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published of such fossil bones, and the fact must be very generally known that Plater, professor of anatomy at Basil, de scribed with great seriousness, the petrified remains of an ele. phant found at Lucerne, which he converted into a giant at least nineteen feet high. The Lucernese, we are told, were so perfectly satisfied with this discovery, that they caused a painting to be made of the giant as he must have appeared when alive, assumed two such giants as the supporters of the city arms, and had the portraits hung up in their public hall. The Landvoight Engel, however, not so easily convinced as to the origin of these bulky fossils, maintained that our planet, before the creation of the present race of men, was inhabited by the fallen angels, and that these bones were parts of the skeletons of those miserable beings. Scheuchzer's “homo diluvii testis" turned out, as every body knows, to be a proteus or salamander; and Spallanzani's hill of human bones, has been found, upon minute examination, not to contain one fragment. With all these facts before us, we are nevertheless inclined to believe that the gravel and alluvial depositions, in Alpine regions, may be ascribed to the Mosaical deluge, and we would account for the absence of human bones in a fossil state, by alledging that those parts of the earth in which man has taken up his principal residence, have not yet been minutely examined. May there not be, in the plains of Kurdistan, some basins of mineral deposits bitherto upvisited by the prying geologist, where the remains of Noah's contemporaries, and the monuments of their genius, repose deep in the soil? In this opinion, however, we do not Enjoy the support of Professor Kidd, who reasons against it in the following manner :

" It is very commonly supposed also that depositions of gravel are the consequence of the Mosaic deluge; against which

supposition, I think, the following is a strong argument. The period which intervened between Adam and Noah is as long as between Noah and the building of Rome; but at the time that Rome was built it appears from historical evidence that a great part of Europe was peopled, and that even our own island was inhabited. Rea. soning then on that datum, the same parts were probably peopled at the time of the food (especially as human life extended to & longer period before than after that catastrophe); and consequently we might expect to find the remains of human bodies, and of instruments of art, in such situations as we find the remaing of other animals; if these last mentioned remains are the moduments of the Mosaic deluge: or, if not the remains of human bodies, at least we might expect to find the remains of existing as well as of extinct species: for we learn from Scripture, that the food was only intended to destroy individuals; the species having


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been miraculously preserved. It may be said, that the absence of human remains is a negative argument, which may be overturned the next moment by the discovery of the remains of human bodies in beds of true gravel. This is however not likely; and at all events it is evident, that the history of gravel beds is accompanied with facts as inexplicable as are found in the history of the regular strata. But, whatever were the cause of the deposition of gravel beds, it appears pretty certain that no process of that kind took place at any period between the formation of the earliest and the latest of the regular strata : for I cannot find that any thing resembling a true gravel bed is interposed between any of the séries of


formation : : yet if stratification were now to be resumed, it is clear that the existing beds of gravel would be covered as well as the uppermost of the regular strata." P. 163.

Before we conclude our remarks on this interesting little volume, we shall take notice of a fact quoted by Dr. Kidd, from Humboldt, relative to the lakes which are still seen in the valley of Mexico. Nothing startled us so much in the various descriptions which we perused of the celebrated floetz formation, in the neighbourhood of Paris, as the alternation of beds containing respectively salt-water and fresh-water shells. It is a sufficient stretch of imagination to suppose, that the sea would advance and recede so as repeatedly to cover and leave dry that immense basin; but to assert that it was alternately overflowed from the land and from the ocean, appears to exceed all the bounds of probability. The valley in which the city of Mexico is situated, says Humboldt, though more than five thousand feet above the level of the sea, is literally encircled by a chain of mountains ; and it seems evident that this valley was formerly an immense lake, of which the five comparatively small lakes, now occupying portions of it, some of fresh and some of salt-water, are the remains. In 1520, Cortez described two great lakes as existing in this valley, the one of salt-water, the other of fresh; and whatever difficulty we may find in accounting for the fact, it comes from such unquestionable and unsuspicious authority, that we must implicitly admit its reality. If, then, the valley of Mexico shall, at any future period, be thrown open and examined with the same minute attention which has been bestowed upon the environs of Paris, there is every reason to expect that similar appearances

will be exhibited. There will be some strata characterized by narine eruviæ, and other strata having the remains of shell-fish peculiar to fresh-water; and when the philosopher shall infer from these facts, that salt-water, as well as fresh, bas contributed to the formation of the mineral deposits, in the basin of Mexico, he will only have to refer to the writings of Cuvier and Brong


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niart to apply at once a case in point, and a full illustration of
the geological doctrine which it involves. Indeed there is
scarcely any subject of more importance than the history of
lakes, whether we regard it in connection with hydrography or
as it throw's light upon the aqueous origin of certain rocks.
Von Buch describes a very interesting local formation of this
kind, which he discovered at Locle, in the district of Jura. It
is contained in an inclosed valley, 1665 French feet above the
lake of Neufchatel, and 9959 above the level of the sea, and
is, we are further told, about two miles and a quarter long; and
about a mile broad. The valley contains many small hills,
* from 200 to 300 feet in height; the lowest stratum of which,
resting immediately on the same limestone of which the neigh-
bouring mountains are composed, is a very coarse conglomerate
of that limestone. On the conglomerate rests a pretty thick
bed of marly limestone, of a white colour, and which is fine,
earthy, and almost friable. Throughout the whole extent it is
interinised with small river shells, which still retain their natural
substance and texture. There is also found hornstone with freslim
water shells, bituminous shale, and a bed of coals including 14-
merous bivalve shells; and it is worthy of particular notice that
all these minerals are the produce of a small inclosed lake,
for not one trace of these works is to be seen beyond the
mountains that surround Locle* The well-known local forma-
tion at Ænigen must be explained on the same principle.
Both Von Buch and Blumenbach are of opinion that it is a de-
position which had taken place in a lake which anciently covered
that ground, and accordingly that the tishes, insects, leaves, and
other organic bodies, which abound in it, had been carried
thither by the rivers from the adjacent country. It seems, in
short, a matter of the highest probability, that on the courses
of all the great rivers, such valleys or lake formations are very
frequent. Mr. Jameson, in the work to which we have already
referred, mentions several of both on the Rhine and on the Da-
nube. “ As long as the Rhine,” says he,

