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tensive departments of Frauce, or Holland, or Poland, or Italy, or Switzerland, or Germany? These and other questions of equal interest, will, we coneeive, find an easy solution in M. Rocca's memoirs.

In the first place, however weak and corrupt the Spanish government proved itself to be in many instances, it bore no resemblance to the absolute military power which was the sole agent among the northern nations of Europe. It was the government of the people, and of publie opision, not imposed and supportent contrary to the national wilt. Spain and Portugal presented the extraordinary picture of nations, whose sovereigns were driven into banishment, or imprisoned, at the command of a single man, and their kingdoms were unprovided with regular troops, or the still stronger resource of firmly established anthorities. Yet so far was the national character from having receive any blow, that its firmness was enabled to effect, without any legitimate head, what Germany, with all its arbitrary power, might not at last have dared to attempt without this exanıple;-Germany, where the implicit submission of the many to the will of an individual, incessantly repressed or deranged the springs of natural energy. The war of regular troops, who are commonly little interested in the object of the quarrel they maintain, is of a very different character to that war of resistance wbich a nation can oppose to regular conquering armies. The Spanish patriote possessed invincible strength, even when they had no more of their pative soil than the ground on wbich they trod, or the heath on the mountains in which they concealed themselves; while the French could neither gain the affection nor the contribution of one of their pretended subjects, though masters of every plain and every tuun, and domesticated in the capital itself. Soldiers who were defeated almost without an effort in the flat country, frequently made a resistance of twelve months within the walls of their town, and only dreaded lest they should arrive too late, where their hearts and their country called them. Of a very different mature were all the wars in which the French had been so long engaged, where they had nothing to fear from the inhabitants of the conquered countries, and where all those little partial actions were avoided, which only increase the miseries of individuals without leading to any important advantage. Rivalry rather than hatred exists between 'armies of regulars, and the talents of the general are seldom baffled by the spontaneous ex. ertions of the people. In Germany the French had only to subdue governments and armies, in Spain the legitimate authorities were already annilulated, and opposition did not arise from troops of the line, every where nearly the same, but from

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a people insulated from all the other continental nations, by its manners, by' its prejudices, and leteni the nature of its comtry. The language of M. Rocca on this poiut is instructive and erre tertaining

" Quand nous quittames nos cantonnemens de la Prusse pour aller en Espagne, nous croyions marcher à une expédition facile, et de peu de durée : vainqueurs en Allemagne, nous ne supposions pas que rien put désormais nous résister. Nous n'avions point réfléchi aux obstacles imprévus que pouvoient nous présenter la nature d'un pays si nouveau pour nous, et le caractère de ses habitans.

“ Nos soldats ne demandoient jamais dans quelle contrée on les condaisoit, mais s'il y avoit des vivres là où ils alloient, c'étoit sous ce seul point de vue qu'ils considéroient la géographie de la terré. Le monde étoit partagé pour eux en deux parties, la zone heureuse où croit-la vigne, et la zone détestable qui en est privée. Ayant entendu dire au commencement de chaque campagne, qu'ils étoient appelles à porter le dernier coup à la puissance chancelante des Anglais, ils confondoient cette puissance, sous toutes ses formes, avec l'Angleterre elle-même. Ils jugeoient de la distance qui les en séparoit, par le nombre de marches qu'ils jaisoient depuis bien des années, d'un extrémité du monde à l'autre, sans avoir encore atteint cette espèce de pays imaginaire et lointain qui reculoit sans cesse devant eux.--Enfin, disoient ils, “si le désert nous en a séparés en Egypte, et la mer à Boulogne, nous ỳ arriverons bientôt par terre en traversant l'Espagne." P. 12,

The second main cause of the successful resistance of the Spaniards, appears to have been the influence of the priests. The deference paid to the clergy was universal and absolute, and if the sentiment of patriotism had not been sufficiently strong to animate the active spirit of this order against the French, their interest supplied them with an additional motive for in. veterate hatred, since they were well aware that the abolition of their privileges and temporal power would have been the imme, diate consequences of the subjugation of Spain. Their opinion carried with it the most-implicit authority, and swayed the wills of the whole nation. They represented the war as a religious crasade against the French for their country and king; and the only military distinction of the greatest part of their citizen sol. diers was a red ribbon, with this inscription, “ Vincer o morit pro patria et pro Ferdinando settimo.” Thus their very patriot, ism was a religion, as it was with the ancients, and supplied the piace of the point of honour, which attaches the regular soldier to his standard. Every man hastened not to leave those altars defenceless, to which the pilgrims crowded in happier times to obtain aþundant harvests, The priests were too politic not to

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make the best use of this universal feeling, and throughout the whole war they wielded the powerful engine of religious zeal with consummate ability. The national hatred was inflamed by every means which art could suggest; some of them went ba. bited like ordinary citizens, and wore fair wigs to hide their priest's tonsure, always affecting to say that they dared not wear the canonical dress, for fear of being murdered by the soldiers. Nuns redoubled their mortifications and penances, and passed the greater part of their nights in praying for the success of the

Monks of all orders, who had been turned out of their convents, dispersed themselves through the country, and preached against the invaders wherever they went. The inqui. sition, said they, had only been set up against foreigners; and without that institution all religious principles would have long been destroyed in Spain, as they had been lost in France for more than twenty years. The poor began to consider where they should seek in years of scarcity that daily food which they were accustomed to receive at the convent gates. None could conceive how establishments, which they regarded as having always existed, could ever cease ; and every change made by an eneniy's hand was considered as impiety. After the taking of Madrid, twelve hundred 'heads of families, chosen in the city itself, were summoned, and came to take the oath of fidelity to King Joseph. But the priests had taken care to absolve thema beforehand from all oaths of submission they might make to their conquerors.

