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pencil ; the rocks are of the most varied colours, and of the most grotesque shapes.
From the spot where we are at anchor the view is splendid. Immediately in front are two magnificent cliffs, and a narrow valley between them affords a sight of the two highest mountains on the peninsular, which in the early morning are of a cobalt colour. On the top of one are two ruined towers, scarcely distinguishable from hence with the naked eye. In the foreground of one of the two cliffs is a rock, having the exact appearance of a gigantic coal; it seems, indeed, to form a part of the stacks of coal which
in store at its base ; in front is a sandy beach covered with loose pieces of rock.”
It would make our extract too long if we were insert the entire description of Aden.
“We were disturbed during the whole day by the yells of the Arabs, who were bringing the coal on board. They look like demons, more than human beings, and will never work without making these terrible vociferations ; of course, we were in a cloud of coal-dust, and it was impossible to keep one's. self or anything else, clean for a moment."
Mrs. Griffith pays a visit to the cantonment, and describes in a lively manner the scene presented in this British-Arabian settlement.
“ We kept the road by the sea-shore, which constantly presented the boldest and wildest scenery of grotesque and barren rocks. After passing a narrow defile, between two mountains, we came suddenly upon the Pass, the only access to the camp of Aden on this side, the lofty and precipitous mountains forming an impregnable fortification. This entrance, which is cut through the solid rock, is the extreme end of the valley in which the town is situated.
But the town ! Where was the town? How shall I describe it, this ancient and jewelled key to all the trea. sures of Arabia Felix? The only way I can attempt to give any ide a of it, is to say what struck me at the first glance. I saw clustered together throughout the valley a number of large baskets, like those to be met with at fairs in England and France, to display crockeryware, and other fragile articles. Here and there were a few tents, and in the centre towered a lofty minaret, while farther in the back ground rose the domes of two mosques. But where are the houses? I exclaimed. There they are ; and that very large hamper in the centre is Goveromot House, was the answer I received. The bazaar was a very amusing assemblage of objects, both animate and inanimate. Jews, with their sharp black eyes, and long beards, were hurry. ing to and fro, and contrasted strangely with the stately Parsees, worshippers of the sun, and of Persian origin. Their head-dress is the most extraordinary thing I ever saw. It is a kind of helmet.cap, at least two feet high, and sloping back from the forehead. Their complexion is a light olive colour, and they are the most industrious class in Aden; they share with the Jews in the labours of building and shop-keeping, as the Arabs are either very idle, or do not wish to make our residence among them easy, by assisting in any way:
The aspect of these children of the desert was very furious, and their jet black countenances scowled under the constraint imposed upon them by our Military, parties of whom were to be seen in every direction, whose bright uniforms gave another variety to the motley and picturesque groups. Every now and then I encountered a rich Coffee-merchant from Mocha, sweeping majestically along in his flowing robes and voluminous white turban. The place was througed with people, and yet I saw very few females, and these few were mostly old and ill-looking. All classes here are very jealous of their women, but I caught sight of the most lovely young Je wish girls, who peeped out npon me as I passed, from a wicker birdcage – for I can call it nothing else—which was perched at the top of one of the hamper houses.”
“ It was just the time when supplies were coming into the market. From eighty to one hundred camel loads were brought in fresh every morning from the main land. The gates are opened to them at a certain hour, and they are all obliged to be out of camp by six in the evening. Fruit, vegetables, food for the horses, in short, every necessary of life, is brought from the enemy's territory; upon which they are entirely dependent. And when these supplies are stopped, which they often have been, they are obliged to force their continuance at the point of the sword.”
We must reluctantly conclude our notice of these volumes at this point. On another occasion we will follow our travellers up the Red Sea, and across the Desert of Suez to the City of Grand Cairo, and thence down the Nile to Alexandria. Such volumes as those now before us have a peculiar interest at the present time, owing to the increasing number of persons choosing the overland route to India, in preference to the tedious voyage round the Cape of Good Hope. Had we to make a present to some friend about to start for India, we should deem the work before us a most appropriate one; and in presenting, we should add our strong recommendation of it, founded upon the circumstance of our having seen most of the places described, and finding them in these pages, brought vividly to our recollection, both by pencil and pen, in the groups and colours in which we have ourselves beheld the in.
NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Copies of the following Works have been received; they will all be duly noticed in our next number :-Lackmann's Specimens of German Prose—Sand's Mosaic Workers -The Alphabet of Emblems—A Church without a Prelate–The Antiquities of the Christian Church-Colonel Richardson's Literary Leaves-Mr. Prinsep's Notes on the Historical Results deducible from Recent Discoveries in Afghanistan-On the Discovery of the Mississippi, &c. by Mr. Falconer-Part 74 of the Novel Newspaper— Raphael's Almanac for 1845--Calcutta Review, No. 2.
