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is removed—as those who pray for and love peace, and would that war with it myriad evils should for ever cease, we rejoice when, one, who plunged into aggressive wars, and who was evidently gratified chiefly when preparing for, or carrying on wars with the native states, is removed—as those who are anxious that the resources of India should be developed, we cannot grieve for the removal of one who has not only not attempted much for the internal and industrial welfare of the land but who exhausting the treasury in wars and warlike exbibitions, has been compelled to arrest the progress of prospectively useful national works suggested or commenced by his predecessors—as those who long for the day when the people shall receive an education commensurate with their wants and adequate to the immense resources drawn from the country by its rulers, we hesitate not to say that we are glad at the recall of one who has not only not done anything towards establishing new or strengthening old educational establishments, but who has really taken but little if any interest in the education of the people secular or religious. Nay, as if in very burlesque of the, to this land, all momentous subject of education, the almost the only visit bis Lordship has paid to schools in Calcutta, was to the Nunnery, where the conductors provided him with a temporary throne and otherwise ministered to his Lordship’s prevailing taste-—as those who deem it the duty of a governor to be forward to visit all Institutions and all parties essaying to benefit his subjects, we have no regret at the departure of Lord Ellenborough. Of his private benevolence we know nothing, it may be all that could be desired, but to how few of the religious, charitable, scientific, or useful Institutions in the country is the name of his Lordship attached with that princely liberality which should characterize the donations of one in the receipt of so princely an income as the Governor-General of India. Lord Ellenborough may be a liberal and generous man; he certainly has not been publicly a generous Governor-General—as those who wish to see all connection of the Government with the idolatries of the country cease, we have nothing to sorrow for in the cessation of Lord Ellenborough's rule. He has on this subject, so far as public documents inform us, done nothing -As those who live and labour for the conversion of the people to Christianity we have no regret at his recall. He will have this merit with the so-called neutrals, that he has offered no sanction to devoted missionary labourers who spend and are spent in educating the people, teaching the arts and habits of peace and
obedience, and leading them from the service of dumb idols to serve the living and true God and Jesus Christ his Son whom he has sent. To those he has afforded no sanction.
On these grounds we have no regret at the departure of Lord Ellenborough. The Court of Directors have by this bold and wise act earned for themselves a good reputation from all who really know and wish well to India.
And we hope non that the Directors have began to exhibit signs of real life and independence, that we shall soon hail the day when every connection with idolatry will cease, when such a sum shall be devoted to the righteous education of the people as the degraded condition of the
population demands, and the resources of the country amply warrant.-Let the Company but devote the sums lavished in wars, and other irritating plans for keeping the natives in subjection, on education and the internal and peaceful welfare of the country, and they will soon obtain such a fast and intelligent hold on the people, that they will be their own best voluntary defenders against aggresive warfare, and their own best preventive to internal discord and calamity.
The men of war in India, having suddenly lost the man who delighted to hear himself styled, par excellence, “ the friend of the army," appear to mourn over their calamity, and to fear that the spoils which they anticipated, have, by the change of governors, been for the present placed beyond their reach. The Eastern Star observes :
“ The recal of Lord Ellenborough has been a source of bitter disappointment to the officers of the army, amongst other reasons, because they have thereby had their hopes of a coming campaign in the Punjaub entirely destroyed, for there is nothing now in the state of affairs at Lahore to render it at all likely that British interference will be necessary therein, if our Governor-General prove to be peacefully inclined ; though, doubtless, to an Ellenborough, a pretext for a quarrel and a campaign would not long have been wanting.
The Bengal Hurkaru in its summary says: “ The chief excitement of the past month has arisen out of the recal of Lord
Ellenborough, an event, which startled society and, for a time, was the all-engrossing subject of conversation, from one end of India to the other. The feeling, which has been engendered, is of a mingled complexion. The military class, with a few exceptions, deplore the event, which has deprived them of the patronage and support of one whom they have looked upon as a fast friend; whilst the civilians, and they who are in no way connected with the services, for the most part, view the recal with the utmost complacency. The educated natives of Calcutta (we can of course speak of no others) are, as far as we have been able to ascertain the fact, well pleased at the removal of the late Governor-General, whom they regarded as a ruler but little regardful of the true interests of the country; but we have not yet seen any of those tremendous results of the recal, which Mr. Roebuck so sagaciously predicted. The press is, as usual, divided; but the larger, and not the least influential portion of it, has sided with the Court of Directors. The in. telligence reached Calcutta, on the morning of the 15th ultimo; and an hour or two afterwards Lord Ellenborough resigned the government into the hands of Mr. Bird, the senior Member of the Council.
