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founders of the Hamburgh Institution ; Interest

7,457,665 that when the whole administration falls

i per cent. &c.

2,168,000 into the hands of under officers, they af. terwards know so well how to embroil the

Annual Payment £9,625,665 business, that no subsequent director is ever able to unravel the clue.- Page 54 of bis The statement therefore appears to exadmirable account of the Hamburgh Esta- ceed the truth about nine millions with reblishment.

spect to the money borrowed, nearly nineIn such a state of things, it was not tetn"millions in the total of Itock created, much to be wondered at, that annual ac and about 619,0col. in the annual charge counts were not published as they ought thereof. I am, however, far from think. to have been. After a very painful and ing that Y. 2. has intentionally reprevigorous effort, this evil however is now sented the debt incurred greater than it removed; a most pleasing prospect already really is; if such a practice was in any begins to open of regaining our former case allowable, on this subject it would be advantages; and it is resolved, that the entirely unnecessary, for the unprecedented accounts thall be published annually, toge- increase of the funded debt during the last ther with a statement of the average num- fix years, feems almost to set exaggeration, ber of poor for each year.

within the limits of probability, at defiance, Mr. Good appears to me to liave taken Although the proportion of the general an odd method of manifesting, that from income taken from the people for the ex. an enemy, he is converted into a friend ; pences of government, has been increafed as the first lines of his Greek quotation to an enormous fum by the many bew might seem to imply. I have no objection, taxes imposed since the commencement of however, to the concluding sentiment of the war; the additional sume found necesthe poet: That laying aside enmity, men fary for supplying the still greater increase should conjointly labour to promote the of the public expenditure, already exceed public good. I am, Sir,

the sums borrowed during the two preced. Your humble servant, ing wars; and to what they may amount Shrewsbury, Jan. 6, 1799. I. Wood. before the termination of the present con

test, I believe few will venture to conjecTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ture. In consequence of this great increase SIR,

of the national debt, the public funds have N the statement, in your last Number, experienced a greater depression, with re

of the debt incurred during the present spect to their current price, than at any war, a considerable article leems to be period since the establishment of the fund. omitted; notwithstanding which, the total ing system; for these securities, like every is some millions greater than it would ap- thing else that is bought and fold, must be pear if the particulars were correct. I disposed of at a reduced value, whenever pretime it will no longer be denied, that the quantity offered for sale exceeds the the imperial loans, the interest on which demand of the buyers; and although this is now paid out of the produce of the con- has been so much the case of late, that the solidated fund, without any reimbursement, property of those who purchased a mort are to be considered in the fame light as time previous to the commencement of the any other part of the national debt: these war, is now worth but little more than fums should therefore be included in the balf what it then cost : the diminution of account of the money borrowed, which the value of this species of property would however will not then amount to 147 mil. have frequently appeared much greater, lions, but to 1381 millions. The total had not the price been supported by the amount of the funded debt created during operation of the project carried on under the war, was on the 5th of April, 1798, the name of the Sinking Fund. nearly 159 millions; to which, if 391 mil. Another effect of this rapid increase of lions are added for the stoćk created by the the public debt, appears still more certain two last loans, and 77 millions Imperial and permanent. Every new loan must be three per cents. the total capital of stock procured from perfons already poflessing will be 206 millions, instead of 2243. considerable property, and such persons The annual sum payable for the fame, will will not lend their money without the ex. be as follows:

pectation of making a profit by it; the 363 millions at 3 per cent. £4,890,000 increase of the debt is therefore to them a 121 - at 4 per cent. 500,000 fource of increasing wealth, to which their

304 at 5 per cent. 1,525,000 Mare of the additional taxes attendant upon Long Annuities

312,665 it bears but a small proportion: the depreImperial Annuities 230,000 çiation of the price of the funds likewise,

though

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1799.] Proportion of Vowels and Consonants in different Languages. 5 though it has so greatly diminished the

Vowels. Consonants. faleable value of property therein purchased Spanish

92 at a former period, contributes much to Italian 88 increale the income of those who invest Latin

86 money in these securities at present, by the French great interett they make on il. Now, as

