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kindness of a gentleman who makes no pause occupied a confiderable thare of his attention; in his “ labours of love," and whose difinter- and, previously to his removal from Monton, efted friendship, enlightened zeal, and active he had gained some acquaintance with botabenevolence, cannot be exceeded, he was ap- ny. His mind was certainly more disciplined pointed to superintend one department of the to observation and reflection, and more richly trade of the Meffrs. Parker, in Fleet-street. furnished with elegant and useful knowledge Here his business was chiefly to regulate the than the understandings of many persons, delivery of phials to the chemists and apothe- who were his superiors in age and literary adcaries, to go out for orders, and to receive vantages. In mixed fociety, he was comand account for money paid. Whilft he was monly, the filent, attentive, and candid hearengaged in this office of trust, the filversmith er ; nor did his unaffected modefty forsake with whom he had first lived sought after him, even in moments of the frankeft and him, upon the removal of his head clerk; and most confidential intercourse. To his intithus bore the most unambiguous teftimony to mate friends, nevertheless, he was always Mr.Wiche's faithfulness and attention at that fond of communicating his opinions upon early period. In the mean time, the friends of characters, events, and books; and there Mr. Wiche, eager to co-operate with him in his opinions were the more interesting, as endeavours after an honourable independence, they generally received their colour from continued their inquiries and exertions on his a very high degree of moral senfibility.
To those inquiries and exertions A gentleman, who had frequent opporit was owing, that about the beginning of the tunities of seeing him during the three years present year, he was invited to go to New 'of his residence in London, who was qualiYork, as agent to a mercantile house in Man-fied to appreciate his excellencies, and who chester, Accepting the invitation, he quit. obtained and merited his friendship, gives the ted England, accordingly, in March: But, following testimony to his eminence in vir. whatever were his hopes of happiness in the “ All that I have known of liim condischarge of his commission, they seem to
vinces me, that Mr. Wiche was one of thofe have been soon and entirely relinquished. rare characters who consider, practically and When he reached the place of his destination, habitually, this life as nothing but the intro. he saw, he abhorred, and instantlyrefused to en
duction to another; that morality and purity courage the commercial spirit and practices of are alone worthy to be the constant pursuit the merchants in that part of the Urited
of human beings; that every man has chiefly, States. He now hastened to join his beloved
to do with his own moral Atate and feelings; friend, Mr. Toulmin, in the distant province and that by them his individual conduct of Kentucky.“ After an interview with ought to be determined ; that to secure this such a friend," he wrote, “ My soul hungers moral excellence, no sacrifice is too great; and thirsts;" with him it was his intention
and that he was ready in pursuit of his object to concert, and probably to pursue, a plan of
to have become, if necessary, a day labourer, private education. But it plcared the Su
and to have served the meanet oftices." preme Disposer of all Events to deny him the The whole of Mr. Wiche's behaviour e. fulfillment of his eager wish. The yellow vinces the faithfulness of this delineation. fever was raging in l'hiladelphia : in his For the purpose of reaching this, his fove. way through that city, Mr. Wiche took the reign" end and aim,” he actually submitted infection, and after an illness of two days,
to considerable hardthips, weariness, and selffell a victim to the disorder; leaving a wi- denial ; with this view, he literally “ rose dowed mother to bewail, with poignant regret, up early, sat up late, and ate the bread of though to bear with pious resignation, the
care." Though he severely felt the unplealoss of an only and most exemplary son. santness of his situation, still he always said, Even from this imperfect sketch of Mr.
" Yet I have derived from it moral good; Wiche’s life, the reader may in some degree I advance by this lesson in the knowledge of infer, what were the prominent features of life, and in the adaptation of myself to any his intellectual and moral character, as well condition ;-it is better than my profeffion as his leading opinions of men and things. for me” - meaning, that his former profeflion Yet for the farther illustration of them, it may upon the plan of living by it, was more than be useful to add a few observations, which could his moral feelings were able to endure. not properly be interwoven with the narrative. Such a mind is absolutely invulnerable; Mr. Wiche poffeffed a delicate perception and such a character is beyond the compreof fimplicity and beauty, both in writing, and hension of worldly men, and nominal Chrifin the production of what are usually deno- tians; and is in fact as rare as it is excellent. minated the fine arts. Indeed, a taste of It ought not, however, to be concealed, that this nature, extending also to the regulation whillt Mr. Wiche conversed upon the subject of his own conduct, and to his judgment upon of leaving his original profession, with all the that of others, was, perhaps, the most con- delicacy of the finest senability, he was too fpicuous quality in his mental frame. He much guided in this instance by his feelings. had been nuch in habits of reading. Theo. But then those feelings had a ftri&ly virtuous logy, morals, history, biography, had each direction; and to preserve them uncorrupt
was manifestly the object of all his ac
Enamoured with the pure and lofty pretions.
