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up, and carry him off. We reached the bullocks just as the day began to appear, and putting the property and our wounded friend upon the bullocks, we went as fast as we could for twelve coss. At our resting. place, we pitched our tents, after the manner of the Brinjaras, and inspected our booty. We found it to consist of a thousand rupees worth of gold and silver ornaments, and bullion. We then began to sow up poor Gheesa's wound, but before we could effect this he died. We burned his body in the usual mode at that place, and remained there two days to perform the funeral ceremonies. Then we took up his bleached bones, and took them home with us to his family, to whom we gave two hundred rupees, one fifth of the booty. His son Heeramund is now an approver. The remaining eight hundred rupees were all taken to refund the outlay for the expedition, and no division took place in consequence.

Gheesa's brother, Rutma, was with us, and he performed the funeral ceremonies; and it was he, I believe, who afterwards took the bones to the Ganges to throw them into the holy stream.

If any man, wounded on the field of battle, or in a dacoitee, is taken bleeding to a place haunted by a spirit, the spirit gets angry, and lays hold of him. He comes in all manner of shapes, sometimes in that of a buffalo, and sometimes in that of a woman; sometimes in the air above, and sometimes on the ground, but no one can see him, except the person he is angry with, and wants to lay hold of. Upon such a wounded person we always lay a naked sword, or some other sharp steel instrument, as spirits are much afraid of weapons of this kind. If there be any good conjurer at hand to charm the spirit away from the person he lays hold of, he recovers; but if.not, nothing can him. When the spirit seized Gheesa under the tree, we had, unfortunately, no conjurer of this kind, and the poor fellow died in consequence It was evident that a spirit had got hold of him, for he could not keep his head upright. It always fell down upon his right or left shoulder, as often as we tried to put it right, and he was constantly complaining of pain in the region of his liver ; we all concluded that the spirit had broken his neck, and was consuming his liver.

Twelve or thirteen years ago, in the hot weather, I undertook an expedition with Huzaree and Choora, leaders of Marwar, and left Kotree, with fifty men in the disguise of Brinjaras, and two hundred bullocks. We proceeded to Ameergurh, a garrison held by Thakoor Luchmun Chund, about twenty coss from Kurrowlee, and there we remained a month. We then went off towards Boondee and Tonda, on the pretence of going to fetch grain for the Honorable Company's Commissariat; but on reaching Koreburwara,seven coss from Nugur in Jeypore, we halted and sent on our spies towards Boondee. Some days after, they returned, and stated that twenty ponies laden with merchandise


from the Deckan had passed through Kotah, and were now resting at Nugur on their way to Joudpore. On hearing this, we went on to a jungle in the vicinity of Kakore, and about half a coss south from Koreburwara, and there we encamped on a small hill, on which stands the statue of a horse, and on which is a stone with a well dug in the centre of it, containing water enough to drown an elephant. Whether this well was dug by gods or men is not certain. Here forty of us got ready for the attack, and set out, leaving ten of the party to look after the bullocks. The people with the ponies had put up at four or five shops in the town, distant from each other ; but the place had been well reconnoitered, and we attacked them all. The police people of the town opposed us, and wounded Konduna, the son of Dhobeea ; but we got the property, and returned with it safely to the bullocks, bringIng Konduna in a litter. The booty consisted of gold and silver bullion, some ornaments, cloth, and brass utensils, all worth from three to four thousand rupees. We put all into our grain bags, and stuffed the sacks in which we found it into jackal and fox holes. Our own swords, and those we took from the pony people, we threw down into the stone well on the hill. We then went on till we reached a river near Koreburwara, where we rested, pitched our tents, and examined our booty more minutely. About half an hour before sunset, Konduna died of his wounds, and to prevent his being seen by the people of the village, we stuffed his body into a porcupine's hole. We cut off two or three of his fingers, to be thrown into the holy Ganges with funeral ceremonies in due form, and then proceded to Ameergurh, whence we returned home as fast as we could.*

We remained a month at Ameergurh on our advance, because we were on terms of intimacy with Thakoor Luchmun Chund, the governor of that garrison, under the Rajah of Kurrowlee, and used to make some stay with him in passing through.

