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all the Rules of Common Arithmetic at considerable length, and in a very perfect manner. The second contains the Theory and Practice of Logarithms, with the History of their Invention. The third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh are dedicated to Algebra in all its various branches, to a considerable depth. The eighth part treats of Geometry, being an Introduction to the Elements of Euclid, with various Corollaries, selected from Clavius, Barrow, Savil, Ludlam, Playfair, &c. and many useful propositions illustrating the text, as the student proceeds. The ninth part contains the Theory and Practice of Trigonometry; and the tenth gives us a short account of Conic Sections.
Mr. Butler appears to have bestowed much pains and labour upon the work, and we trust that he will be rewarded by that extended circulation, to which by its general merit it is so justly entitled.
Art. XV. A Practical Treatise on finding the Latitude
anil Longitude at Sea. By 1. Myers, A.M. of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Svo. 500 pp. 166. Robinson,
1815. THIS excellent treatise is translated from the French of M. de Rossel, and cannot fail of becoming a work of general utility to all those who are desirous of becoming practically acquainted with nautical astronomy. To this treatise Mr. Myers has subjoined a very useful Table of the Right Ascensions and Declination of the principal fixed stars which are used in finding the Longitude at Sea; and another of the logarithms of numbers and their complements to an extent sufficient for general practice. We find a Table also of Logarithinic Sines and Cosines, Tangents and Cotangents, with their differences corresponding to every ten seconds. To these is added the new method of clearing the distance, lately published by Dr. Brinckley, Professor of Astronomy in Dublin, and a Table of Natural and Versed Sines. We consider this as a very laborious and useful work, and we hope that it will meet among nautical men the encouragement which it really deserves.
Art. XVI. The Universal British Merchant, &c. &c. By
Law and Whittaker. 1815.
considerable merit. It contains two hundred letters, as speçimens of commercial correspondence between Great Britain and the principal trading cities of Europe, &c. and shewing in a familiar and practical manner the mode of effecting insu. rances, drawing bills, remitting caslı, &c. and laying open the whole system of mercantile business. To those who are intended for the compting-house we should recommend this little volume as an early present, l'or do we know of any publication better calculated to initiate them into the business of their fu, ture destination, or to give them a more clear and practical view of all mercantile transactions.
ART. XVII. Letters from a Gentleman in the North of Scot
land to his friend in London. &c. &c. 2 vols. 19mo. 155, Gale and Co. 1815.
THESE letters were first printed in 1754, having then been written near twenty years. The interest excited in the literary world by the novel of Waverley has probably caused their republication at this period. They contain an admirable account of the Highlanders, and their manners, about the year 1726, being written, as it appears, by a military man, who was quar. tered near Inverness. To those who may be desirous of acquainting themselves with the manners and habits of a ruce, who have now almost faded off the face of the earth, these two vo-. lumes cannot but prove highly attractive. They are clearly not an account kneaded and made up for publication, but the genuine letters of an acute and intelligent man, who was making a pil. grimage through a region, almost as much unknown to his countryinen as the desarts of Arabia.
The following description of the wrétélied state of an Highland town in ancient days, will present a picture of niisery, with which few of our readers are acquainted.
- A Highland town, as before mentioned, is composed of a few huts for dwellings, with barns and stables, and both the latter are of a more diminutive size than the former, alt irregularly placed, some one way, some another, and at any distance look like so many heaps of dirt; these are built in glens and straths, which are the corn-countries, near rivers and rivulets, and also on the sides of lakes where there is some arable land for the support of the inkar bitants.
“ But I am now to speak of the manner in which the lower order of Highlanders live; and shall begin with the spring of the year. • This is a bad season with them; for then their provision of
Letters from the North.
441 oatmeal begins to fail, and for a supply they bleed their cattle, and boil the blood into cakes, which, together withi a little milk and a short allowance of oatmeal, is their food.
" It is true, there are small trouts, or something like them, in some of the little rivers, which continue in holes among the rocks, which are always full of water when the stream is quite ceased for want of rain: these might be a help to them in this starving season but I have liad so little notion in all my journeys that they made those fish a part of their diet, that I never once thought of them, as such, till this very moment. It is likely they cannot catch them for want of proper tackle, but I am sure they cannot be without them for want of leisure, What may seem strange is, that they do not introduce roots among them (as potatoes) for the purpose; but the land they occupy is so very little, they think they cannot spare any part of it from their corn, and the landlord's demand of rent in kind is another objection. You will perceive I am speaking only of the poor people in the interior parts of the mountains; for near the coast, all round them, there are few confined to such diminutive farms, and the most necessitous of all may share, upon occasion, the benefit of various kinds of shell-fish, only for seeking and fetching.
“ Their cattle are much weakened by want of sufficient food in the preceding winter, and this immoderate bleeding reduces them to so low a plight, that in a morning they cannot rise from the ground, and several of the inhabitants join together to help up each other's cows, &c.
