished in the war, were pointed ; or placing themselves on the rocks to see the French pass below them, they sung patriotic songs, in which they wished destruction to all the French, the Grand Duke of Berg, and to Napoleon. The burden of the song was always the crowing of a cock, which they considered as the emblem of France. At a village near Campillos, the women dressed according to the custom of the country, in pale blue and red clothes, and seated themselves, as usual, on the heights, to witness a battle which was expected to take place in the plains below : on the approach of the French riflemen, they all rose at once, and sung the hymn to the Virgin Mary : at this signal, the Spaniards, from their thousand retreats, fired a shower of balls, and upon the retreat of the French, the women came down from the rocks, tore the guns from their husbands' hands, and placed themselves before them, to force them to advance and pursue the enemy beyond a wooden bridge, which it was necessary for them to pass. As might be imagined, the sight of the French wheeling about and facing them, made them return precipitately to the top of their hills. This fermentation, which was general throughout the coun. . fry,
try, and equally pervaded all sexes, ages, and professions, men, women, children, and monks, was kept alive by the bands of Serranos or Guerrillas, who scoured the provinces from the mountains to the coast, and at one time were essentially useful, by keeping up the communications between Cadiz and the interior of Spain. These hordes, always undisciplined and unaccoutred, and for the most part unarmed, or furnished with whatever weapon chance might supply, sometimes three or four hundred, sometimes three or four thousand strong, or even more numerous, were led by those of their own body, who had given the greatest proofs of zeal, or address, or animosity to the French ; and that they might present the idea of regularly organised troops, these chiefs were always invested with the title of general, brigadier general, or commander in chief of the mountain army. Such men were Francisquito, or little Francis, Ventura Ximenez, who spread terror from Badajos to Toledo, Don Julian Sanchez in Old Castile and Leon, Longa in Arragon, and the well known Mina in Navarre. They were sometimes known by: the name of their profession, as el pastor, el medico, el contacero the potter. The Empecinado is well known, and the ex. planation of his name is given in the Edinburgh Annual Register for 1810. This man, after his whole family had been murdered by the French, and the women had endured horrors. worse than death, smeared himself in the first agony of his grief with pitch, (pez) as the Jews used to throw ashes on their heads, and vowed never to cease from seeking vengeance while a single Frenchman remained alive in Spain. M. Rocca gives the following account of another chief of less notoriety.
“L’homme qui exergait le plus d’influence surces hordes indisciplinées, était un nommé Cura, natif de la Valence, où il avait (té professeur de mathématiques. Forcé de s'exiler de sa patrie, après avoir tué un homme par jalousie, il s’était réfugié chez les contrebandiers pour échapper aux poursuites de la justice. Il avait répandu sourdement qu'il était de la plus haute, naissance, et que des raisons de politique le forçaient à rester inconnu. Les montagnards l’avaient surnommé l'inconnu aw grand bonnet, parcequ’il affectait de porter un bonnet à la mode du pays, d'une grandeur démesurée, afin d’attirer sur lui l’attention. Cette espèce d'existence mystérieuse lui donnait un grand empire sur les esprits. L'inconnu au grand bonnet leva un mois, après de fortes contributions sur divers villages des montagnes, sous le prétexte d’aller acheter des armes et des munitions; il essaya d’échapper avec l'argent qui lui avait eté confié, mais il fut. pris et puni.” P. 299.
These disorderly troops were contemptuously styled robbers by the French, and sometimes a deep defile or the whole side of
of a mountain echoed with long guttural shouts the taunting challenge, Venez, si vous l'osez, voir de plus près les brigands. The Spaniards meanwhile were not behind hand in retaliating invectives on their part : the French, they said, were heretics, pires que les Maures, car ils me croyaient ni en Dieu, mid la Vieroc, ni d St. Antoine, et pas méme à Saint Jacques de Galice, et me craigmoient point de loger dans les églises avec leurs chevaux. The mischief done to the churches throughout the continent, wherever the French have passed, attests but too well the truth of the latter charge : the cloisters and vaults were first occupied, and if these did not suffice, the remainder of the horses were stalled in the aisles; and the towns of Liège and Mayence and Basle still present abundant proof that things sacred were not violated in Spain alone.
(To be concluded in our newl.)
Art. III. An Esay on Gun Shot Wounds. By Charles Bell,
, - Surgeon of the Middlesex Hospital, Lecturer in Anatomy,
- in the Theatre, Windmill-street, &c. 8vo, Longman and Co. 1815.
THE field of Waterloo left scarce a family in the land without its share of grief and anxiety; and there is no man so dull of heart as to acknowledge no sympathy with the brave fellows who are now detained in our hospitals by honourable wounds, Shall we confess the professional course which our thoughts have taken on the occasion for is it a course of sympathy altogether unnatural f : From the glories of that day, which seems to set it seal on the steady valour and manly character of this country; and from the more pleasing prospect of that spirit of charity, which has piled up its hundreds of thousands to mimister to the aid of the sufferers and their families; we have turned to meditate on the state of the wounded, and on the provisions which are within the reach of art for their relief. In this frame of mind the title of this little work caught our attention. We have perused it with much interest. And although we are aware that a great part of that interest was the result of circumstances, yet we are happy that we have met with a book. in which we have found a great subject opened, and questions of high importance relative to military surgery discussed. Its. author, Mr. Charles Bell, is a man whose profound acquaintance with the anatomy of the human frame is best demonstrated by
, the many laborious and useful publications of which he has al
ready presented to the medical world. His “ Anatomy” writ-
Awhich the army surgeon finds himself.-We lament to see this part of the subject treated so concisely; a subject which might fill a volume, is comprised within the compass of a few pages; more indeed in the nature of short notes to be the subject of meditation
for an army surgeon, who is anxious to bring his mind to the
right frame for the performance of his duties, and to prepare