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make the best use of this universal feeling, and throughout the whole war they wielded the powerful engine of religious zeal with consummate ability. The national hatred was inflamed by every means which art could suggest ; some of them went ba. bited like ordinary citizens, and wore fair wigs to hide their priest's tonsure, always affecting to say that they dared not wear the canonical dress, for fear of being murdered by the soldiers. Nuns redoubled their mortifications and penances, and passed the greater part of their nights in praying for the success of the

Monks of all orders, who had been turned out of their convents, dispersed themselves through the country, and preached against the invaders wherever they went. The inqui. sition, said they, had only been set up against foreigners; and without that institution all religious principles would have long been destroyed in Spain, as they had been lost in France for more than twenty years. The poor began to consider where they should seek in years of scarcity that daily food which they were accustomed to receive at the convent gates. None could conceive how establishments, which they regarded as having always existed, could ever cease ; and every change made by an eneny's hand was considered as impiety. After the taking of Madrid, twelve hundred heads of families, chosen in the city itself, were summoned, and came to take the oath of fidelity to King Joseph. But the priests had taken care to absolve them beforehand from all oaths of submission they might make to their conquerors. ¿ A third cause, which had 'no trifling effect, was the unpo pularity of the war in the French army. This point M. Rocca is not studious to conceal, and indeed were his own sentiments Jess clearly evinced, the fact would be sufficiently evident from not a few other sources. The soldiers were harassed with a mode of warfare totally different from all they had seen in their former successful compaigns; and the officers were not less discontented with a service which afforded them neither booty nor honour While under the eye of Napoleon, said they, no degree of merit was suffered to pass unrewarded ; but the un

l warlike, irresolute, inactive Joseph, could neither appreciate nor recompence the efforts of his generals. They affected not to consider him as a Frenchman after he had been acknowledged King of Spain; and often contradicted and sought to disgust him, that they might be sent back into their favourite Germany. Every day which was passed in Spain appeared to deprive them of an opportunity of distinguishing theinselves elsewhere. The followivg sentence was found written on the wall of an apartment, in which a French officer of rank had been lodged; “ O peuples d'Espagne, que vous seriez laches,

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si vous ne préfcriez la mort au joug daussi cruels devasteurs." Marshal Macdonald is said to have told some deserters, that they deserved every evil which could befal them, for having been traitors to their country. Marshal Jourdan, who was second in command, was no longer animated by that spirit which inspired him while he fought in those plains of Fleurus, since made so interesting by still more important contests ; while an open difference of opinion, which broke out between the two arch-traitors Soult and Ney, considerably depressed the ardour of both their divisions. Joseph thus wrote to Sebastiani, in answer to a demand of this general for leave to return home.

“ Comptez, mon cher Sébastiani, que je serai toujours ce qui vous sera agréable, et que je solliciterai moi même votre départ d'Espagne, dès que je croirai que vous aurez mieux à faire ailleurs pour votre gloire qu'en Espagne. . Jusque-je vous garde. Vous connaissez ma vielle et jeune amitié pour vous.

66 Votre affectueux,

(Signè) JOSEPH." Such were the sentiments of the army, while their master Napoleon was filling the Moniteur with pompous accounts of the spirit with which it was animated, the battles which it had gained, and the glories with which it was covered. We could have wished that M. Rocca had presented us with more anec. dotes of his Emperor, for every thing which relates to this sina gular man daily acquires still more interest, than it possessed when he was even in the plenitude of his power. We are anxious to find in the history of his actions, some explanation of the alternate fits of nagnanimity and baseness, with which he appears to have been visited during the two last eventful years of his extraordinary life. The following passages are characteristic of his policy, and of the means by which he attached to himself the mind of every military man.

“ We traversed 'France as if it had been a land newly conquered and subjected to our arms. The Emperor Napoleon had ordered that his soldiers should be well received and feasted every where ; deputations came to compliment us at the gates of his good cities. The officers and soldiers were conducted immediately on their arrival to sumptuous banquets prepared beforehand, and on our departure, the magistrates thanked us again that we had deigned to spend in one day many weeks' private revenues of their municipal chests. The soldiers of the grand army did not lose in France the habit they had contracted in Germany, of now and then maltreating the citizens or peasants with whom they lodged." P.-15. “ We saw the Emperor Napoleon pass before he arrived at Vite

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toria ; he was on horseback; the simplicity of his green uniform distinguished him amidst the richly clothed generals who surrounded him; he waved his hand to every individual officer as he passed, seeming to say I rely on you. The French and the Spaniards were gathered in crowds on his way; the first regarded him as the fortune of the whole army: the Spaniards seemed willing to read in his aspect and behaviour the fate of their unhappy country.” P. 18.

« On the 5th we received orders to join the imperial head quarters early, in order to be reviewed. We had not been arrived many minutes, on a plain, near the castle of Chamartin, before the Emperor Napoleon suddenly appeared. He was accompanied by the Prince of Neufchâtel, and by five or six aides-de-camp, who could scarcely keep up with him, so hard was he riding. Al the trumpets sounded; the Emperor placed himself about a hun, dred

paces in front of the center of our regiment, and asked the colonel for the list of officers, non-commissioned officers and pri, vates, who had merited military distinction. The colonel immediately called them by their names; the Emperor Napoleon spoke familiarly to some of the common soldiers who were presented to him; then addressing himself to the general commanding the brigade of which we formed a part, he rapidly puttwo or three short questions to him; the general having begun to answer rather dif; fusely, the Emperor Napoleon turned his horse without waiting for the end of the speech, and his departure was as sudden and as swift as his arrival." P. 68.