The Bombay Times sums up the state of public feeling in India on the subject of the disposal of his Lordship in the following words:
The recal of Lord Ellenborough has, for the past month, as may be supposed, formed the chief topic of discussion throughout India. Nowhere is it more difficult to ascertain public opinion on any given subject than in the East; the views entertained by the community can merely be guessed at, the guess being valuable only in proportion to the means and power of observation of the guesser. Our readers being aware of this, will take our conjecture that the recal has been very generally popular, for just as much as they may think it worth. In Bombay, where we had especial means of becoming acquainted with the many unjustifiable acts connected with the Scinde invasion, we should say public opinion was pretty nearly unanimous in favour of a recal. In Bengal, where the presence of the GovernorGeneral naturally had its influence amongst those who derived advantage from his personal favour, it seems somewhat different. Taking the newspaper opinions as indications of the sentiments of the community- the five journals of the largest circulation-the Delhi Gazette, Friend of India, Bombny Times, Bongal Hurkaru, Calcutta Christian Advocate, and Calcutta Siar, are diametrically opposed to the retiring Governor-General's politics, and eminently approve of his recal. The Bombay Courier, Bombay Witness, and, if we mistake not, also the Madras Spectator, Madras Record, and The Hills, though of the last three we are uncertain, applaud the proceedings of the Court of Directors. The Delhi Gazette, Friend of India, and Bombay Times, have, amongst them, about as large a circulation as any five papers in India. Tne Englishman having some years since the largest circulation in India, will generally support the governors of the time being. It was an admirer of the policy of Lord Auckland, as much as of that of Lord Ellenborough, by which it was overthrown; and will probably be of Sir H. Hardinge, however dissimilar his proceedings may be to either of his predecessors, and is, of course, wroth with the Lords of Leadenhall Street, as are the majority of our brethren in the benighted Presidency to the south-east. Very sanguine anticipations are formed of the rule of Sir H. Hardinge, though much caution and reserve in expressing them are exercised in consequence of the disappointment occasioned by his predecessor, by whose acts hopes still more sanguine have been so cruelly blighted.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE LANDHOLDER'S SOCIETY. Having been requested to notice, from time to time, the proceedings of the Bengal Landholders Society, we gladly give insertion to the following abridged account of a meeting recently held, and trust we shall often be called upon to record the active exertions of that body in ameliorating the laws, and improving the condition of the people of India.
A meeting of the Committee of the Landholder's Society was held on the 25th June, 1814, at the chambers of Mr. Theobald, Government Place, at which were present Rajah Radahkant Deb Bahadoor, Mr. J. D. Campbell, Baboo Dwarkanauth Tagore, many other native gentlemen, and the Secretary, Mr. W. Theobald.
The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed, and after some routine and other business had been disposed of, for the report of which we regret we have no space :
Baboo Dwarkanath Tagore brought before the Society the subject of the Regis tration Law, which was a source of great inconvenience and injury to all persons who were interested in the purchase and transfer of landed property. The Landholder's Society had addressed Government on this subject as long ago as August, 1843, and had since passed an act, omitting several objectionable sections, but still making registration imperitive on the transfer of properties mortgaged ; he (the Baboo) understood the subject was further referred to the Legislative Council, but no notice had been taken. The law was suitable or adapted only to the simple case of a transfer of property between persons residing in the District in which the property was situated ; as for instance, if the property is situated in the district of the 24-Pergunnahs, and both the parties reside there, the law may be found not very inconvenient : but where the transaction takes place at a great distance from the property, as where the Capitalist in Calcutta takes a mortgage upon a zemindaree or factory in a distant part, — Rungpore, Patna, Tirhoot, Chittagong, or other remote district, in such cases the operation of the existing Law of Registration might be said to be a great nuisance. It was necessary in such cases to send to the Register office, however remote it might be, two mooktears, one to represent the purchaser or mortgagee, the other the seller or mortgager, with proper mooktearnamahs; and besides them also, to send the two subscribing witnesses for the purpose of authenticating the instrument to the Registrar. The first difficulty may be overcome by sending a Mooktearnamah to persons at the district where the transaction is to be Registered ; though in doing this, the parties would often be driven to place their confidence in entire strangers : but the other difficulty will yield to no contrivance in the existing state of the law, which imperatively requires the subscribing witnesses to authenticate the in-' strument before the Registrar, and then, if a witness died on the road, the Registrar would not register at all, and the whole transaction has to be done over again. The expence. delay and inconvenience arising from this state of the law can only be conceived by those who have experienced it. The difficulty is great, of finding witnesses ready to attest instruments who are willing to undertake the journey, to authenticate, and the renumeration necessary to induce the witness to take the necessary journey is a great tax on the transaction. Had India railroads, like England, the case would be different; but as there are not only no railroads, but no other roads, the inconveniences make the law both oppressive and nugatory. The Baboo concluded by expressing a hope that the present head of the government will be disposed to give prompt relief, and immediately pass a measure for the more easy authentication of instruments to the Registrar. Boboo Dwarkanauth concluded by a motion which was seconded by Rajah Deb Bahadoor,
That a memorial to Government should be prepared for signature, both by the Members of the Society, and the Morchants, and others who are interested and willing to sign, describing the inconveniences, and praying for the establishment of the necessary registry offices, and that, in the meantime, some temporary measure should be passed to facilitate the registration under the existing system.