cepts, and inspired by the sublime hopes of From Mr. Wiche's intercourse with persons the Christian revelation, Mr. Wiche opposed in mercantile life, it became lais fixed per- ' himself, in his moral feelings and practice, to fuafion, that till extensive commerce and great
a vitiated state of human society, and a corrupt capitalists are unknown, man can make no and noxious system of opinions. So far as bis progress in virtue and happiness. His fpecu- bigbest perfonal-interests were concerned, he oplations, however, upon human improvement pored them with success. The struggle was were more shaken by a late “ Eray on Po
not unattended by difficulties; but the vicpulation,” than by any production or event tory was complete.! Mr. Wiche's Chriftiaof modern times; and he was accustomed to nity conssted in an imitation of the character say, that he knein not in what manner to
of Chrift: it was in direct contradictior to answer that truly elegant and ingenious pub- the Christianity of the schools, and the lication. Though he had ceased to be a christian Christianity of the world. Reader ! admire min ter, in the usual meaning of that ex
and emulate one of whom that world was not presion, yet he ceased not to be a Chriftian* worthy. “ Many have I seen more famous, On the contrary, he still gave his countenance some more knowing, few so innocent and hoto Christian worship ; and, perhaps with somewhat of inconsistency, attended upon the
Lately at Annonai, his native place, aged preaching of hired teachers. In the truth of 52, Etienne Montgolfier, Member of the the gofpel revelation, he often expreifed his
National Institute of France; and, con• full and joyful confidence; yet he seemed to jointly with his brother Joseph, inventor of imagine, that it was too pure, too facred, to
the Air Balloon.Defcended from a family be diffused by men acting profefiionally, and
in which genius and learning were heredi. appearing to earn a temporal support from tary, Montgolfier, at a very early period, their employment. Let it be admitted, hat devoted himself to the practical study of mehis opinion was a mistaken one, it is impor- chanics and chemistry, and applied his knowfible; nevertheless, not to admire his exalted ledge to the most useful purposes, in an art views of Christian truth and duty; and happy which he brought to the highest state of were it, did every diffenting teacher in parti- perfection, the manufacturing of paper. He cular possess a greater freedom from those was proprietor of a very extensive manufacworldly and selfith regards, the predominance tory, which he himself superintended. His of fome amongst the number, Mr. Wiche studies and experiments gave birth to a variwas in the habit of deeply lamenting, and ety of new and improved machines, and new pointedly condemning. Tos wife and good to processes, to which France is indebted, among call any man mafter upon earth, Mr. Wiche other things, for her first manufaétory of velhad examine i the icriprures for himself. The lum paper, which till his time, was only to result was, a hearty attachment to the religious be obtained from the mills of Holland. The sentiments maintained by Unitarian Christians. fuperiority of French typography, fó univer• But upon opinions and names, as such, he fally admitted, is doubtleis attributable to Jaid no Arel. To mould his life in itriet this discovery of Montgolfier. In more inconformity with the Christian law, as a fove- fiances than one, his genius discovered the reign rule of manners, was the habitual ob
inventions of those industrious rivals of the ject of Mr. Wiche's thoughts, wishes, and French, the Dutch; and long before the preexertions. No man more clearly saw', or
sent alliance of thofe nations, which rendered more fincerely mourned, the degeneracy of their arts and manufactures one what is properly called the Chrišian world ;, property, Montgolfier had himself discovered and it was his settled conviction, that the
the most effential parts of the process of the awful events of modern days and recent ex
Dutch paper manufactories. He has been perience, are designed by the Almighty Go- heard to say, " that nothing had ever given vernor of the Universe, to rouse individuals bim more pleasure, than the discovery, that and communities from their moral Numbers, many very important experiments, which he and bring them to a practical reception of the had conceived to be solely his own, formed pure and undefiled gospel.
