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iing scenes which are so admirably described in the writings of Virgil' and Livý. The long files of carriages, in three or four ranks, extended for several leagues, loaded with the immense booby which the soldiers had snatched from the flames; and the Moscow vite peasants, who were now become our servants, resembled the slaves which the ancients dragged in their train. Others carrying with them their wives and children, or the wretched prostitutes of Moscow, represented the warriors amongst whom the captives had been divided. Afterwards came numerous waggons filled with trophies, among which were Turkish or Persian standards torn from the vaulted roofs of the palaces of the Czars, and, last of all, the celebrated cross of Saint Ivan gloriously closed the rear of an army which, but for the imprudence of its chief, would have been enabled to boast that it had extended its conquests to the very limits of Europe, and astonished the people of Asia with the sound of the same cannon with which the pillars of Hercules had re-échoed." P. 244.

In order to deceive the Russians, Napoleon made his first movements towards the great road to Kaluga. In this way he stole four days march upon the Russians, but at Malo-Jarosla, ritz he was overtaken by their columus, who by the new road of Kaluga were advancing to force de position which the French occupied. The Viceroy, at the head of the fourth corps, en sured the success of the day, but the victory was dearly, pura chased.

« The town in which we had fought no longer remained. We could not even distinguish the lines of the streets, on account of the numerous dead bodies with which they were heaped. On every side we saw a multitude of scattered limbs and human heads, crushed by the wheels of the artillerya': The houses formed a pile of ruins, and under their burning ashes, appeared many skeletons half consumed. Many of the sick and wounded had, on quitting the field of battle, taken refuge in these houses. The small num. ber of them who had escaped the fames, now presented thema selves before us, with their faces blackened, and their clothes and hair dreadfully burnt. In a piteous tone, they besought us to afford them some relief, or kindly to terminate their sufferings by death. The most ferocious were affected at this sad spectacle, and, turn. ing hastily away, could not refrain from

shedding tears. A scene so distressing made every one shudder at the evils to which des potism exposes humanity, and we almost fancied that those barba: rous times were returned, when we could only appease the gods by offering human victims on their sanguinary altars.

" Towards the afternoon, Napoleon, having arrived with a numerous 'suite, coolly surveyed the field of battle, and heard with out emotion the heart-rending cries of the unhảppy wounded whe éagerly demanded assistance. Although accustomed for 'twenty


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years to the calamities of war, he could not, when he entered the town, repress his astonishment at the desperation with which both parties had fought. Had he intended to continue his march on Tula and Kaluga, the experience of this battle would have deterred him. Even his insensibility was, on this occasion, forced to render justice to those to whom it was due * He gave a con, vincing proof of it by praising the valour of the fourth corps, and saying to the Viceroy, « The honour of this glorious day belongs entirely to you." P. 258.

The victory of Malo-Jaroslavitz discovered to the French two melancholy truths. First, that the Russians had been reinforced by numerous battalions, and that they all fought with an obstiņacy which made the French despair of gaining many such victories; and in the second place, that having been outHanked by Prince Kutusoff, they were reduced to the miserable necessity of retreating by the great road of Smolensko, through the desert which they had made. In order to prevent the Russians from pressing hard upon him, Napoleon constantly burnt and destroyed every thing which he found on his route. But this necessary measure was so closely put into execution by the soldiers that the following corps were deprived of all power to shelter themselves from the inclemency of the night. This, together with the necessity of contending with an exasperated eneiny, may give the reader an idea of the hardships and fatigues to which the rear-guard of the French army was continnally exposed. Pressed on all sides by the cossacks, obliged to keep within the beaten road which the passage of the army had rendered impracticable, without tents, without food, and sometimes even without fire, they fed their horses on the thatch, which they could occasionally tear down from the roofs of the huts, and themselves with the carcasses of those animals which fatigue, cold, and want of food caused to fall by hundreds.

In the midst of so much misery, which would have annihilated any army, the French still faced the enemy with their accustoined resolution, and endured their misfortunes with an undaunted and almost ferocious resignation. Trusting that they were able to reach Smolensko, where they hoped to rejoin the divisious they left on the Nieper and the Dwina, looking on the beautiful country of Litbuania as their winter quarters, and

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* « The twenty-seventh Bulletin."

* Being lately at Mantua, I was told by Sir Robert Wilson, who was an eye-witriess of the combat of Malo-Jaroslavitz, that Prince Eugene, with only 20,000 men, had sustained the shock of nige Russian divisions, of 10,000 men each."


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tvere assured that the namerous battalions of the enemny were not able to arrest their progress, or make any impression on them. In the mean time their army had considerably dịminished, while the useless multitude, styled followers of the camp, had increased in proportion, in as much as many of their soldiers, either through disease or want of courage, had quitted, their ranks, and mingled with the crowd. This description of persous was unhappily very numerous, principally among the cavalry, which was almost entirely dismounted. They were in truth, become more than useless to the army. In the perilous situation in which it then found itself they constituted its greatest danger. They not only impeded all its maneuvres, but they spread alarm and disorder on all sides, by flying with precipitation before an enemy with which their cowardice would not permit them to fight. The cossacks likewise seeing this feeble and unarmed multitude flying before them, acquired fresh courage, and attacked the French with redoubled ardour, bei.eving that these coluinns of fugitives were the only troops with which they had io contend.

* (November 6th). We marched towards Smolensko with an ardour which redoubled our strength; and approaching Doroghobouï, distant from that city only about twenty leagues, they thought that in three days we should reach the end of all our misfortunes, filled us with the most intoxicating joy; when suddenly the atmos. phere, which had hitherto been so brilliant, was clouded by cold and dense vapours. The sun, enveloped by the thickest mists, disappeared from our sight, and the snow falling in large flakes, in al instant obscured the day, and confounded the earth with the sky. The wind, furiously blowing, howled dreadfully through the forests, and overwhelmed the firs already bent down with the ice; while the country around, as far as the eye could reach, prea sented unbroken one white and savage appearance.

