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bay. I. that with base prayers

I stond repent the evils I have done :
snd worse than ever yet I did
d I perform, if I might have my
will:
ne good deed in all my life I did,
b repent it from my very soul.

Loc. Some loving friends convey the emper
bence,

And give him barial in his father's grave.
My firber and Lavinia shall forthwith
Be nosed in our household's monument:
As for that beinous tiger, Tamora,
Nineral rite, nor man in mournful weeds,
N: normal bell shall ring her burial;
Both her forth to beasts and birds of prey
Her He was beast-like, and devoid of pity,
And being so, shall have like want of pity.
See justice done on Aaron, that damn'd Moor,
Er wom our heavy haps had their beginning:
Then afterwards, to order well the state,
That ke events may ne'er it ruinate.(1) [Exe

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nce, in his

Hlustration of Shakspeare," has at 15Sing tote of the burlet, i'iabe

It would be a homeless task to trace the omm of the the verb to lul, which means to men genti vilently connected with the Greek A¤ew logo; or An the sound made by the beach. at sea. Tru meet in, that the Roman nurses used the word tali to et ther children, and that they feigned a deity called o, whom they invoked or that occasion; the hullaby Itself was called by the same name. As ialiare at to sing lella, to tell might in like manner denote aring of the nurse's lullaby to induce the child to . Thus in an ancient carol composed in the fifteenth y, and preserved among the Sloane MSS. No. 2593:

**che song a slepe wt het lullynge
here dere sont our savyoure."

Ir another old ballad, printed by Mr. Ritson in his 198, the burden is lally, lully, lullaby,

, sweete baby,' &c.; from which it seems probable May is only a comparatively modern contraction of y, the first word being the legitimate offspring of ian ialla. In another of these pieces, still more st, and printed in the same collection, we have 'lullay, Iniy, ere, lulla baw baw.'

The Welsh appear to have been famous for their y songs. Jones, in his Arte and science of preserving Send sole, 1579, 4to., says: The best nurses, but y the trim and skilfull Welch women, doe te s me preaty sonets, wherwith their copious sing a i stoared of divers pretie tunes and plea that the children disquieted might be bat translated never so well, they want Eagle, for lacke of proper words: so than I wishe they would theyr lasciVİDE Laher, and amorous Englia."

White, in reviewing his opinion of the by, will perhaps incline to tr 1 properly written good Eve,

ay your house prosper!"

1 to the stock of or d

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Boy. O, grandsire, grandsire! even with all my

heart

Would I were dead, so you did live again!— O, lord, I cannot speak to him for weeping! My tears will choke me, if I ope my mouth.

Re-enter Attendants, with AARON.

1 ROMAN. You sad Andronici, have done with

woes:

Give sentence on this execrable wretch,
That hath been breeder of these dire events.
Luc. Set him breast-deep in earth, and famish
him;

There let him stand, and rave, and cry for food:
If any one relieves or pities him,

For the offence he dies. This is our doom.
Some stay to see him fasten'd in the earth.
AARON. O, why should wrath be mute, and
fury dumb?

No mournful bell-] Query, "No solemn bell," &c.?

I am no baby, I, that with base prayers
I should repent the evils I have done :
Ten thousand worse than ever yet I did
Would I perform, if I might have my will:
If one good deed in all my life I did,
I do repent it from my very soul.
Luc. Some loving friends convey the emperor
hence,

And give him burial in his father's grave.
My father and Lavinia shall forthwith
Be closed in our household's monument:
As for that heinous tiger, Tamora,
No funeral rite, nor man in mournful weeds,
No mournful bell shall ring her burial;
But throw her forth to beasts and birds of prey:
Her life was beast-like, and devoid of pity,
And, being so, shall have like want of pity.
See justice done on Aaron, that damn'd Moor,
By whom our heavy haps had their beginning:
Then, afterwards, to order well the state,
That like events may ne'er it ruinate.(1) [Exeunt.

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ILLUSTRATIVE COMMENTS.

ACT II.

(1) SCENE III.—

Be unto us as is a nurse's song

Of lullaby, to bring her babe asleep.] Douce, in his "Illustrations of Shakspeare," has an interesting note on the burden lullaby.

"It would be a hopeless task to trace the origin of the northern verb to lull, which means to sing gently; but it is evidently connected with the Greek λαλέω, loquor, or AάAλn, the sound made by the beach at sea. Thus much

is certain, that the Roman nurses used the word lalla to quiet their children, and that they feigned a deity called Lallus, whom they invoked on that occasion; the lullaby or tune itself was called by the same name. As lallare meant to sing lalla, to lull might in like manner denote the singing of the nurse's lullaby to induce the child to sleep. Thus in an ancient carol composed in the fifteenth century, and preserved among the Sloane MSS. No. 2593:

"che song a slepe wt her lullynge
here dere sone our savyoure.'