German 74 the government poffeffes no revenue but Dutch 66 what is drawn from the people, whatever English 6i it pays to one description of men, muft As the French, and the English, differ (principally at least) be drawn from others; fo considerably, in pronunciation, from and thus the additional income acquired what they appear in orthography, the tol, by monied men, by taking advantage of lowing comparison Thews the reduced the necessities of the state, is, in fact, a numbers of the vowels and the confoportion of the income of their leis affluent nants :

c. fellow.citizens, which is transferred to French

85 them through the medium of the govern English 56 ment, and which, in a much greater pro The English is very variable, with re. fortion chan it increases their wealth, must spect to the proportion of vowels and conrender those poorer from whom it is drawn. fonants : that of the consonants is much The natural tendency of the increase of the greater in the scripture style, than in eledebt is therefore evidently to produce a gant writing, and more especially that fill greater disparity than at present fub- which is scientific, from its containing Gists in the condition of the different classes more words derived from the learned lanof the community, by increasing the wealth guages. In the bible, the compass of the of the rich, preventing the advancement of variation, in the number of vowels, is gethe middle class, and diminishing, or rather nerally from about 68 to 50; but the meannihilating, the few remaining comforts dium may be settled at 56 to a 100 conso.

In polished writing, the medium Jan. 9, 1799 J. J. GRELLIER. number of vowels may be fixed at 66; and

the mean between the two styles will be To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, 61, the number inserted in the foregoing

table, IN looking into the new edition of Cham The compass of variation in the Greek

bers's Cyclopædia, sometime ago, I is considerable. I have found 150 vowels casually met with a remark upon a sub. to 100 confonants ; and frequently as low ject, which had relation to language, as 86. The other languages are pretty wherein the Welsh and the Dutch were close to the average number, given in the pointed ont, as abounding more with con table : the Welt feldom deviates three Ionants, than most, if not all of the Euro. vowels from the mean number. pean tongues. I well knew that such a Having brought forward the above cal. Hạtement was proverbial, as a vulgar pre. culation, in defence of the Welsh language ; judice ; but I became a little angry, at and as it completely falsifies the popular finding it had obtained a place in one of opinion, I may be excused, if I mould, in the first philosophical di&tionaries of the the moment of triumph, recount fome other present age; and, not being able to efface excellencies, which are to be found in it. the impression from my mind, I had re The following enumeration will give course to the finding a tolerably exact some idea of its copiousness, with respect aritlimetical certainty, as to the fallacy of to the composition of words: it has seven such an observation. The method, adopt- prefixes; it has eleven terminations of ed as the most eligible, was to fix upon verbs in the infinitive mood ; fifty-four the mean number of vowels to a hundred terminations of nouns: nineteen of adconsonants, in different languages; and jectives ; twenty-one plurais ; and nine dito exhibit the relult in a table. As the minutive terminations. conclufion, to be drawn from it, tends to This gives a total of compositive pare sitablish a point, if not of importance, at ticles, greater than that of all the other Jeast of fome curiosity, you may be induce languages, in the above table, if they were ed, Sir, to give it insertion, in your va put together. In the Welsh they are geJuable repository.

neral in their application too, of which Proportion of Vowels and Consonants. there is nothing fimilar in the others; but Vowels, Confonants, what is more than all, they are real worls,

either. nouns or verbs, in their unconnected ftate; and such another example, I

SIR,

Welch 100 Greek 95

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may venture to say, cannot be produced.. guage, which is a source of so much vexaThe various inflections of verbs likewise, tion in most others. if separated from the verb they characte This copioutness creates almost an imrize, are still fimple verbs, defcribing the poflibility of translating many expressions time and action, which was meant to be to be met with in the Welsh language ; conferred upon the verb to wbieh they but a great facility of rendering any thing might have been affixed.

into it; so that I found' no great difficulty I have computed that there are about of literally translating one of the poetical 8000 simple verhs in the Welsh tongue, to pieces, which attracted my notice, in your cach of which may be put twenty different Magazine, and also preserving not only prefixes, to give some particular character the same number of lines, but the same of time or action; this increases the num- pauses, the fame length of verle, and the ber to 160,000; and these may be conju- same character of rhyme. gated five various ways, generally by in From the few facts, above offered ta fection, as in the learned languages, or by your notice, Mr. Editor, you will easily auxiliaries, as in the English ; and this perceive that it is not all empty prejudice, makes the real number of Weish verbs, if on the part of those, who may feein to dif. there were occasion for so many, to amount cover a partiality for the Welsh language. to 800,000. The ancient bards had this

I remain, Sir, Your's, &c. amazing store before them to use at plea- Jan. 1, 1799. sure; therefore those who would underftand their works, must also have it in view. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

