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late Emperor of France, holding that commerce and colonies
constitute this “ grand object;” others majntaining that agri-
culture will more certainly realize it; from these we have bursts
of enthusiasm about large farms and drill-husbandry : and a
third set seem to think, says Mr. Gray, that the “grand ob-
ject” of a nation is to exist merely for the sake of being taxed.
But he, with more wisdom in his views, and with a decided
preference in his mind for the end instead of the means, lays it
down as the basis of all his reasoning, and as a datum not to be
disputed, that happiness is the “true grand object” of cvery
wise nation and individual.
This very original idea being struck out, the author is natu-
rally led to inquire into the mature and springs of happiness;
and it gives us pleasure to find him, after a few prolusory strokes
of ratiocination, arrived at this conclusion. Happiness, says
he, consists in enjoying health corporeal and mental, having
something to eat and drink, something for shelter, and some-
thing to do. When to this is added virtuous dispositious, the
blessing of having a few friends, and of being secure from ene-
mies, it must be admitted that the definition comes as near the
truth as could be expected, on a subject not strictly scientific.
All this, however, not only implies a certain degree of im-
provement in society, but it also suggests the topic which is
taken up in Mr. Gray's third chapter, namely, “the social im-
proveability of man.” Our author, be it mentioned to his praise,
holds nothing in common with those dreamers of dreams, who
indulge in visions of human perfectibility; for, on the contrary,
he has found out that in proportion as men become more
learned, they become worse-ter, pered; and particularly, as
they get deep in politics and political economy, they grow every
day more snappish and intolerable in their manners. In fact, it
is deeply impressed upon his mind, that the good temper which
was recommended by the first teachers of Christianity, instead
of being improved by erudition and science, has been materially
hurt by them. Our learned men, it seems, “ become morose,
haughty, distant, passionate, and overbearing; and for the most
part, they are destitute of that quality which tends so much to
social good, economy. Fortunately however, in general, it
seems to be pretty much in proportion to the progress which a
man has made in one particular species of learning or science,
that his sociality is hurt. A general knowledge, such as this
adept would call superficial, or a smattering of many different
kinds, on the whole improves the sociality of the temper.”
What a misery must it be for a man's family, when his mind
is engrossed with any particular study in which he happens to
Bucceed . We know that Newton's bed-maker was wretched

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beyond expression while he was prosecuting his discoveries in
optics; and it was probably in consequence of his profound at-
tainments in political science, that Mr. Pitt judged it expedient
to decline matrimony. According to this view of things, how-
ever, we can have no possible doubt that our author is a very .
good-natured man, and quite uninjured in all his social qualities.
By what means, then, is man to be improved? We suc-
ceed with beech-trees and fir-trees to a certain extent, and even
with sheep and horned cattle; and in the next generation we
may count upon the beech-nuts and fir-tops, the rams and the
bulls, for a tolerably fair exhibition of all the good properties
which we have established in the present. But man is neither
a beech tree nor a horned animal, and of course, we must, ac-
cording to Mr. Gray, for ever despair of his improvement.

“Suppose it were possible,” says he, “by an universal system of education, acted upon for an age, to make the great mass of Fo perfectly good and social, which is an idea that will never e seriously entertained by any one acquainted with human nature, or human affairs, have we accomplished the task of correcting nature ? No. We are not much nearer giving complete

- ;..." to the sperms which are to form the succeeding age, than

efore. Good and social parents, like those of the opposite character, produce bad and unsocial, as well as good and social, children indiscriminately. Our race is, therefore, with regard to

what constitutes about two thirds of the whole, just where it was.”

The case, we admit, is bad enough ; and as we are not sufficiently enlightened in physiology to venture a prescription for the behoof of the sperms which are to form the next age, we must just leave them to make as good men, as their materials will admit of, in the old way.

After Book I. comes Book II. which has for its subject the very important doctrines of CIRCU LAN p, or that which is to be circulated. Lest, this new term should not on its first appearance convey a very precise meaning, we beg leave to state that it is used to denote any marketable commodity, whether it be the raw produce of the soil, manufactured goods, labour of the hands, agility of the body, or the exercise of ingenuity and talent. Every thing is circuland which enables the possessor to make a charge upon the common fund of national wealth, or, in other words, whatever is wanted by others, and for which they are willing to pay, is, to him who holds it, to all intents and purposes, circuland. The skill and character of a physician, for example, are his circuland; the grimaces of a harlequin and the voice of a singer are their circuland; while a quarter of wheat, a sack of flour, and a loaf of bread are the - . . . . - - respective


respective circulands of the farmer, the miller and the bakéF.” We can tolerate the whim of introducing a new word in this. instance,' since the author deemed it necessary for precision; . but our forbearance cannot be extended to the absurd notion, which is afterwards introduced, that public wealth is promoted with a degree of rapidity proportionate to the exorbitance of the charge which every one makes for his labour or commodities. Does Mr. Gray really hold, as a fundamental doctrine in political economy, that wealth is created by high prices: It is indeed known to every one, that it is only in rich countries that high prices can be obtained; but it must be at least extremely parodoxical to maintain, that we should all get richer were we to pay twenty guineas for a coat, five pounds for a pair of shoes, and half a guinea for a quarterm loaf. We are loathe to call. any thing nonsense that appears in a splendid quarto, with the name of its author prefixed; but we have no other word which

would express our opinion so well, both of the doctrine which

we have just stated and more particularly of that which is to follow. We find it set down in this work, notwithstanding the unanswerable reasoning of Smith and of the French economists, that every kind of labour, or as it is aere expressed, every kind of circuland, is alike productive of public wealth. It is, in fact, boldly asserted that a song from the throat of Catalani, or a speech from the mouth of Kean, contributes as much to the riches of Great Britain, as the labour of a ploughman or the unrivalled ingenuity of a Birmingham or Manchester artizan. When an erroneous opinion is thus caracatured in the manner of its statement, it sufficiently answers itself; and we have really no wish to throw away our circuland in exposing the absurdity of a doctrine, when the author has already done it to our hands. We have only to show, by quoting the following" sentence, that we have not misrepresented his views; for some such evidence will perhaps appear necessary to those who are not aware to what lengths an ingenious mau will go in support of a favourite theory.