“ In surimer the people remove to the hills, and dwell in much worse huts than those they leave below: these are near the spots of grazing, and are called shealings, scattered from one another as occasion requires. Every one has his particular space of pasture, for which, if it be not a part of his farın, he pays, as I shall mentien hereafter.
“ Here they make their butter and cheese. By the way, I have seen some of the former with blueish veins, made, as I thought, by the mixture of smoke, not much unlike to Castile soap; but some have said it was a mixture of sheep's milk, which gave a part of it that tincture of blue.
“ When the grazing fails, the Highlanders return to their former habitations, and the cattle to pick up their sustenance among the heath, as before.
“ At other times the children share the milk with the calves, lambs, and kids ; for they milk the dams of them all, which keeps their young so lean, that when sold in the low country they are chiefly used, as they tell me, to make soups withal; and when a side of any one of these kinds hangs up in our market, the least disa agreeable part of the sight is the transparency of the ribs.
“ About the latter end of August, or the beginning of September, the cattle are brought into good order by their summer feed, and the beef is extremely sweet and succulent; which I suppose is
owing, in good part, to their being reduced to such poverty in the spring, and made up again with new flesh.
“ Now the drovers collect their herds, and drive them to fairs and markets on the borders of the Lowlands, and sometimes to the north of England ; and in their passage they pay a certain tribute, proportionable to the number of cattle, to the owner of the territory they pass through, which is in lieu of all reckonings for grazing." Vol. II. p. 108.
It is scarcely possible for us, who live in a commercial country, to form even a notion of the trifling value attached to money, in a state of comparative rudeness and simplicity, and how little it is able to mitigate the severities of want in such a condition. The following affecting anecdote will convince the reader of the utter helplessness of a country, wliere money is scarcely known as possessing any value in itself, but as the immediate representative only of the necessaries of life.
“ About the time of one great scarcity here, the garrison of Fort Willians, opposite to us on the west coast, was very low in oatmeal, and the little bovel town of Maryburgh, nearly adjoining to it, was almost destitute.
“ Some affairs at that time called me to the fort; and being at the governor's house, one of the towns-women came to his lady, and besought her to use her interest that she might be spared out of the stores, for her money, or to repay it in kind, only one peck of oatmeal, to keep her children from starving; for that there was pone to be sold in the town, or other food to be had whatever. The lady, who is one of the best and most agreeable of women, told her she feared her husband could not be prevailed on to part with any at that time. This she said, as knowing that kind of provision was almost exhausted, and a great number of mouths to be fed; that there was but a very precarious dependance upon the winds for a supply, and that other sea accidents might happen ;- but to show her good will, she gave her a shilling. The poor woman, holding up the
money, first looked at that, in a musing manner, then at the lady, and bursting out into tears, cried Madam, what must I de with this? My children cannot eat it ?' And laid the shilling down upon the table in the greatest sorrow and despair. It would be too trite to remark upon the uselessness of money, when it cannot be bartered for something absolutely necessary to life. But I do assure you I was hardly ever more affected with distress than upon this occasion, for I never saw such an example of it before.
" I must not leave you in suspense. The governor, commiserating the poor woman's circumstance, spared her that small quantity; and then the passion of joy seemed more unruly in the
creature's breast, than all her grief and fear had been before." 1. P. 242.
A very curious account is given in a preceding letter of the jurisdiction of the kirk, which at that tiine appears to have reached its utmost height. The stool of repentance appears to have been the principal agent of Presbyterian discipline. This stool was fashioned like an arm chair, and was raised nearly two feet higher than the rest of the seats, and directly fronted the pulpit. When the kirk bell rung, the culprit muunted the chair, and was arrayed by the bellman in the black sackcloth gown, and thus attired he underwent a long extemporary reproof and admonition from the sour-faced minister of puritapical severity.
We can recommend this little work to our readers as a most entertaining history of the ancient days of Scotland, and as containing various anecdotes not to be met with in any other place. It has received indeed already a testimony far more valuable than our's, having been repeatedly quoted by Walter Scott, in his notes on the Lady of the Lake, as a curious depository of Scott tish manners, and as peculiarly valuable for the local descriptions which it contains.
Art. XVIII. . A Tale for Gentle and Simple. 12mo. 456 pp.
73. Hunter, 1815. THE first part of this Tale induced us to think that it was written for the amusement of the young, but about the middle it assumes a higher character, and may be recommended as a very entertaining volume to all those who are likely to receive pleasure from the perusal of" a Tale.” The story is well told, the incidents sufficiently amusing, and the moral and sentiments unquestionably good. The character of Sir Thomas Upland, a good. natured, shatter-brained country gentleman, is drawn with much spirit and originality, and without the least caricature. · Our readers, whether“ Gentle or Simple," cannot fail to derive much amusement from the volume before us.
Art. XIX. Memoirs of an Old Wig. 12mo. 164 pp. 78.
Longman. 1815. IN the adventures of the Wig, which is the subject of these memoirs, we meet with a very lively tale and a very entertaing string of historical anecdotes. This aforesaid wig is supposed to have