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been given them to drink," blood spilled by their own hands, in successive revolutions, massacres, and anarchy. But we have been not merely spectators, but instruments in the hand of Providence; and in the arduous struggle, while we honourably stood up to rescue and defend the oppressed against their unjust aggressors, numberless are the lives of our own brave and heroic countrymen which have been sacrificed in the conflict.
We cannot therefore regard these days of trouble, wherein all suffer, because all are guilty, though they do not, thank God, suffer equally, as their guilt, we trust, is not equal; we cannot regard these days of woe and suffering as the actual commencement of the Millennium, though we view them as a prelude to that fast-approaching and blessed ära,
We have another strong objection to this part of Mr. Frere's work, which applies also to Mr. Faber. If the 1260 years expired in 1792, then the death and resurrection of the witnesses of truth, who prophesy in sackcloth during that long period, are already past. But we never could persuade ourselves to accede to Mr. Faber's opinion, that these things happened under the Smalcaldic League, almost three centuries ago, when the Interim was enforced in the year 1548. The interpretation, which the profoundly learned and judicious Mede, a century after the period suggested, maturely considered, and apparently on solid grounds rejected, is not likely with good auspices to be yevived. If this hypothesis is adopted, then, from the assumed commencement of their testimony, instead of prophesying 1260 years, the witnesses did not prophesy 1200, no nor even 1000 years, clothed in sackcloth. At the same time the horrid massacre at Paris in 1572, the revocation of the edict at Nantes, and successive Irish massacres, all subsequent to the supposed revival of the witnesses, are fearful monitions, that the days of mourning are not yet ended. Again; the events which took place little less than three centuries ago, cannot with propriety be regarded as what was to happen, when the witnesses " had finished," or “ were about to tinish” their testimony. The calamity, which was confined to one corner of Germany, does not appear to be sufficiently extensive and momentous to answer the demand of the prediction in the Apocalypse : and the great earthquake, which was to be the same hour," or to synchronize with the revival of the witnesses, is prolonged, surely with inadmissible length of duration, from 1530 (before the death of the witnesses) to the year 1088, more than a century after their supposed resurrection.
On the whole of this matter, we would observe, that fear, the parent of caution, is less dangerous than confidence. We dare pot therefore venture to throw aside our armour, nor cease
to be on the watch, lest when we say, Peace, and all things are at rest, sudden destruction should come upon us. And in this, whether it be apprehension or circumspection, we have the concurrerice of one who has recently viewed the prophecies with an intelligent eye. Dr. Hales thinks the last persecution of the witnesses, shortly before the expiratiou of the period (which he brings down, whether correctly or otherwise, to the year 1880) likely to take place in England, denoted by the tenth part of the city, one of the ten kingdoms into which the Roman Empire was divided, and the street" her most popu. lous region, the metropolis of the British Empire, London and her environs, that'" greatest seminary of religion and virtue, as also of irreligion and vice.”
We hasten' with pleasure to a point on which our sentiments are in unison with Mr. Frere's. In considering the ten horns or kings of the fourth beast in Daniel, he proceeds on the principle of a territorial division of the Roman Empire into ten : distinct sovereignties or states ; on which principle he observes, “ they must necessarily be considered as continuing to exist, through all their changes, as long as their territories are kept distinct from each other, and remain the seats of separate governments.” He therefore gives the following list of the teu kingdoms: Ravenna, Lombardy, Rome, Naples, Tuscany; France, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Britain. And the three first named, which are known to form the Papal states, following Sir I. Newton, Bishop Newton and others, he makes to be the three horns or states, which were plucked up and subdued by the little Papal horn; by which removal of three of the ten primary horns, he became a temporal power like the rest, though “ diverse from them,” invested with a spiritual as well as a temporal sword.
And here we would observe, that provided the numbers are made out correctly, it seems of little moment whether we enquire first for the ten or the three ; but as the latter is the sinaller number and coupled with this circumstance, that the three required were plucked up by the little horn, it is reasonable to presume, that the three, so described, may be discovered with greater certainty ; whereas in the larger number of ten, there is more room for doubt and uncertainty. But when it is said in the Apocalypse, that the ten horns of the beast shall hate the Papal harlot (that is the little horn under a different symbol) and “ make her desolate, and naked, and burn her with fire,” it is evidently implied, that they should (all or most of them) exist at the time of her downfall
, and cause her desiruction. Therefore the Heruli, and Ostrogoths, and Vandals, and others, which for many ages past have had no exist
ence, seem to be improperly reckoned among the horns of the beast.
It is not necessary to bestow much time on the latter part of Mr. Frere's work, where from p. 339 to the end of the volume (p. 476,) we have the whole history of Napoleon Buonaparte, past, present and impending, regularly deduced (quo jure, quare injuria) from prophecy. The facility with which this is done is wonderful. In commenting on the last prophecy of Daniel, after applying the first part of it, as others have done with the clearest evidence, to the mighty king” of Greece and the kings of Syria and Egypt, down to the sudden fall of Antiochus the Great, (xi. 19.) instead of going on with the line of oriental history, he makes an abrupt transition of little less than 2000 years, and contends that the “ raiser of taxes” in the next verse is Louis XVI, who was destroyed neither in anger nor in battle," but basely deposed and murdered by his own subjects. The “ vile person," his successor, is the Corsican upstart, in whose life and achievements all that follows to the end of the 40th verse, “ has already," as he endeavours to shew, “ been clearly accomplisher;" and the remainder will follow in its season, till, having " planted the tabernacles of his palace” in Palestine, « between the seas," (the Mediterranean and Aspbaltite sea) “ on the glorious holy mountain, he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.” (Dan. xi. 45.)