Read a letter from Mr. George Thompson, acknowledging a remittance on account of the expenses of the Society's office in London, No. 6, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall. Ordered to be recorded.
Resolved, on the motion of Rajah Kally Kissen Bahadoor, seconded by Rajah Narendro Kissen, that the proceedings of the Society be translated into the Bengalee language, and sent to the Editors, of certain specified native papers.
The Meeting was then adjourned until further notice.
NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. Copies of the following works have been received, and will be noticed in our next No. -M. Fontanier's “ Narrative of a Mission to Egypt," vol. 1-Miss S. Novello's “ Vocal School,” Nos 1 to 5—“ The Novel Newspaper,” No. 73.
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The most striking portion of the news, brought by the last Indian mail, is the speech of Lord Ellenborough, at the farewell dinner given to him by the Military Society of Calcutta, on the 29th of July. A more remarkable contrast could scarcely be presented to view, than the inaugural speech of his Lordship in November, 1841, and his valedictory speech of July, 1844. In the former he stands forth as a man of peace, in the latter he is wholly a man of war.
That our readers may judge for themselves, we give the speech at the farewell dinner, as reported in the Englishman of the 1st of August. On his health being drunk, his Lordship rose and said :
Gentlemen,- I thank you most cordially for this last testimony of your kindness, which is, I assure you, only the more gratifying to me because offered altogether on grounds personal to myself, and having no reference to any political or military measures of my government.
I thank all the officers of the united army of India, for the uniform cordiality and kindness, with which they have at all times every where received me. I thank them for the confidence they from the first reposed
and which no circumstances have, I believe, led them to withdraw. They fairly appreciated the difficulties of my position, and they gave me credit for having at heart the national honor. I thank you all for the invariable zeal and devotedness with which every instruction I have ever given to a military man has been executed, and, abuve all, for that spirit of enterprize and that noble ardor in the field which, emu
British Friend of India Mag. Vol. VI. No. 34.
lated by the troops of both services, has led in these later times to achievements never surpassed in the most splendid periods of our military history.
Gentlemen,- I congratulate you on the high testimony borne to these later achievements by the great man who can best appreciate military services, and who is himself connected with the brightest glories of past times.
Let it not be supposed that the glories so obtained are barren glories, obtained only at a great public cost, and productive of no benefit to the people. In India the continued reputation of our arms is an indispensable condition of our existence; and, if, at this moment the revenue, and the commerce of this country, and the condition of the people be, as they are, changed indeed from the state in which I found them, to a state of unexampled prosperity, it is to the peace dictated by our arms to China under the walls of Nankin ; it is to the general sense that our rule will always be exercised in a spirit of liberality as well as of justice, and of kind consideration and favor towards the troops of both services that this result is to be attributed.
Gentlemen, the only regret I feel in leaving India, is that of being separated from the army. The most agreeable, the most interesting period of my life has been that which I have passed here, in cantonments, and in camp. I have learned to estimate the high qualities of the officers of the united armies. Amongst them I now leave the friends I most respect and regard. I have learned to estimate the admirable character of the Native sepoy, elevated as it is by his confidence in the British officer, and by European example in the field. Amongst them are some of the noblest of soldiers, deeply attached to those by whom they are led, and full of enthusiastic devotion to military honor. Cherish that confidence ; cherish that attachment and that devotion by every act of kindness, of consideration and regard. Be assured that it is to the zealous obedience of a contented Native army that the security in India, which has been re-established by two years of victories without a single check, and its unexampled prosperity, are to be directly traced,
Gentlemen, I sincerely congratulate you on the appointment which which has been made of Sir Henry Hardinge, as my successor. А good soldier himself, he will justly appreciate good soldiers. Confiding in the judgment and having the advice and support of the Duke of Viellington, he cannot fail to take a correct view of the real interests of India. His practical acquaintance with service in the field, and with all the details of military finance, and of the internal economy of regiments, must necessarily render him much more competent than I could ever have become, even with the best intentions and my utmost industry, to deal with all questions connected with the comfort of the troops, and with the efficiency of the army ; and our past experience of his conduct in office in England, affords the most satisfactory assurance that his power is the Magic Charm by which in India a few govern millions, by which this empire has been won, and by which alone it can be preserved. These are the last words of earnest advice I shall address to you in India. I now bid you all most sincerely and cordially farewell. I shall soon be far from you;