"In another old ballad, printed by Mr. Ritson in his Ancient Songs, p. 198, the burden is lully, lully, lullaby, lully by, sweete baby,' &c.; from which it seems probable that lullaby is only a comparatively modern contraction of lully baby, the first word being the legitimate offspring of the Roman lalla. In another of these pieces, still more ancient, and printed in the same collection, we have 'lullay, lullow, lully, bewy, lulla baw baw.'

"The Welsh appear to have been famous for their lullaby songs. Jones, in his Arte and science of preserving bodie and soule, 1579, 4to., says: The best nurses, but especially the trim and skilfull Welch women, doe use to sing some preaty sonets, wherwith their copious tong is plentifully stoared of divers pretie tunes and pleasaunt litties, that the children disquieted might be brought to reste: but translated never so well, they want their grace in Englishe, for lacke of proper words: so that I will omit them, as I wishe they would theyr lascivious Dymes, wancon Lullies, and amorous Englins.'

"Mr. White, in reviewing his opinion of the etymology of good-by, will perhaps incline to think it a contraction, when properly written good bye, of God be with you, and not may your house prosper!"

"To add to the stock of our old lullaby songs, two are ere subjoined. The first is from a pageant of The slaughter of the innocents, acted at Coventry in the reign of Henry he Eighth, by the taylors and shearers of that city, and nost obligingly communicated by Mr. Sharpe. The other s from the curious volume of songs mentioned before in ». 262. Both exhibit the simplicity of ancient manners :—

“Lully, lulla, thou littell tine childe,

By by lully lullay,

Lully lullay thou littell tyne child,

By by lully lullay.

"O sisters too, how may we do,

For to preserve this day

This pore yongling, for whom we do singe
By by lully lullay.

"Herod the king, in his raging,

Chargid he hath this day;

His men of might, in his owne sight,
All yonge children to slay.

"That wo is me, pore child for thee, And ever morne and say;

For thi parting, nether say nor sing,
By by lully lullay.'

"By by lullaby
Rockyd I my chyld

In a dre late as I lay

Me thought I hard a maydyn say
And spak thes wordys mylde,
My lytil sone with the I play
And ever she song by lullay
Thus rockyd she hyr chyld
By by lullabi,

Rockid I my child by by.

Then merveld I ryght sore of thys
A mayde to have a chyld I wys,

By by lullay.

Thus rockyd she her chyld

By by lullaby, rockyd I my chyld.'"

(2) SCENE IV.--A precious ring, that lightens all the hole.] The gem supposed to possess a property of emitting native light was called a carbuncle, and is frequently mentioned in early books; thus, in "The Gesta Romanorum," b. vi. :-"He further beheld and saw a carbuncle in the hall that lighted all the house." So also in Lydgate's Description of King Priam's Palace," L. II. :—

66

"And for most chefe all derkeness to confound,
A carbuncle was set as kyng of stones all,
To recomforte and gladden all the hall.
And to enlumine in the blacke night
With the freshnes of his ruddy light."
And so Drayton, in "The Muses' Elysium:"-
"Is that admirèd mighty stone,
The carbuncle that's named:
Which from it such a flaming light
And radiancy ejecteth,

That in the very darkest night
The eye to it directeth."

But the best illustration of the passage we have met with occurs in a letter from Boyle, containing "Observations on a Diamond that shines in the dark:"-" Though Vortomannus was not an eye-witness of what he relates, that the King of Pegu had a true Carbuncle of that bigness and splendour, that it shined very gloriously in the dark; and though Garcias ab Horto, the Indian Vice-Roy's physician, speaks of another carbuncle only on the report of one that he discoursed with; yet as we are not sure that these men that gave themselves out to be eye-witnesses, speak true, yet they may have done so for aught we know to the contrary. I must not omit that some virtuosi questioning me the other day at Whitehall, and meeting amongst them an ingenious Dutch gentleman whose father was long embassador for the Netherlands in England, I learned of him that he is acquainted with a person who was admiral of the Dutch in the East Indies, and who assured this gentleman Monsieur Boreel, that at his return from thence, he brought back with him into Holland a stone which though it looked but like a pale dull diamond, yet it was a real carbuncle; and did without rubbing shine so much, that when the admiral had occasion to open a chest which he kept under deck in a dark place where it was forbidden to bring candles for fear of mischances, as soon as he opened the trunk, the stone would by its native light shine so as to illustrate a great part of it."—Boyle's Works, Vol. II. p. 82.

ACT V.

(1) SCENE III.—

Then, afterwards, to order well the state,
That like events may ne'er it ruinate.]

The following is the ballad registered by Danton when he entered the "Historye of Tytus Andronicus" on the Stationers' Rolls. It is extracted from Percy's "Reliques of Antient Poetry," Vol. I. :—

"TITUS ANDRONICUS'S COMPLAINT.

"You noble minds and famous martiall wights,
That in defence of native country fights,
Give ear to me, that ten yeers fought for Rome,
Yet reapt disgrace at my returning home.