A third cause, which had no trifling effect, was the unpo pularity of the war in the French army. This point M. Rocca is not studious to conceal, and indeed were his own sentiments Jess clearly evinced, the fact would be sufficiently evident from not a few other sources. The soldiers were harassed with a mode of warfare totally different from all they had seen in their former successful compaigns; and the officers were not less discontented with a service which afforded them neither booty nor honour. While under the eye of Napoleon, said they, no degree of merit was suffered to pass unrewarded ; but the unwarlike, irresolute, inactive Joseph, could neither appre por recompence the efforts of his generals. They affected not to consider him as a Frenchman after he had been acknowledged King of Spain; and often contradicted and sought ta disgust him, that they might be sent back into their favourite Germany. Every day which was passed in Spain appeared to deprive them of an opportunity of distinguishing themselves elsewhere. The followivg sentence was found written on the wall of an apartment, in which a French officer of rànk had been lodged ; " O peuples d'Espagne, que vous seriez laches,

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si vous ne préferiez la mort au joug d'aussi cruels devasteurs." Marshal Macdonald is said to have told some deserters, that they deserved every evil which could befal them, for having been traitors to their country. Marshal Jourdan, who was second in command, was no longer animated by that spirit which inspired him while he fought in those plains of Fleurus, since made so interesting by still more important contests; while an open difference of opinion, which broke out between the two arch-traitors Soult and Ney, considerably depressed the ardour of both their divisions, Joseph thus wrote to Sebastiani, in answer to a demand of this general for leave to return home.

" Comptez, mon cher Sébastiani, que je serai toujours ce qui vous sera agréable, et que je solliciterai moi même votre départ d'Espagne, dès que je croirai que vous aurez mieux à faire ailleurs pour votre gloire qu'en Espagne. Jusque-je vous garde. Vous connaissez ma vielle et jeune amitié pour vous.

66 Votre affectueux,

JOSEPH." Such were the sentiments of the army, while their master Napoleon was filling the Moniteur with pompous accounts of the spirit with which it was animated, the battles which it had gained, and the glories with which it was covered. We could have wished that M. Rocca had presented us with more anecdotes of his Emperor, for every thing which relates to this singular man daily acquires still more interest

, than it possessed when he was even in the plenitude of his power. We are anxious to find in the history of his actions, some explanation of the alternate fits of magnanimity and baseness, with which he appears to have been visited during the two last eventful years of his extraordinary life. The following passages, are characteristic of his policy, and of the means by which he attached to himself the mind of every military man,

“ We traversed France as if it had been a land newly conquered and subjected to our arms. The Emperor Napoleon had ordered that his soldiers should be well received and feasted

every where; deputations came to compliment us at the gates of his good cities. The officers and soldiers were conducted immediately on their arrival to sumptuous banquets prepared beforehand, and on our departure, the magistrates thanked us again that we had deigned to spend in one day many weeks' private revenues of their municipal chests. The soldiers of the grand army did not lose in France the habit they had contracted in Germany, of now and then maltreating the citizens or peasants with whom they lodged." P.-15. “ We saw the Emperor Napoleon pass before he arrived at Vite


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toria; he was on horseback; the simplicity of his green uniform distinguished him annidst the richly clothed generals who surrounded him; he waved his hand to every individual officer as he passed, seeming to say I rely on you. The French and the Spaniards were gathered in crowds on his way; the first regarded him as the fortune of the whole army: the Spaniards seemed willing to read in his aspect and behaviour the fate of their unhappy country.” P.18.

"Ởn thie 5th we received orders to join the imperial head? quarters early, in order to be reviewed. We had not been arrived many minutes, on a plain, near the castle of Chamartin, before the Emperor Napoleon suddenly appeared. He was accompanied by the Prince of Neufchâtel, and by five or six aides-de-camp, who could scarcely keep up with him, so hard was he riding. Au the trumpets sounded; the Emperor placed himself about a hun, dred

paces in front of the center of our regiment, and asked the colonel for the list of officers, non-commissioned officers and pri, vates, who had merited military distinction. The colonel immediately called them by their names; the Emperor Napoleon spoke familiarly to some of the common soldiers who were presented to him; then addressing himself to the general commanding the bri. gade of which we forined a part, he rapidly puttwo or three short questions to him ; the general having begun to answer rather diffusely, the Emperor Napoleon turned his horse without waiting for the end of the speech, and his departure was as sudden and as świft as his arrival." P. 68.

Such we conceive to have been the principal causes which led to the failure of the attempt to reduce Spain into the form of a French province. It is now time to turn to that feeling which was the result of their joint operation. The inveterate hatred with which the natives regarded their invaders, displayed itself at every step. The solitude and desolation which victorious aruies commonly leave behind them, seemed to precede the French wherever they came. The inhabitants always abandoned their dwellings at their approach, carrying with them into their woods or mountain-retreats, their wives and children, and all their most precious possessions; from thence they watch all the proceediogs of their enemies, lay in ambuscade near the high roads, surprised couriers, or small detachments, and fell suddenly upon all stragglers, or such small bodies as they fan. cied inferior to them in strength. Wherever posts of corres pondence of ten or fifteen men were left, as in Germany, they were certain of being wurdered ;, mutilated bodies, and bloody fragments of clothing, strewed up and down, were frequently seen; while the traces, still recent in the dust, indicated the struggle that some of these wretches had made, and the long torments they had suffered before they expired. The brazen 6


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