Such we conceive to have been the principal causes which led to the failure of the attempt to reduce Spain into the form of a French province. It is now time to turn to that feeling which was the result of their joint operation. The inveterate hatred with which the natives regarded their invaders, displayed itself at every step. The solitude and desolation which victorious armies commonly leave behind them, seemed to precede the French wherever they came. The inhabitants always aban. doned their dwellings at their approach, carrying with them into their woods or mountain-retreats, their wives and children, and all their most precious possessions; from thence they watched all the proceediggs of their enemies, lay in ambuscade near the high roads, surprised couriers, or small detachments, and fell suddenly upon all stragglers, or such small bodies as they fan, çied inferior to them in strength. Wherever posts of corres, pondence of ten or fifteen men were left, as in Germany, they were certain of being wurdered ; mutilated bodies, and bloody fragments of clothing, strewed up, and down, Were frequently seen; while the traces, still recent in the dust, indicated the struggle that some of these wretches had made, and the long torments they had suffered before they expired. The brazen 6


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plates of their military caps were often the only marks of their having once been soldiers, or of the regiments to which they belonged. No one could go off the roads, nor lag behind the columns, without exposing hiinself to instant assassination, nor was it possible to place detached patroles, or send the sick by themselves to the hospitals. Sometimes it required whole bat, talions to carry an order of one division to another distant one; and though the French were always conquerors wheu the Spaniards showed themselves in open field, yet every victory only produced a new conflict, and the mountaineers, always pursued, and often dispersed, rallying and recommencing their incursions immediately, never coming near to fight in close ranks, or body to body, retreated from position to position, from rock to rock, on heights, and in thickets, without ceasing to fire, even in Aying. Victories had become useless, that reputation for invincibility was lost, which is often, more powerful than real force itself; and the French armies were consuming themselves for want of repose, in continual fatigues, nightly watchings, and ansieties. At Irun, a great number of the inhabitants of all ages assembled to see them enter the town, and then followed them with evident curiosity for some tiine: they thought, at first, that this was a mark of their joy at seeing them arrive; but afterwards learned, that the inhabitants of that, as well as those of all other frontier towns, 'kept an exact account of all the French who entered Spain, as well as of the wounded who quitted it, and that it was according to these reports that the partizans and guerillas directed their operations. Åt Campillos, while the French were on horseback repulsing a crowd of the Serranos, who had made a charge from the neighbouring mountains, the inhabitants, persuaded that they were to be annihis lated, murdered all the soldiers who had neglected to repairito the place appointed for rendezvous, in case of danger. At Ronda, a gallows was erected in the principal square, to punish such of the towns-people as bad favoured the French; a poor tailor was thrown upon the rocks, and dashed to pieces, because he had served as interpreter to the soldiers; while as a proof that private animosities were sometimes satisfied under pretence of public justice, a magistrate was on the point of being hanged, because he would not receive a bribe in a case of smuggling,

Marshal Soult sent a column of 3000 men against the little town of Grazalema. Some smugglers had entrenched themselves in the market place, which is in the middle of the town; they had placed mattrasses before the windows of the houses in which they had shut 'themselves up. Twelve hussars and forty riflemer, who formed the advanced guard of the French division, arrived in the square without meeting any


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resistance ; but they never returned, every one of them was struck by the fire which poured from the windows on all sides, and all who were sent to the same spot, perished immediately in like manner, without having done the slightest damage to the enemy. Nor was it only in the moments of success that this inveteracy was displayed. The following scene took place after the battle of Medellin.

“ The hussars and dragoons, who had dispersed themselves as foraging parties, soon came back, driving in immense bodies of Spaniards, whom they delivered up to the infantry, to conduct to Medellin. The same men who had confidently promised us death before the battle, now marched with downcast looks, and with the precipitation of fear.' At the first sign or menace of our people, they crowded together towards the middle of their columns, like sheep when they hear the voice of pursuing dogs. Every time they met any French troops, they cried aloud, “Long live Napobeon and his invincible troops !'' sometimes, too, one or two horse men passing by, amused themselves with extorting the acclama. tions which were only due to the whole body of the conquerors.

" A certain colonel, who was a courtier and an aide-de-camp, and who was looking on as the prisoners passed in files before our regiments, ordered them to shout, in Spanish, “ Viva il Re Jos seph !" The prisoners at first appeared not to understand, then, after a moment's silence, they all together repeated the cry of

Long live Napoleon and his invincible troops !” The colonel then seized on an individual prisoner, and repeated the order with threats. The prisoner having then shouted, “ Viva Joseph !" a Spanish officer, who, according to custom, had not been disarmed, came up to his countryman, and ran his sword through his body. Our enemies had no objection to pay homage to our vic, torious arms, but they could never be brought to acknowledge the authority of a master not of their own choice, even in their lowest fortune." P. 134. · Again, : « One of the insurgent peasants of Arragon, among others, was seized by our skirmishers; he was only armed with a gun, and was driving before him an ass, laden with some months' provisions, The officer who commanded the advanced guard took pity on him, and ordered him to be set at liberty, making signs to him to escape. The peasant at once appeared to comprehend; but, left to himself, he loaded his gun, and came back immediately to our ranks to fire at his deliverer. Happily the ball missed. This peasant hoped to‘die a martyr, for killing one whom he had misa taken for one of our principal chiefs. On halting, he was brought before the colonel of the regiment.

We surrounded him from curiosity. A motion of one of our hussars persuaded him that he was going to be shot: he immedia


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