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Art. XIII: An Outline of Mineralogy ond Geology. By
W. Phillips. 193 pp. 5s.6d. Phillips. 1815.
an elemenitarý treatise upori mineralogy, ite have not seeni a book that has given us so much satisfaction. The arrangement is good, the explanatiovs clear, and the descriptions sufficiently copious for the beginner.
The following is the description of salt deposites:
“ Clay, sandstone, and gypsum, almost invariably accompany rock salt, either above or below it; sometimes both above and below it.
“ The countries in which large deposites of salt are found, are for the most part filat; they do not often exceed that elevation which is termed hilly
" In Germany, but few instances of the rock salt formation occur ; but it is said that an uncommonly great deposition of it may be traced with little interruption froin the Black Sea nearly to the Alps. It abounds in Spain; but is not very common in Russia or generally in northern countries. Nevertheless there are said to be two whole mountains in Astracan entirely composed of it
. It is abundant in Persia; the isle of Ormus in the Persian Gulph almost wholly consists of rock salt. Whole mountains of it also occur in Tunis and Algiers, in Africa. It is found in New South Wales; and not long sinée a mountain of salt of an im, mense height was discovered near the Missouri river in America, eighty miles long and forty-five miles wide, the surface of which is barely covered with earth; neither tree nor shrub is growing
“ But many countries are nearly without salt. At Delhi and Agra, the capitals of Hindustan, its price is 2s.6d. per pound: and it is said to be so scarce in the interior of that country, west of Thibet, that the natives used cakes of salt, sealed up and beara ing the stamp of their prince; as money:
“ Perhaps the most extensive deposition of rock salt in the world occurs in Wielitska, near Cracow in Poland, at the northern extremity of a branch of the Carpathian mountains. It has been worked as å mine since the year 1251, and its excavations are said to extend more than a league from east to west. The salt. is of an iron grey colour, in which are found cubes of a pure white." P. 153.
The following description of the salt mines at Northwich, in Cheshire, may prove interesting to some of our readers.
“ These beds are known to extend one mile and a half, north. east and south west, and are upwards of three quarters of a mile wide : there are two beds, lying one beneath the other.
“ The strata above the upper bed, consist of gypsum, and of alternating beds of variously coloured marl, red, blue, and brown; some of them are so porous as that it has been ascertained that 360 gallons of water rise through them in a minute; a circumstance that greatly impedes the sinking of the pits. It is remarkable, but it is well ascertained, that the various strata above the upper bed of rock salt contain no marine fossils. These strata are from 105 to 120 feet thick; they repose on the first bed of salt which is from șixty to ninety feet thick: between the first and second beds of salt lies a stratum of indurated marl, thirty-fix to forty feet in thickness. So that the surface of the second or lower bed of rock salt is about 220 feet from the surface of the land. Into this sea cond bed of salt they have sunk 132 feet, without having found the bottom of it.
“ The salt of these mines is for the most part of a reddish hue, arising from some admixture of iron; and it is generally so hard, that the blast by gunpowder is employed in breaking it down. The lower part of the lower bed is the purest; and in it there are considerable cavities about 16 feet in height; in which, occasionally, pillars of salt are left, six or eight yards square, which form the supports of the roof. The cavities are worked into aisles or streets; which, when illuminated by candles fixed to the sides of the rock, give a brilliancy of effect that is singularly striking; and, it is said, almost appear to realize the magic palaces of the easterta
Some idea of the vast magnitude of the Cheshire salt deposites may be formed, when it is mentioned that its many mines yield 16,000 tons for home consumption annually, and that 140,00 tons more are annually exported from Liverpool.” P. 157.
We strongly recommend this little work, as a most useful and cheap companion to the young mineralogist.
ART. XIV. Researches about Atmospheric Phænomena. By
T. Forster. F.L.S. 8vo pp. 271. TOs. 6d. Plates. Baldwin... 1815,
MR.FORSTER appears to be a gentleman of an ardent, though somewhat of a positive tam of mind, devoid neither of ingenuiry or science. Various readers will be amused in various ways by the perusal of this volume. The plates are very pretty, and fint no small degree illustrate the observations of the work. Our author treats of the origin, th: modification, and the peculiarities of clouds ; indications of future changes of the wea
ther; and the influence of all its varieties upon organized bodies ; with observations on the regimen to be pursued in the various diseases resulting from such changes. Now although we are far from agreeing with our author in his opinions upon all these subjects, upon some of which he has suffered his judgment to run wild, we cannot in justice deny bin the credit of having written an original, useful, and very amusing volume.