“ The soldiers, vainly struggling with the snow and the wind, that rushed upon them with tempestuous violence, could no longer distinguish the road; and falling into the ditches which bordered it, there found a grave. Others pressed on towards the end of their journey, scarcely able to drag themselves along. They were badly mounted, badly clothed, with nothing to eat, nothing to drink, shivering with the cold, and groaning with pain. Becom, jóg selfish through despair, they afforded neither suceour, nor even one glance of pity to those who, exhausted by fatigue and dịs. ease, expired around them. On that dreadful day, how many unfortunate beings, perishing by cold and famine, struggled hard with the agonies of death! We heard some of them faintly bidding their last adieu to their friends and comrades. Others, as they drew their last breath, pronoupced the name of their mothers, their wives, their native country, which they were never more to

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See The rigour of the frost soon seized on their benumbed limbs,
and penetrated through their whole frame. Stretched on the road,

we could distinguish only the heaps of snow that covered them,
and which, at almost every step, formed little undulations, like so
many graves. At the same time vast flights of ravens, abandon-
ing the plain to take refuge in the neighbouring forests, croaked
mournfully as they passed over our heads; and troops of dogs,
which had followed us from Moscow, and lived solely on our
mangled remains, howled around us, as if they would hasten thé
period when we were to become their

“ From that day the army lost its courage and its military attí.
tude. The soldier no longer obeyed his officer. The officer se-
parated himself from his general. The disbanded regiments marched
in disorder. Searching for food, they spread themselves over the
plain, burning and pillaging whatever fell in their way. No sooner
had the soldiers separated from the ranks, than they were assailed
by a population eager to avenge the horrors of which it had been
the victim. The cossacks came to the succour of the peasants,
and drove back to the great road, already filled with the dying
and the dead, those of the followers who had escaped from the
carnage made among

$ Such was the situation of the army, when we arrived at Do*
roghoboui. : This little town would have given new life to our un-
fortunate troops, if Napoleon had not been so far blinded by rage,
as to forget that his soldiers would be the first to suffer by the dea
vastation which he caused to be made. Doroghobouï had been
burnt, its magazines pillaged, and the brandy with which they'
were filled had been poured into the streets, while the rest of the
army was perishing for want of it. The few houses which red
mained were occupied exclusively hy a small number of generals
and staff-officers. The few soldiers who yet dared to face the
enemy, had little shelter from the rigours of the season, while the
others, who had wandered from their proper corps, were repulsed
on every side, and found no asylum in any part of the camp.
How deplorable was then the situation of these poor wretches I
Tormented by hunger, we saw them run after every horse the
moment it fell. They devoured it raw, like dogs, and fought
among themselves for the mangled limbs. Worn out by want of
sleep and long marches, they saw nothing around them but the
snow; not one spot appeared on which they could sit or lie. Pea
netrated with the cold, they wandered on every side to find wood,
but the snow had caused it entirely to disappear. If perchance
they found a little, they knew not where to light it. Did they dise'
cover a spot less exposed than others, it afforded them but å mó.
mentary shelter, for scarcely had their fire kindled, when the vio.
lence of the wind, and the moisture of the atmosphere, suddenly
extinguished it, and deprived them of the only consolation which
remained in their extreme distress. In one place we saw a multi-
tude of them huddled together like beasts at the root of a beech,


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or pinė, or under a waggon. Others were employed in tearing huge branches from the trees, or pulling down by main force, and burning the houses at which the officers lodged Although they were exhausted by fatigué, they stood erect. They wandered like spectres through the livelong night, or stood inmoveable around some enormous fire.”? P. 292.

Duing this and the following day Napoleon lost the third part

of his army, and it was during that crnel night that the soldiers, no longer under control, began to pillage tbe baggage, Nothing, however, seems to have broken the spirit of the troops more than the disappointment they met with in reaching Smo lensko. During the whole of their terrible retreat they had looked ripon this town as the end of their sufferings. The reader therefore may imagine their despair when they heard that they were not allowed to stop, and that the provisions were all consumed.

* A thunder-bolt falling at our feet could have confounded us less than did this news. We could not believe the fact; but our eyes soon gave us a sad confirmation of this truth, when we satv the garrison eagerly rushing out, and immediately devouring the houses, which every moment dropped, exhausted with fatigue and hunger.". P.314.

The motive which induced Napoleon to change his plan, was the news which he received ahat Wittgenstein had forced I've Dwina, that Witepsk had been taken with its garrison, and that the army of Moldavia, united to that of Volhynia, having driven before it the corps of Prince Schwartzenberg, was taking a position on the Beresina, with the design of joining Wittgen. stein, and effectually cutting off the retreat of the French army,

“ Marching from Smolensko, a spectacle the most horrible was presented to our view. We saw under the ramparts an immense quantity of artillery, once the trophies of our victories, but what we were now obliged to abandon to the enemy. From that point till we arrived at the wretched ruined hamlet of Loubna, at the distance of about three leagues, the road was entirely covered with Cannon to spike, or to blow up. Whole teams of cattle, sinking under.

ke ha ammunition-waggons, which they had scarcely time their labours, fell together. The carcasses of the horses comered and blocked


way. More than 30,000 of them perished in a few days * All the defiles which the carriages could not pass, were filled with muskets, helmets, and breast-plates. Trunks broken open,

and portmanteaus torn to pieces, and garments of every kind, were scattered over the yalley. At every distance, we met,

foto * 29th Bulletin.

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