Our reason for cutting off Konduna's fingers was this. When any of our relations die, we burn them if we can, on the bank of the Ganges, and throw their ashes into the holy stream. If it so happen that we cannot do this with the whole body, we cut off some of the fingers and born them, and throw them into the stream in lieu of the whole. We

* With his letter of the 4th June, 1840, in reply to one containing the narrative of Ajeet Sing, Captaio Birch forwards a report from the Court of Jeypore,that an agent was sent to Nugur on the 12th of April, to enquire into the affair, and ascertained, that Sudan, a Hindoo lady, had gone to Hyderabad to fetch her husband's younger brother, and on her way back lodged, with thirteen attendants and companions, at Nugur; on the 28th March, at midnight, her party were attacked by a band of robbers; in the fight, her husband's brother was killed, so also were two policemen of the village. Also, two of the people of the town were wounded, and three more killed. Some of the robbers were supposed to have been killed or wounded, but their bodies were taken off by their companions.


gave Konduna's fingers to his mother, and she sent them with dae offerings and ceremonies to the Ganges by the hands of the family priest. She gave him money to purchase a cow, to be presented to the priests in the name of her deceased son, and to distribute in charity to poor, in his name, and to holy men,


gare the mother, out of the booty, eighty rupees over and above her son's share ; but how many of these she made over to the family priest for the funeral ceremonies I know not. His widow and children continued to receive their usual shares of the booty acquired by the gang for a year after his death. We always give the widow a share of the booty, as long as she remains among us, and does not go out and marry among other people. Kon. duna's widow left us, with her children, twelve months after his death.

Aboat eleven years ago, I left Beespore in Ameergurh on an expedition with twenty-five followers in the disguise of Brinjaras, and proceeded with one hundred and fifty bullocks to Isorda, in Jeypore, three stages distant. We encamped outside the town, and were hospitably entertained by Rama Jemadar who resided there. He and Gheesa Jemadar, and Jora and Mussodah, Thokedars, there joined us with a party of fifteen men, and before we set out, we settled the relative rates of our respective shares of what booty we might get on the expedition. I was to have one share and a half, and they were collectively to have

We sent on Mana, Rama's father-in-law, and Maneea towards Madhoopore as epies, and we remained for fifteen days encamped near Isorda in friendly intercourse with our friends of that town. After this time one of our spies returned, and stated that seven carts laden with opium, escorted by fifty men armed with matchlocks, were proceeding from Madhoopore to Joudhpore through Tonk; and that he had left the other spy with them. We sent four more spies with him after the carts; and promising to overtake them at Tonk, set out with our bullocks. In two days we reached the banks of the Bunas Nudee, one coss from Tonk to the west, and there rested. The carts came up and rested at Tonk, and our spies after seeing them safely lodged, came out and reported to us.

After reconnoitering the ground, it was not thought safe to attaek the party at Tonk, which was at that time filled with the troops of Ameer Khan ; and we let the carts go on unmolested ten eoss further to Duggee, where they put up outside the southern gate. We went on with our bullocks, and encamped two coss from Duggee. Our spies, who had kept with the carts here, came and told us that everything was favourable for an attack ; and we set out and reached the carts about midnight. We attacked every man that ventured to oppose us, and the whole guard soon took to their heels, without wounding any one of our gang. We got the opium, and retreated with it safely to our bullocks


on the road; while the troopers of the Duggee chief went in search of the robbers on the road to Todree, supposing that they were the Meenas of that place, who were all notorious robbers.*

We put the opium into our grain bags, and sent on towards Isorda the whole gang, except nine men who were to remain and bring on the bullocks. Had more remained with the bullocks it would have excited suspicion. Ten Suwars came up and called out from a distance of five or six hundred paces to know who we were, and why our fires had been lighted. I told them we were Brinjaras carrying grain. They remained where they were till day-break, when they passed around us, took a look at our bullocks, and went off. We remained in a state of great alarm and anxiety till we heard the partridge call on our left. This propitious omen dissipated all our fears, and we loaded our bullocks, set out, and in three hours reached Isorda in safety. We there examined our booty, and found eighteen maunds of opium; and having divided it, according to the shares previously fixed, we left our Isorda friends and returned home, I sold my opium at seven rupees a seer, to Nimoda the son of Rutuna,a merchant of our town: and our Isorda friends sold theirs to the merchants of that place.