“What possible difference can it make,” he demands, “ that one man is enabled to charge by means of turning up the soil

with a plough; a second by bringing tones out of an instrument;

a third by raising corn or feeding cattle; a fourth by inculcating

the principles of religion and morality; a fifth by thrusting a shut.

tle between the divisions of the warp; a sixth by making letters with a pen on paper; a seventh by throwing water on cotton cloth to whiten it; an eighth by rehearsing speeches from Shakespeare: a ninth by singeing the wooliness of the surface of muslim off; a

tenth by tripping it lightly before an audience on a stage; an ele

venth by carrying heavy packages slowly along the street; and a twelfth

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twelfth by collecting the debts due to private individuals, or the

assessments of the nation ?”

Were it not that this political heresy has laid hold of other

heads than our author's, and has shown itself in the writings of certain journalists, who, on almost every other subject, impli

citly follow the doctrines of Adam Smith, we should not be tempted to motice it at greater length in the present article. A few words will suffice. Labour, then, we maintain, when regarded with a reference to national wealth, is, according to the views of economists and of Smith, either productive or unproductive. We say, when viewed with a reference to the aggregate wealth of a nation; for nothing is more obvious than that the income of particular individuals, or classes of men, may be increased without any addition being thereby made to the mass of public riches. We may adduce as an instance of this, the very honourable professions of law and physic; the gains arising from which, however much they may add to the private revenue of the practitioners, cannot be regarded as additional wealth secured to the country. Such gains are but a tranfer of so much property from one hand to another, and the physician only spends a certain share of what his patient would otherwise

have laid out. What addition, we would ask, is made to our.

national wealth by the theatres or opera-house; or how much richer did we become from the visit of the Indian Jugglers! Labour in all these cases is, no doubt, productive as it respects the labourer, that is to say, it increases his private revenue; but, as it respects the public, it is certainly unproductive., lt merely becomes a channel for the circulation of money from one pocket to another, without adding one farthing to its amount: it enables the lawyer, the physician, the opera-dancer and the player to go to market and purchase goods, to the exact extent to which the means of their employers have been dimimished, by the payment of their fees or salaries. But the case alters entirely with respect to labour in agriculture or manufactures. The man who pays for such labour, derives from it, not only its own price, and the proper hire for the instruments which are used by the labourer, but also a clear profit over and above all eharges. The Birmingham manufacturer, for example, who pays a guinea a week for a man's labour, is understood to reap from the work of that labourer not only the guinea he paid out, and the interest of the money expended in the building of houses and the purchase of tools, but likewise, in addition to all this, a shilling or eighteen-pence of profit; which, in the

first place, adds so much to his wealth, and secondly to the

wealth of the country. He gets back, in short, from the work- - - - man,


himself with the privilege, which every author enjoys, of advanc

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man, not only as much, in the shape of manufactured goods, as would purchase a guinea's worth of labour, but as much as would purchase labour to the amount of twenty-two shillings

‘And upwards; and, in this way, he could afford to pay the la

bourer during any number of years, and would all the time be gradually getting richer. Apply this standard, however, to Madame Catalani and the Jugglers. You pay half a guinea to hear a song or see a trick of legerdemain. Suppose you go once a week to such amusements for a whole year, and you will have

given away twenty-six guineas. Are your guineas replaced in

your pocket by what you see or hear : No : then you must ad

mit that such kind of labour consumes, without reproducing,

the money of him who purchases it. But Mr. Gray will say the labour of the Juggler is as productive as that of the Birmingham artizan, because it enables him to charge for it; but

we say, in reply, that this is not the sense in which the term

productive was used by Dr. Smith and his predecessors in France, and that there is all the difference in the world between enriching an individual and enriching a nation. Jugglers and songsters, and various other orders of men, may happen to acquire wealth, while the people who feed them may be sinking into poverty; whereas people employed in agriculture and manufactures are constantly found to diffuse wealth over the whole country in which they are so fortunate as to improve their private fortunes. The labour of the husbandman will draw from an acre of land ten times the amount of its natural unassisted o ; and manufacturing industry operating upon a pound of

ax or cotton, will augment its changeable value perhaps a .

thousand fold. The hardware of Sheffield and Birmingham, and the manufactures of Manchester and Paisley, bring into the ports of Great Britain, in the shape of French and American produce, an incalculable amount of wealth, if compared with the original price of the material with which it is paid. We see the silks of Lyons and the wines of Burgundy and Champagne purchased with a piece of manufactured iron-stone, to which

skill and labour have given its whole value; and cargoes of cot

ton are every day reaching our shores, which the ingenious industry of our countrymen sends back to the land where it grew, so much increased in its exchangeable value, that a pound will sometimes pay for a ton. And is it possible, in the face of such instructive and notorious facts, for an author to stand up and tell the world, that a woman who sings a song, or a man who recites a speech from Shakespeare, contributes as much to public wealth as the manufacturer or the ploughman

. It would after all have been nothing, had Mr. Gray contented

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