This accommodation to recent events of a prophecy in the first half of it. long ago fulfilled, does not demand a laborious refutation. Of the author's dexterity of adaptation, a few specimens may suffice.
It is admitted by Mr. F. that
“ In the first part of this prophecy, which related to the divided Macedonian Empire, the Kings of the North and of the South were the Kings of Syria and of Egypt; but in this latter part of the prophecy relating (Mr. F. says) to the Roman Empire, these terms will be found to designate the principal potentates of the north and of the south of Europe. As the Emperor of Russia is unquestionably the principal Potentate of the North, so the Eniperor of Austria must be considered as the principal Potentate of the South. Again ; as Austria literally means South, the title, King or Emperor of Austria, is, in fact, the same as King of the South.” P. 361.
« On these grounds, such as they are, the present Emperor of Austria is supposed to be meant by “ the King of the South," Verse 25; and yet presently, verse 29, the South has its ancient designation, and means Egypt. P. 388. We are taught to think that the people designated by " the
boly covenant," (verse 28, 30,) are “ the highly favoured nation of Great Britain.” Pp. 379, 403. A. character and situation, in which, if jusily attributed to us, we might have great satisfaction, had we not been previously informed that "the Prince of the Covenant" (verse 22) is one, whom we would not very willingly have for our leader, the Pope. Pp. 347, 368.
“ The people that do know their God, shall be strong, and do exploits.” Verse 32. To this high encomium, (whether actually spoken of the British nation, p. 403, or not) we have, through God's unspeakable blessing, some claim; and when it is observed, that the next clause, “ they that understand among the people, shall instruct many,” belongs to us also, p. 413, with this too we might console ourselves, did not the eye run on to the sequel of the verse; " yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days." Where is now the security of Great Britain ? Be not alarmed; Mr. F. is an adroit as well as daring auxiliary. The hi nour is our's; the danger is not our's. The sufferers are--" the Protestant nations of Germany." P. 419.
“ The mighty Emperor (or King) of the North came against Buonaparte (p. 456) with chariots and with horsemen”-it is all very true : “ and with many ships.” Here there is some difficulty; for as Mr. F. himself says," the Emperor of Russia certainly did not attack Buonaparte with many ships." But virtuti nil arduum est. The magic wand of the interpreter can in a moment convert these "
mang ships” into ous artillery!"
But to be serious, as we ought to be, though it is not very easy to be so, when such liberties are taken, and such crude conjectures obtruded, on the awful subject of prophecy. We are far from maintaining, that of this sublime prophecy, extending, as it evidently does, from the time of the holy prophet to a period beyond the present day, there are no parts which relate to the marvellous events that have recently passed, or are now passing, on the theatre of Europe. On the contrary, we deem it probable, that the latter part of the chapter (verse 36 to the end) does foretel events, in which either Buoparte himself, or Revolutionary France, is a principal agent, , What we disapprove and deprecate is precipitate and peremptory decision on matters while they are in progress, day teems with events that are alike astonishing and unexpected. In what remains to be fulfilled, the order' of events and scenes of action, and many other circumstances, are so graphically delineated by the prophetic pencil of the man "greatly beloved," that when the things come to pass, as they assuredly will in their season, the luminous evidence of the whole will strike
Create instru arour with
conviction in every beholder, and every tongue shall confess, * these are. His doings, who is mighty in operation and tremendous in judgment!" In the mean time our own faith is grounded on the clear and increasing light of numberless pro. phecies ; and particularly on that class of prophecies, which was interpreted to Daniel and afterwards more particularly to St. John, those which foretold the destruction of the mystic Babylon, the mother of abominations. " How awful therefore would it be," as Mr. F. justly observes, “ were we now to give any decided encouragement to the principles," or, we may add, to the professors, " of a religion, which has been so clearly marked as the object of Divine displeasure,” by the word of prophecy and by the heavy judgments already inflicted upon it in all its kingdoms and dependeiicies, the prelude of her final and upiversal overthrow,
There is not, we believe, in all the Apocalypse a passage, on which a greater diversity of sentimients is found among the commentators, than concerning the “ Beast that was and is not, " the eighth” (head,) which " is of the seven." Rev. xvii. 8,
Mr. Faber calls this the septimo-octave head," and considers it as symbolical of “ the Napoleonic dynasty;" vol. ä. 221. 240. n. 293. n. 400. n. 405. n. 430. 432. Mr. Frere restricts it to the individual Napoleon Buonaparte. p. 38, 39. 94, 95. 99. Of this enigma we shall, at the end of this account, submit to our readers a solution which appears to us more probable than any which has been suggested by the expositors of the Apocalypse. In the mean time there remains one part of Mr. Frere's volume, which demands particular notice.
He" conceives the prophecy" in Daniel," they that undere stand among the people shall instruct many, « particularly refers to the establishment of the British and Foreign Bible Society," p. 415, 416. By this and other " exertions" lately * made for improving the moral state of the world,"
“ The Christian world is improved beyond the fondest dreams of the visionary. If we could suppose some calm, calculating, intelligent Christian observer to open his eyes, after a ten year's sleep, on the passing scene, would he not find himself almost in a new creation ? Contemplate the unexampled pains which are taken to instruct the poor; the glow of holy zeal which is spreading itself around for the distribution of the sacred volume; and the harmony with which Christians of every name have united to diffuse its blessed light! See missionaries going forth with a spirit truly apostolic, to carry the glad tidings of salvation to every corner of the earth; the scriptures
, translated into more languages than distinguished the day of Pentecost, and dispersed into more lands than quer the Apostles visited; all sects and parties, who bow the knee