I might proceed, by pointing out fimi. lar inítances, with regard to other kind of THILST I return you my molt anwords ; but the subject shall be cloted, for

cere thanks for the honourable the prelent, with giving a list of our anci. mention you made of my Tragedy of Is Aent names of the Deity, omitting fuch as BELIA in the last number but one of your are connected with, or taken from the Monthly Magazine, I beg leave to observe, fcriptures, and the Chriftian religion, that the gentleinan who gave you an acwhich we have, in common with other's count of it, was mistaken in calling my who call themselves Chriftians,

work a translation. Truth requires of Bardic names of the Deity. me, therefore, to tell

you,
that my

ISAArglruys, Supreme free will; the Lord. BELLA, whose death, jointly, with that of Celi, the mystery, the one in secret. Don Carlos, forms the catastrophe, is an Culvyz, the centre of free-will.

historical subje& pretty well known in the Dion, the separate being.

life of Philip II. of Spain. I beg you Dewin, that comes, or pervades,

will do me the favour to insert this letter Dovyz, the renovator; the former; the Lord, in one of your next numbers, and am with Duw, that exists, the being; God. great respect, Your's, &c. G. POLIDORI, Dwiw, that proceeds existing. Eilwys, the powers of harmony; the cre To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, ative powers.

SIR, El, harmony; intelligence, spiritualintellect, OUR truly excellent miscellany, Sir, Ha, that pervades, or that is subtile.

is

my favourite monthly amuseHuon, the pervading or subtile one. ment; and that I may make you some Jon, that is over, or supreme ; the Lord. finall return for the pleasure, as well as lôr, that is extreme, or encompassing ; initruction, I so often receive therefrom, the Lord.

I sit down to give an answer to the queNáv, that is tranquil; the Father. ries of your correspondent G. A. of BedNér, power, might; the Lord.

ford, relative to the culture and use of Nitz, that is not to be obscured.

the COLÈwort and COLESEED : at the Panton, the comprehending one, same tiine, affuring both yourself and your Peryv, the caufer, the creator.

correspondent, that my observations are Púr, that circumscribes; the Lord, derived from real practice, Rëen, the proceeding principle; the Lord. Neither the Anjou nor Jerusalem ColeRi, that proceeds; that is first; the Lord. wort have, I believe, ever been much culRwyr, that guides, or rules; the Lord. tivated in this country; indeed not at all,

Such a range of speech might induce but in the way of experiment, which has strangers to exclaim, that there can be no never answered the fanguine expectations possibility of learning it. In answer to of those who, many years ago, viewed the which I may fay; that the discouragement plant in perhaps the more favourable is removed, when they are informed, that clime of France. In that country they there is not one irregular verb in the lan. grew to the height of seven or eight feet,

ang

Y

1799.]
Culture of Colewort and Colefeed.

7 and are successfully given to sheep, and cles, there is no doubt but an enquirer even horses. The experiments with us, would receive polite attention at the once of both coleworts and rape as a food for of the Board of Agriculture. cattle, have been very various, and even For the ANJOU CAPBAGE or Colecontradi&tory, upon different foils, and wort, I lowed both in August and March, under different management; and al- upon the proper tilth for cabbages in gethough I have seen a fair crop of both, neral, and with moderate dressing; I put and even a large crop of the latter, with- in BORECOLE, or Scotch KAIL, at the out the help of manure, it has been upon fame periods; the feed was fowed in a rich land ; and I mult be bold enough, warm seed-bed, and the heads, or belt of notwithstanding some confident assertions the plants, as soon as fufficiently large, on the favourable side, to doubt the ra- transplanted for good into the field, where tional probability of any fuch good for- they were constantly hand-hoed, and tune upon poor, or even iniddling foils. earthed up, as often as necessary: distance

Of rape and coleworts, rape is much two feet and a half asunder. The cattle superior, in both quantity and fattening began upon them in Otobel, and some quality, it also may be féd off by sheep of them were in use in the spring; but turned in at Michaelmas, which being the quantity very light. I did not perwithdrawn about Old Candlemas, and the ceive any very material difference between stalks of the plants mowed even, the addi- the autumnal and spring fowing; but the tional advantage of a crop of seed may be French cultivators affert, that in order to expected. In truth, tlie most advantage- get a large and valuable crop of coleworts, ous culture of rape, is for the feed entirely, it is necessary to sow as early as June in a