« Such events
part of the most secret arts of the Dutch manu(would he Yay) are the only effectual preach-facturer. It does not appear that Etienne Monters of righteousness to mankind” Upon this golfier, or his brother Joseph, ever received any subject, indeed, he would often enlarge be- lubstantial recompence for their inventions,
fore his friends, with peculiar energy and either from the ancient or new government of · animation; and his cloquence here was evi- France ; on the contrary, after having ex
dently heightened by his firm and zealous be. pended a considerable part of their fortune in lief in the doctrine of philosophical necefity. expenfive experiments, they were compelled
to abandon them incomplete from a want of
the necessary means of continuing them. * See the concluding paragraph of Dr. J. Etienne Montgolfier, however, derived from jebb's Letter of Refignation to the Bishop of his fame an advantage of which he well knew Norwich.
the value: he was fought after with avidity,
at first on account of his fame, and soon af- merit. It is, in fact, impossible for any man terwards on his own account, by every man of to posless a better character; to be more uneminence or merit, which France at that pe- affectedly modest, to possess a better heart, of riod pofseffed. From several among these he to be more truly virtuous than was Etienne obtained that friend thip, which was the only Montgolfier. fit recompence of his studies, and the best res At New York, of that destructive malady ward of his great genius. The venerable the yellow fever, Dr. PERKINS of Connec. Malesherbes and his unfortunate family, the ticut, the inventor of the metallic tractors. excellent La Rochefaucault, the learned and Hearing that the yellow fever had again made unfortunate Lavoisier, &c. honoured him its appearance at New York, he left the place with the title of their friend, with the ten of his residence to lend his aid as a physician, dereft offices of friendship, and with professions and unfortunately became the vi&im of his of esteem, which Montgolfier never cealed to own humanity.
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT. THE check which the foreign commerce of this country has lately, experienced, will, we
hope, be attended with the beneficial etted of rendering those who surmount the present difficulties, more cautious in forming new connections, and less adventurous in hazardous and anlimited speculations ; for there seems to be little reason to doubt that it originated chiefly from the late general eagerneis to get into the Hamburgh trade, which made many of our merchants more anxious to obtain correspondents in that city, than to inquire sufficiently into their credit and stability, and consequently encouraged many persons there to engage in mercantile concerns without adequate capital or connections, while the profits that had been recently made in this trade, increased both the orders from thence, and the adventures from this country, till the market was glutted, and the want of sale precluded the means of pay.
We are happy to find that the commercial distress, both on the continent and in this country, begins to subside, though it is still far from being got over. It has lately been in contemplation to adopt some regulations for a more direct trade with Holland, a measure, which, if it could be carried into effect, would be attended with much mutual advantage ; and it will certainly be a very beneficial refinement of “civilized war," if any mode can be de- T: vised of avoiding the punishment which in many cases a country infiets upon itself in prohibiting all means of commercial intercourse with the states involved in its political cantentions.
The BIRMINGHAM manufacturers in copper and brass have for some time past been working at little or no profit, from not having made any alteration in the prices of their goods, notwithstanding the advanced price of the raw material ; this we believe the manufacturers da under the expectation of copper getting lower, in which however they are still disappointed ; for though it had fallen a little, it has since been raised again, except by the Birmingham companies, who still continue to fell upon the same terms. This seems to prove, either, that there exists a monopolizing influence in the copper trade, which has the power of mate. rially affecting the price, or that the demand for copper is much greater than formerly, both of which appear to be strong reasons for the adoption of the measure that has been proposed of admitting foreign copper into this country, duty free, and prohibiting the exportation whenever the price is so extravagantly high as it is at present. Under this disadvantage it would be some confolation if the state of the foreign markets, which are the principal support of the fron Birmingham manufactures, afforded an encouraging prospect, but the hopes of recovering some of the branches of trade, of which we have been deprived by the war, seem to vanish almoit as soon as they appear; all expectations respecting Holland, so far as they depended on the late enterprise, are intirely blasted ; and as to Italy, speculation itself hrinks from the precarious state of affairs in a country where the reverses of fortune have been fo sudden and frequent.