ART. XV. A Visit to Paris in 1814. By John Scott, Editor
of the Champion. 8vo. pp. 409. 128. 1815. FROM the editor of a Sunday paper, we expected little worthy of our attention, and that little calling for our reprobation. We were agreeably disappointed however in the present work. The views of French society and manners are in great measure original, the comparison of them with the English just, and the : principles unexceptionable. The following reflections upon the superior decency, as it is termed, of Paris, have more origina. lity than any that we have seen, nor are they more original than just. After speaking of the Palais Royale, the author observes
“ It is very certain, that if there were any similar places of re. sort in London, such abominable conduct would prevail among them, that they would become insufferable nuisances ;-whereas, in Paris, there is nothing seen painfully to offend the eye, and this is enough to satisfy the Parisians that they ought not to shock the mind. But the truth is, that grossness of conduct is the natural and becoming barrier that stands between virtue and vice,-it proves that the two are kept totally distinct, that the partizans of the latter feel themselves proscribed, rejected, disowned by the respectable. They thus carry with them the brand of their infamy,--the good shudder at it and avoid them,- they disgust instead of alluring,--they excite a horror which counteracts the temptations to licentiousness. It is a sign that the virtue of a nation is spurious and debased, not that its vice is scanty and unaggravated, when its manners fail strongly to mark the distinction between the worthy and the reprobate. Where morals are generally loose, where principles are unsettled, and duties ill understood and worse practised, the most vicious will assume a companionable decorum of behaviour, for they will feel that they are not much out of the common way; and, being on terms of familiarity and com: munion with all around them, their iniquity will help to form a generally debased standard, instead of remaining distinct and odious, as a contrast to what is pure and valuable. This is the true Ręcret of what is termed the superior decency of Paris in some re
spects :-it cannot be said to exist in any one instance of super
In his chapter upon the manners and habits of the Frenchi females, the same train of thought is applied in a still stronger Dianner.
“ One effect of what I have been describing is, that, amidst this general profligacy, the grosser features of vice are not frequently
A woman who sweryes from her sex's point of honour in England, is aware that she has committed an unpardonable offence, and the coarseness of depravity ensues from the very consciousness of the enormity of her crime. But it is very different in France, A female there who has committed adultery, regards herself, and is regarded by others, as not more culpable than if she were a little too extravagant, or too addicted to play, or rather fond of going from home. Her mind, therefore, experiences little, if any alteration, in consequence of the violation of her person ; it is but little, or rather not at all, worse than it was before. It must be admitteda that this is a better state of disposition and feeling than usually exists in union with a disregard of chastity in England, but how worthless is it as a general standard of the female heart, and is it not infinitely better to meet with instances of gross depravity, as disgusting exceptions to the general purity, than to find purity no where, and every where a dissoluteness, insulting and confounding virtue by assuming the air of decency?
" This leads me again to notice what I haye before referred to namely, the boast of the French, that the appearance of vice in Paris is not so odious as in London. If it be allowed them that their wickedness is not so deformed, yet if their virtue is not so fair, the worst stigma will remain with them. Where women commit adultery, and are allowed to continue in good society, the common prostitutes will not in their behaviour shew themselves at vari: ance with the observances of good society. Why should they? The crowd of unfortunate females in the lobbies and boxes of the English theatres, forming, as it certainly does, a display offensive to decency, is adduced sometimes as a contrast disgraceful to the, mation, against the decorum of behaviour whịch profligacy preserves in the public places of Paris. Be it observed, however, that , no one attempts to say, that there is a less amount of profligacy collected together in the latter assemblies;-- but it assimilates itself,
more to the general manners, it lives on an easier and more communicable footing with all around it. Now the truth is, that, for all the interests of virtue, this is the most fatal public symptom of the two
The offensive shew in our theatres is highly disgraceful to the managers who build conveniences for this description of persons, that they may derive a profit from assisting the vicious intercourse in question,--but one of its most certain effects is to fill the breast of the youthful female, who is not corrupted, with horror, and to strengthen it against every seduction, which, by any possibility, might end in reducing her to so frightful a state of degradation. She sees the votaries of pleasure in an awful state of defors mity and abandonment, and if the Greeks found it efficacious, to confirm their young men in habits of temperance, to expose slaves before them in the brutality to which drunkenness reduces, surely it must be still more admonitory and alarming to a young girl of delicate feelings and refined manners, to see her own sex exposed in loathsomeness and misery to the insolence and coarseness of the other.
“ The dangerous secluction is in Paris --where the harlot sits beside the girl of virtue, pretty, demure, attentive to the play, and coquetting with the surrounding beaux. The young lady is sensible that this woman does little more than her mainma does, and she sees no difference in their carriage. The men behave alike respectfully to both; they are both, then, entirely on an equality to the eye, and pretty nearly so to the understanding .
“ It is, I repeat, most essential to the preservation of virtue, that the distinction between it and vice should be strongly marked. It çertainly is not so in France: they unite with each other, and this is an union which must be entirely at the expense of the best party to it, and, at the same time, promote the extension, without lessening the mischiefs of the worst." P. 252.
This view of the subject is masterly and good, and we give great credit to the sound principles of morality, and the just views of human nature by which it is dictated. The gaming tables are described in language avimated and just.
" Gaming, in every country sufficiently injurious, in this is rendered doubly destructive from the small sums that may be staked. At the first tables with which the Palais Royal, and indeed almost every district of Paris, abounds, and to some of which females are admitted as well as men, so small a sum as two francs, or twenty pence, may be staked. The evil of this will easily be seen; every artisan who can earn, every shopman or apprentice who can purloin that sun, may try his fortune at the gaming table ; and, not content with this encouragement to the spirit of play, the government provides in the course of every year, not less than about one hundred and eighty lotteries, one of which is drawn nearly every other day, and in which persons may purchase even for the small sum of six-pence;--the consequence is, that the family of many a labourer