The proper application of both plants rich feed-bed; in which case, they will be is, as feed for sheep and lambs, milch. in perfection the following summer, and cows, and store cattle. Pigs will eat them continue of the utmost use all the ensuing as rough vi&tuals. I have never observed winter and spring, even to May. After it, but have heard of cows being hoven ·all, as a risk crop, I would advise the trial from eating coleleed, in the same manner of them at only one foot aiunder, in which as from green clover: nor do I altogether method they would perhaps produce the agree as to the alledged excellence of the largest quantity of eatable stuff. butter from cows fed with this article: COLESEED will grow upon almost any perhaps my palate may be too nice. In foil, tolerably manured; but fucceeds belt feeding off these crops, particularly on upon the strong, clayey and deep, with poachy soils, it is infinitely better to cut deep ploughing. The fallow ought to and carry

them to the homestead, or to a be itirred early in the spring; again, early dry pasture, than to turn in the cattle. in April, then harrowed down and ma

The single object of advantage in these nured ; cross.ploughed in May, and articles, and their fuperiority, lie in the brought into a fine tilth by the beginning, certainty of food in March and April, of July. With the firit shower, tow halk when even the best and hardiest cabbages a peck an acre; the feed is scattered with may have been totally rotted and destroyed the three fingers, broad-cast, and the land by the severity of the frost; elfe a crop of lightly harrowed and rolied. In Septeinwinter cabbages, producing more than ber, the crop is treated precisely in the double or treble the weight, and requir- file of the turnep culture, the plants ing neither more manure nor more expen- being set out at a foot distance, which five culture, must be vastly preferable. costs three shillings per acre :

in some To obviate all risk, a few years back, parts the plants may be left thicker, as a being heavy laden with stock, I divided reserve for others where they fail, which my

land proportionally between cabbages Mould be filled up in October, or the be(feed from New-cross-turnpike, near Lon- ginning of November. The best remedy don) and coleteed; the frost was not very against the depredations of the ilugs, severe; the cabbages® were all eaten, and which are particularly fond of this plant, part of the cole feed; the remainiler pro- is a mixture of flacked lime and woce ducing a very good crop of feed at Mi- alhes; of which, ten of the forner, and chaelmas. Your correspondent being of fifteen of the latter, fufice an acre. When Bedfordshire, I should have fuppcíed his this crop is fed, the land may be ploughed land would produce CARROTS; our best early in the spring, with a prospect for a winter resource, and a favourite article good crop of barley. Rape is, however, with that illustrious and able cultivator, not deened an ameliorating crop, but his Grace of Bedford.

succeeds best as a follower of luch. Seed can best be procured of the Lon When intended for seçd only, the plants dun feediinen; and, in case of scarce arti. are cut in September, and threshed on a

floor

floor in the field, covered with a large ble

you
with a

copy
froin the

year 1791 cloth. The produce is from 3 to 6 quar- to 1798 inclusive. The Rain, as it falls, ters per acre. In Effex, the farmers com- passes through a funnel a foot square at monly job the reaping, threshing, dressing, the top, into a tin receiver in the shape making the floor, aud facking the feedi,' of a bottle, which appears not to admit at 6d. per bushel ; at which rate, the men of much evaporation in the hottest seafon are well paid, the crop being good. To one pint corresponds very near to a quarmake a good sample, the feeds ought to ter of an inch deep from the surface; conbe: large, black, and free fron red or fequently 160 pints in 1796 answer to dulky ones. Should the crop be long be- 40 inches in the whole of that year. Die fore fale, it will require a very dry place, vide any of the months, or the whole or the sample will lose its colour, and in year, by 4, and it exhibits the depth of course inuch of its price.

the rain, and the vast difference of wet I liave thuis, Sir, answered your cor and dry in the whole of each year. respondent's queries, soinewhat at large; It is worthy of your

readers attention, and should be happy at any future occa that in the months of September, October fion, to render similar finali services to a and November 1794, there fell 982 pints, Miscellany, the moral and useful tenden- very little less than in the whole of the cies of which coincide entirely with the years 1791 and 1793. -- Thefe heavy fentiments of

rains caused an high water, which inunYour obedient, humble servant, dated the lower part of this city; in many

A PRACTICAL FARMER. of the houses there were between 2 and 3 Jan. 20, 1798.

feet water; and boats rowed in several

principal streets, to give them fupplies To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, into their upper windows.--A great snow SIR,

the January following, caused a ftill higher AVING several years been in the water, and must, but for the liberality of

regular practice of keeping a re- the inhabitants, have been infupportable gifter of the quantity of rain which has by the poor and their distressed families. failen at the end of every month, I trou- Norwich, 14 Jan. 1799.

Y. Z. 17911 92 931 941 951 96 97 98

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