In consequence of the proposed union, we have lately thought proper to extend our view to the present state of the trade and manufactures of Ireland, the principal branches of which we have already noticed, there are however some others of less importance, which may deserve to be mentioned. Hosiery has never been an object of export from Ireland, this country posiefing such advantages with respect to the materials, as well as such fuperior skill in the manufacturing of them, as enables us greatly to undersell the Irish hofier in foreign, and sometimes in the home market, notwithstanding the heavy duty on the importation of British hosiery into Ireland : as an article of home confumption, however, the manufacture of stockings in Ireland is in a very improving state
. The manufactures of Leather and of Paper are declining, which is attributed to the recent duties the legiMacure has imposed on them; but with respect to that of leather, it may per. haps be in consequence of the large quantities of hides which are exported untanned ; and of the very high price and bad quality of the bark used by the Irish tanners, which in general is the refuse of the British market. The decline of the paper manufactory is probably owing ! the dearness and scarcity of foreign rags, the natural consequence of a war with those countries from which the market had been usually Tupplied.
The Court of Directors of the East India Company have taken up the following thips for the season 1799. Bombay and China. Tons
Coast and China. Tons Begal and Bombay. Tons Canton, 1198 New Ship 800 New Ship
800 Ganges, 1200 Ditto 800 New Ship
800 Earl Talbot,
800 St. Helena, Bencooler and China. St. Helena and China.
1200 Coaft and China.
800 New Ship Brunswick 1200 Ditto
800 Bombay Castle Queen 800 Bengal and Bercoolen. Exeter
1200 New Ship 800 New Ship
800 The ships Canton, Cirencester, Earl Talbot and Ganges, for Bombay and China, and the Arniston, were afloat the 28th October, fail to Gravesend 12th November, stay there 30 days, and be in the Downs 18th December.
We have received but few particulars respecting the state of the Worllen manufactory, a deficiency which we hope some of our friends in the West will endeavour to supply. We jhould also be glad to receive some account of tbe Staffordshire manufaEtory, as well as further particulars of those of Manchester, Sheffield, &c. Every intelligent manufacturer or trader has it in his power to give a rough sketch of the a&tual fate of the trade be is engaged in, and it is presumed the communication would be attended with general advantage.
MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THERE has been so little of any advantageous change in the state of the season fince our
laft, that the necessary operations of the husbandman must have remained in pretty much the same fituation. We fear, indeed, that but a small proportion of the usual quantity of wheat has yet, even on the drier sorts of soil, been put into the ground; and on such as are of the more wet and tenacious kinds it cannot most probably be fown until the spring. The fame cause that has prevented the wheat crop from being committed to the earth, has also generally retarded, and, in many instances, totally prevented the farmers from getting their manures upon the lands.
In some of the more northern counties' much oats were still in the fields, and part uncut about the 17th; but the crops of both oats and barley are bétter than there was reason to apprehend.
Peas have in common been too luxuriant in their growth to be productive under the fail.
Potatoes, on being taken up, prove rather a better crop than was expected on the drier forts of soil; but on the wet ones they are in many cases rotten.
Turnips, from their not having been kept in a sufficiently clean state of cultivation, and from the coldness of the season, are small in the bulb; which, added to their great failure in many cases, renders them extremely scarce for the purposes of feeding.
Grain. We are fearful that such as is proper for the uses of the baker, though uncommonly high in price at present, is still looking upwards. Wheat averages throughout England and Wales 895. 2d. ; from Westmoreland the returns are 114. 2d.; from Worcester, 10 is. 4d. ; and from Mark-lane, 8gs. 10 d. Barley averages 41s. iod. and Oats 31s. 7d.
Cattle. The great number of half-fed cattle that have lately been hurried into the markets, have had the effect of giving a temporary cheapness to the article of butchers' meat; but from the state of the sales in the last week, it would seem to be on the rise. Beef sells in Smithfield market from 38.4d. to 4s. 6d. per stone of 81b. finking the offal.
Sheep. In the price of mutton there has been also an advance within these few days. The Smithfield prices of mutton are from 3s. 60. to 4s. 8d. per stone.
Hogs, notwithstanding the high price of their food, keep up.' Pork fetches in Smithfield from 3s. 8d. to 45. 8 d. per stone.