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MAJOR OUTRAM has been sent into the troubled region of Kolapore, for the purpose of restoring order, and redressing, as far as practicable, the grievances of the refractory natives. With the exception of the disturbance in this territory, India was in a state of general tranquillity when the Mail of the 1st of November left Bombay. In order to understand the dispute, " it may be useful,” says an intelligent writer of the Times,) to give a short view of the history of this State
“ The connexion between the British and Kolapore dates from 1812, when the Rajah, a descendant of the celebrated founder of the Mahratta empire, Sivajee, courted the favour of the rising British empire. He received a considerable increase of dominion after the Mahratta war, but was murdered in 1821 by his son, who afterwards, on the occasion of the commotions at Kittoor in 1826, exhibited a wish to quarrel with his father's allies. He was defeated and punished by having his forces disbanded and his state placed under the direct control of the Bombay Government. He lived about ten years afterwards, governing a State of about 3,104 square miles; his children succeeded under a Regency composed of a woman and several councillors. In consequence of the despotism and feeble measures of the Regency, the minister of which, secure of British support, sought to deprive some chiefs of property held by their ancestors during 120 years, and to dismantle their mountain forts, the people broke out into open revolt, seized the Rajah and his Ministers, and treated them with indignity. The British being bound by treaty, were called on to aid the Kolapore Government, and troops
British Friend of India Mag. Vol. VI. No. 36.
were immediately sent from Madras and Bombay. The latter Government, to which the care of Kolapore specially belongs, in addition to troops, sent the well-known Colonel Outram with ample power to make terms and to settle the country. This officer, whose abilities have been much praised, is now put to the test. On the 16th of October he, with a strong escort, hastened from Samunghur to the town of Kolapore, where he was met by a body of troops from Poonah. The Rajah and his adherents, being abandoned by the chiefs, came out to welcome his deliverers; he has promised everything, but he and the Regency have but little power; the chiefs, who cannot rely on the promises of their own Government, have retired to their fastnesses, with a determination to hold out the forts. Colonel Outram cannot secure them the preservation of fortifications, and therefore his negotiations must, as it is supposed, turn into sieges of those forts, of which several are represented as being very strong. These sieges may from the nature of the country become prolonged affairs; and, as the disaffected soldiers of the Nizam's army are ready to unite with the Kolapore insurgents, it was apprehended that long sieges would produce confusion in other districts. Hence the opinion of some person was, that the Kolapore Rajahjand his family ought to be pensioned, and his State administered by the British authorities. Such a proceeding, by affording the insurgents some pledges of honourable protection, would tend to produce an immediate pacification of the country, for the turbulent leaders know well that there is no trifling with the British.
There was great curiosity prevailing as to the measures which Colonel Outram should adopt, for not only the momentary pacification, but the permanent tranquillity, of those districts. At the time of the departure of the mail, it was said that Colonel Outram and the Rajah were about to proceed through the country, in order to bring about a surrender of the forts, and general quiet.
The British troops were also to be divided into two brigades, one being from Bombay and the other from Madras, until an effective subsidiary force shall be formed, Mr. Reeves, the late political agent, is stated to have been severely reprehended for the rashness of his procedings, which brought about a conflict. He has been superseded by Colonel Outram, and is about to proceed to Europe with, as it is said, an intention to resign the service of the Hon. Company.
The storming of the fort of Samunghur, and the defeat of the body of insurgents that came to its relief, had in part lowered their courage, yet their demands were still as forcible as ever. They had lost about 500 men at Samunghur, and near it ; yet their resolution to defend their properties and their rights seems to be unshaken. The Madras and Bombay Governments were exerting their utmost influence to put an end to those commotions.
A correspondent of a London paper, writing from the Deccan on the 24th of October, says :
“ I am sorry to hear native reports also, that the new Rajah of Sattara is supposed to be concerned in intrigue. It would not surprise me if it were the case, for I see no ground of confidence in any of our eleves. They appear the worst of the native princes of India. The Bombay Government has acted firmly in this matter ; that is, in the sending troops to put down sedition in overwhelming numbers. A weak battalion or two would but have encouraged it. Therefore, I hope to see all repressed speedily; and if any of the zemindars, or his Highness of Sattara, or any rajah of that country, has been dabbling in intrigue, most heartily do I trust he may be summarily dealt with. Where kindness fails, there is but one resource-punishment; and in these cases severity is in the end mercy. Do not, however, mistake me in this. I believe I am not severe; but I dislike sedition in India, where no one condescends to reason, except with perverted intellects ; and that drags him down first into folly, then into crime.”
We have sought in vain, both in our private letters, and in the Indian papers, for a confirmation of these rumours, and are inclined to think that they are without foundation. The only reference to Sattara which we have been able to find, is in the Bombay Gentlemen's Gazette, from which we give the following extract.
“ The Rajah of Sattara is also said to be so much alarmed, that he has ordered his guns, his treasure, his wives, and himself, to be protected within the fort of his capital. The Bombay Government, with that eagerness which distinguishes its protection of that state, have, as we hear, ordered the wing of the 5th regiment N. I., which is coming in the Nemesis steamer from Surat, to proceed forth with to Sattara, in order to relieve the Sovereign from that state of trepidation which seems to have caught him since the departure of the grenadiers. This detachment is, therefore, to proceed immediately on its arrival in this harbour to Nagotna, from which it will march to Sattara. The alarm is stated to have reached Rutnagherry, whither troops are to be sent to protect the treasury of the collectorate. It is within the recollection of many, that on a former occasion, the insurgents from Kolapore plundered the treasury of that place."
The intelligence from Scinde is both of a cheering and melancholy nature, The revenue from the country is said to be increasing, and the fertility of the soil is described as justifying the anticipations of the most sanguine friends of annexation. The European stations also are improving. “Kurrachee," says a writer, on the 17th Oot.,