About ten years ago, I left Hurrerampore in Hindoun on an expedition towards Ajmere, with thirty followers, in the disguise of Brinjaras. We had two hundred bullocks with us, and we wandered about the Jeypore states for three months, without finding anything worth taking. At last we came to Bhunae, ten or twelve coss from that place. We sent three scouts towards Chittore, which was three or four days' journey from us to look out for booty. They returned, after a few days absence, and reported that they had seen some ponies laden with valuable property on their way from the Deckan to Joudpore, put up at some shops in the Bhunae bazaar, about sixty paces from the gate of the wall which surrounded the town. In the interval between their reconnoisance, and our arrival at the gate, ten troopers and fifty or sixty Puthan foot soldiers had come up in charge of two covered carriages, containing females of rank, and put up at the Choke, close inside of the gate. This was quite unknown to our spies and to us; and as soon as we got their report, we got ready, and set out leaving some men in charge of our bullocks. On reaching the gate indicated by the spies, we found it occupied inside by the above-mentioned party, and went

* On reference to the local authorities it was ascertained that this dacoitee took place on three hackeries, laden with opium, on its way from Madhoopore. The hackeries halted at about ten paces outside the gate of the town of Duggee Malpoora, when they wer attacked by a gang of robbers about midnight on the 14th of July, 1827 ; the gang was estimated to amount to fifty dacoits.


Still we

along the wall till we came to a place about sixty paces from the gate, where it was a little broken down. Here we entered and attacked the party in charge of the ponies. The shopkeepers of the neighbourhood began to shout, “ robbers ! robbers!” as loud as they could ; and the troopers and foot soldiers, who were all on the alert, rushed down upon

We turned upon them, and two of our party got sabre wounds. We beat them all back, but did not think it safe to attempt to bring off the booty, with such means between us and the road by which we were to retreat. We retired in good order, and got back to our bullocks. All our funds had become exhausted in this long and fruitless expedition, and having now two wounded men to take care of, we returned home without further search for booty. How many people were wounded on the other side in this affair I know not

We took the auspices before we set out, tried them again several times while out, and found the omens always unfavourable. were ashamed to go back empty handed to our families, persisted in going on in spite of these warnings, and thus brought this disaster upon ourselves. *

About nine years ago I set out from Hurerampore, at the head of a gang of forty budhuks, in the disguise of Brinjaras, with two hundred bullocks, and proceeded through Kishungur, Chitore, and other places, for four months, without finding anything worth attacking. We at last encamped at a village, about six coss from Nusseerabad, through which passes the road from Hyderabad to Joudpore, about three coss from our camp, and the same distance from Nusseerabad.

Upon that road was a village, with a mud fort and a tank; and our spies brought us intelligence that eight camels, laden with valuable merchandize, on their way from Hyderabad to Joudpore, had put up at shops near an oilman's house in that village. We set out about ten o'clock, and about midnight we reached the place, attacked the party, and brought off the booty. Out of the sixteen bags we got twelve, and, as we could not find the other four, they must have been concealed in some shop, or in the oilman's house. We came back with the twelve bags to our bullocks, where we inspected them, and found they contained

* On a reference to the officer in charge of the district of Ajmere, it has been ascertained that this dacoitee took place at Bhunae in that district on the night of the 8th of February, 1831, at midnight; that one man was killed and six were wounded on the part of the merchants, and that two were reported to have been wounded on the part of the robbers ; that the property belonged to Moltan Chund, on his way from the Mhow cantonments, and to Gungaram, on his way from Poona, and was laden on fifteen ponies, three camels, and one hackery, and very valuable; that the party consisted of eighty men armed with musquets, and about fifty other persons. The property was all saved; but one of the eight musquetmen was killed in defending it. The report is dated 11th February, 1840, and contains the depositions of Moltan Chund taken the preceding day.

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