After this fatement of the advance of different articles that constitute the food of mankind, it cannot be improper in us to point out such means as may appear calculated to lessen its effects. In doing this we must, however, observe, that whatever may not be the deficiency in the corn' produce of this kingdom, it has proceeded from causes which no human wisdorr could alter or controul; on which account we ought to be not only niore contented and patient under the presiure of thole inconveniences which it must produce, but more eagerly disposed to a proper economy and retrenchment in the supplies, as well as the cookery, of our families, in order to have the solid and pleasing satisfaction of contributing to relieve the sufferings and diftrets of the poor, which, under the present circumitances, is unquestionably great.
Something may be usefully fpared from the tables of the rich, as well as those of persons in more humble situations of life, by judicious and proper management, in which their attention should be particularly directed to the use of rice and millet in puddings, and that of Scotch barley; boiling peas, por atoes, carrots, and other nutritious vegetable substances, in the preparing of roups, Jue economy being likewife had in the animal matters, that may be employed for such wholesome articles of food.
Oat-meal may also be made use of, where it can be liad at a reasonable rate, in the making of porridge, being equally palatable and wholesome. As a food for children, when boiled with milk, it is excellent. Apples, of which, in fome districts, there are large quantities, may be advantageously employed in various ways of cooking.
By these means, and by guarding as much as posible against the idle, and inconsiderate waste of servants, much may be done to prevent an advance in the price of grain; which, though it must, in many fituations, have been, from the state of the weather, gotten in with difficulty, and in bad condition, is probably, on the whole, not so greatly deficient as many may suppose. A midding, or even a less than middling, crop, with strict economy, will go a great way, provided that the mischievous consequences of alarm, and the bad effects of laying in fiores, in however small quantities it may be done, are cautiously guarded against. On these grounds the entering into any public regulations' or ftipulations would be highly injurious and improper.
Those who are so well informed on this subject as to know the great effects that either an under or over proportion, even in the slightest degree, has on the markets, will readily perceive the vast advantages that may be derived from the adoption of such means as are here recommended, every one having it, in some measure, within his power to leffen the inconveniences of the scarcity.
Miscellaneous Hints relative to the Improvement of Agriculture, to be
occasionally continued. NOTHING is of greater importance in the management of arable land than the discovery of
such methods of eropping, as preclude the necessity of having recourse to the system of lummer fallowing. In this view, experiment has amply thewn chat on strong tenacious foils, where there is a good deal of moisture, the cultivation of beans, as a preparation for wheat, may be practised with the best success. In alternating these crops it will be necefiary for the ground to have a night dreiling of manure every two or three years; ten or fifteen loads to the acre will be sufficient for the purpose. In sowing beans after this proportion of manure has been employed, it has not been found from experience that any inconvenience has arisen from the beans running too much into height, and thereby being rendered weak in the ftem, and not well podded. Facts likewise shew that these crops may be cultivated alternately in this manner for any length of time, without the least deterioration of the quality of such lands.
In cropping with wheat after clover, or other green products, several circumstances should be more particularly attended to than they would seem to be at present. In the ploughing down of such green crops, care Mould not only be taken that the whole of che green matter be turned in, but that such a season be chosen for the business as may have a tendency by its dryness and warmth to promote the putrefactive fermentation of the green vegetables. The common practices of ploughing Nightly, and in wet, damp, weather, are highly improper and disadvantageous. It is probable, likewise, that the putrefactive process might be considerably accelerated by a fight application of time in such inftances.
Where corn is sown on poor light foils, such as blowing sands; it is an excellent practice, though but little attended to, to fold theep upon it some days, after the grain has been put into the ground, as, by this means the loose particles of such soils are prefled to the roots, and the growth of the crop, greatly promoted.
It has been hewn by an ingenious agriculturilt, that there are many varieties ox sheep with which we are litele acquainted, and that they are not invariably, wool-bearing animals. He has also discovered a fact of considerable practical utility, in regard to the cutting of their wool; which is, that the shearing of wool-bearing theep, is not a bufiness that depends folely on the will of the owner, but which must be reg ated by the condition or state of the fleece. For as the wool of these animals is found to lovlen from the fkin nearly all at one time; is not then fhorn, soon to fall off in large quantities, the young wool having previousy grown up to some' length; if the operation of thearing be therefore had recourse to, too soon before the young wool has begun to grow, it cannot be accomplished with facility; and the body of the animal is lett iou bare, and if it be too long protr.icted, the young wool is too much advanced, and the operation greatly retarded by the choaking of the thears. Much injury is not only by this means also done to the wood, but srcat lois luitained by the cutting of that which is young.