"In Rome I lived in fame fulle threescore yeeres,
My name beloved was of all my peeres;
Full five and twenty valiant sonnes 1 had,
Whose forwarde vertues made their father glad.
"For when Romes foes their warlike forces bent,
Against them stille my sonnes and I were sent ;
Against the Goths full ten yeeres weary warre
We spent, receiving many a bloudy scarre.

"Just two and twenty of my sonnes were slaine
Before we did returne to Rome againe :

of five and twenty sonnes, I brought but three
Alive the stately towers of Rome to see.

"When wars were done I conquest home did bring,
And did present my prisoners to the King.
The Queene of Goths, her sons, and eke a Moore,
Which did such murders, like was nere before.

"The emperour did make this queene his wife,
Which bred in Rome debate and deadlie strife;
The Moore, with her two sonnes did growe soe proud,
That none like them in Rome might be allowd.

"The Moore soe pleased this new-made empress' eie,
That she consented to him secretlye
For to abuse her husbands marriage bed,
And soe in time a blackamore she bred.

"Then she, whose thoughts to murder were inclined,
Consented with the Moore of bloody minde
Against myself, my kin, and all my friendes,
In cruell sort to bring them to their endes.

"Soe when in age I thought to live in peace,
Both care and griefe began then to increase:
Amongst my sonnes I had one daughter bright,
Which joy'd, and pleased best my aged sight:

"My deare Lavinia was betrothed than

To Cæsars sonne, a young and noble man: Who in a hunting by the emperours wife And her two sonnes, bereaved was of life.

"He being slaine was cast in cruel wise
Into a darksome den from light of skies:
The cruell Moore did come that way as then
With my three sonnes, who fell into the den.

"The Moore then fetcht the emperour with speed,
For to accuse them of that murderous deed;
And when my sonnes within the den were found,
In wrongfull prison they were cast and bound.
But nowe, behold! what wounded most my mind,
The empresses two sonnes of savage kind
My daughter ravished without remorse,
And took away her honour, quite perforce.

"When they had tasted of soe sweete a flowre,
Fearing this sweete should shortly turne to soure,
They cutt her tongue, whereby she could not tell
How that dishonoure unto her befell.

"Then both her hands they basely cutt off quite,
Whereby their wickednesse she could not write;
Nor with her needle on her sampler sowe
The bloudge workers of her direfull woe.

"My brother Marcus found her in the wood,
Staining the grassie ground with purple bloud,
That trickled from her stumpes, and bloudlesse armes;
Noe tongue at all she had to tell her harmes.
"But when I sawe her in that woefull case,
With teares of bloud I wet mine aged face;
For my Lavinia 1 lamented more,
Than for my two and twenty sonnes before.
"When as I sawe she could not write nor speake,
With griefe mine aged heart began to breake;
We spred an heape of sand upon the ground,
Whereby those bloudy tyrants out we found.

"For with a staffe without the help of hand
She writt these wordes upon the plat of sand:
The lustfull sonnes of the proud emperèsse
Are doers of this hateful wickednèsse.'

"I tore the milk-white hairs from off mine head, I curst the houre, wherein I first was bred,

I wisht this hand, that fought for countrie's fame, In cradle rockt, had first been stroken lame.

"The Moore delighting still in villainy,

Did say, to sett my sonnes from prison free I should unto the king my right hand give, And then my three imprisoned sonnes should live. "The Moore I caused to strike it off with speede, Whereat I grieved not to see it bleed, But for my sonnes would willingly impart, And for their ransome send my bleeding heart.

"But as my life did linger thus in paine,

They sent to me my bootlesse hand againe, And therewithal the heades of my three sonnes, Which filld my dying heart with fresher moanes. "Then past reliefe I upp and downe did goe, And with my teares writ in the dust my woe: I shot my arrowes towards heaven hie, And for revenge to hell did often crie.

"The empresse then, thinking that I was mad, Like furies she and both her sonnes were clad, (She nam'd Revenge, and Rape and Murder they) To undermine and heare what I would say. "I fed their foolish veines a certaine space, Untill my friendes did find a secret place, Where both her sonnes unto a post were bound, And just revenge in cruell sort was found. "I cut their throates, my daughter held the pan Betwixt her stumpes, wherein the bloud it ran: And then I ground their bones to powder small, And made a paste for pyes streight therewithall. "Then with their fleshe I made two mighty pyes, And at a banquet servde in stately wise: Before the empresse set this loathsome meat; So of her sonnes own flesh she well did eat.

"Myself bereav'd my daughter then of life,
The empresse then I slewe with bloudy knife,
And stabb'd the emperour immediatelie
And then myself: even soe did Titus die.

"Then this revenge against the Moor was found,
Alive they sett him halfe into the ground,
Whereas he stood untill such time he starv'd,
And soe God send all murderers may be served."

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