c continues in the
Alps, these basins are inconsiderable, but they increase in mag.
nitude as soon as it leaves these elevated regions. The basin,
in which the lake of Constance is situated, may serve as an exa
ample. A second occurs in Baden, which extends from Upper
Alsace to Hundsruck and the vicinity of Mayence, where the
Rhine forces its way through a narrow rocky passage. The
river district of the Danube forins a basin in Swabia, several in
Bavaria, and one in Lower Austria ; and the current is still

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* See Annals of Philosophy, vol. i. p. 191.



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nearly shut up at Presburgh, which forms the entrance into the great valley of Hungary. At the lower extremity of Hungary the river is again forced to seek its way through a narrow rocky channel at Orosova, which is the only opening 'from Hungary into Wallachia. It now continues its course through Wallachia, and at length falls into the Black Sea. We have a continuation, observes the Professor, of these vallies or basins, although still filled with water, in the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmora, and the Mediterraneap. The Elbe exhibits many similar appearances ; so does the Don in Aberdeenshire, and the Annan, near Dumfries. The travels of Lewis and Clarke to the source of Missouri furnish a variety of instances in which that river has Juid immense vallies dry, by cutting a channel for itself through she barrier which formerly shut it up; and one place is mentioned where that magnificent stream, 350 yards in width, has worn out a passage to the depth of 1200 feet, in a rock of hornblende and felspar.

We offer our thanks to Professor Kidd for the little essay which has suggested these remarks, and beg leave to assure him that the industry, candour, and just reasoning, of which it presents so many proofs, have created in our minds no small segret, that he has determined to bid farewell to mineralogical pursuits. Much still remains to be done in the field of rational geognosy; and no man requires to be told that its


will be most successfully advanced, by collecting facts from every authentic source, by personally examining and comparing nature on the great scale, and by bringing forward such anomalies or exceptions as will prevent a too hasty induction. All this Dr. Kidd has exemplified in the present work, and we conclude our commendation by merely referring to the caution and delicacy which he has shewn on the subject of religious belief. None are charged by him with infidel or atleistical opinions, and every one is exhorted to conduct his enquiries, in the de. partment of science, with a due respect for even the prejudices of the pious. We have only to add in defence of this unpopular and defanied study, that it carries nothing in its mysteries hostile to the faith of a Christian"; while, on the contrary, it has furnished several collateral and important proofs that the Mosaical history is a true and faithful record of man, and of the globe as the habitation of man.

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Art. IV. A Combined View of the Prophecies of Daniel, Es

dras,and St. John, shewing thot all the Prophetic Writings are jermed upon one p'an, accompanied by an explo

tory Chart. Hilso, a minute Explunatimni of the Prophecies of Daniel, to


ill aft



gether with Critical Remarks upon the Interpretations of
preceding Commentators, and more particularly upon the
Systems of Mr. Faber and Mr. Cuninghame. By James
Hatley Frere, Esq. The second edition. 8vo. 128. Hatchard.

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IT is a pleasing circumstance, honourable to the days and to
the land we live in, that many learned laymen, following the
example of the illustrious Sir Isaac Newton, have devoted their
leisure to the investigation of the prophecies. This increased
and increasing attention to the prophetic parts of the sacred
volume is itself a verification of prophecy, and will, no doubt,
be rewarded with the promised success. By the excursive
researches and persevering diligence of both clergy and laity, the
knowledge of these awful subjects will be increased, and the
faith of the present and of the coming generations more and
more established.

In reviewing the work of this learned layman on the prophe-
cies, we shall principally advert to those parts and passages,
which, when the volume first appeared, powerfully excited pub.
lic attention. What relates (as many things in this Combined
View necessarily do) to times long past, may be omitted or briefly
noticed; but in applying prophetic predictions to events of
recent date, or (as supposed) immediately impending, where
mistakes may be pregnant with consequences most fatal, we
should proceed with the utmost deliberation and trembling caution.

There are many undoubted synchronisms in the Apocalypse of St. John, which the incomparable Mede, we believe, was the first to point out and demonstrate. We have often thought it would be an important step towards the obtaining of a clear view of this awful book, to transcribe, either from the original text or from our English version, the several passages relating to the same period of time, and to arrange them in parallel columns ; but we never in earnest attempted to carry the design into execution. Mr. Frere has prefixed to his book a scheme, or “ General Plan” of the prophecies, supposed by him to be synchronical, which is convenient and useful; but it would be far better, if practicable, to have the passages themselves at one view laid

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before us.

Mr. Frere makes the first six trumpets coincident in point of
time with the six first seals; in which he not only deserts the
authority of Mr. Mede, Mr. Faber and others, but apparently
offers great violence to the text itself; in which, besides other
marks of time, the first trumpet is not represented as sounding
all after the seventh seal has been opened.
In his introductory observations, after expressing his regret


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