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First, that, without the king's assent, or knowledge,
NOR. Then, that, in all you writ to Rome, or else
went Ambassador to the emperor, you made bold To carry into Flanders the great seal.
SUR. Item, you sent a large commission To Gregory de Cassalis, to conclude, Without the king's will, or the state's allowance, A league between his highness and Ferrara.
Sur. That, out of mere ambition, you have caus'd Your holy hat to be stamp'd on the king's coin.? Sur. Then, that you have sent innumerable sub
stance, (By what meansgot, Ileavetoyour own conscience,) To furnish Rome, and to prepare the ways
* Your holy hat to be stamp'd on the king's coin.] In the long string of articles exhibited by the Privy Council against Wolsey, which Sir Edward Coke transcribed from the original, this offence composed one of the charges : “ 40. Also the said Lord Cardinal of his further
presumptuous minde, hath enterprised to joyn and imprint the Cardinal's hat under your armes in your coyn of groats made at your city of York, which like deed hath not been seen to be done by any subject in your realm before this time." 4 Inst. 94. Holt White.
This was certainly one of the articles exhibited against Wolšey, but rather with a view to swell the catalogue, than from any serious cause of accusation; inasmuch as the Archbishops Cranmer, Bainbrigge, and Warham, were indulged with the same privilege. See Snelling's View of the Silver Coin and Coinage of England. Douce.
You have for dignities; to the mere undoing
O my lord,
I forgive him. Sur. Lord cardinal, the king's further pleasure
is, Because all those things, you have done of late By your power legatine within this kingdom, Fall into the compass4 of a præmunire, That therefore such a writ be sued against you; To forfeit all your goods, lands, tenements, Chattels, and whatsoever, and to be Out of the king's protection:- This is my charge.
to the mere undoingą] Mere is absolute. So, in The Honest Man's Fortune, by Beaumont and Fletcher:
I am as bappy
STEEVENS, See Vol. IV. p. 9, n. 3. MALONE.
* Fall into the compass &c.] The harshness of this line in duces me to think that we should either read, with Sir Thomas Hanmer-Fall in the compass, or Fall into compass, omitting the article. STEEVENS.
of a præmunire,] It is almost unnecessary to observe that præmunire is a barbarous word used instead of præmonere,
STEEVENS. Chattels, and whatsoever,] The old copy-castles. I have ventured to substitute chattels here, as the author's genuine word, because the judgment in a writ of præmunire is, that the defendant shall be out of the king's protection ; and his landa and tenements, goods and chattels, forfeited to the king; and
Nor. And so we'll leave you to your meditations How to live better. For your stubborn answer, About the giving back the great seal to us, The king shall know it, and, no doubt, shall thank
you. So fare you well, my little good lord cardinal.
[Exeunt all but WOLSEY. Wol. So farewell to the little good you bear me. Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatness ! This is the state of man; To-day he puts forth The tender leaves of hope, to-morrow blossoms, And bears his blushing honours thick him : The third day, comes a frost, a killing frost; And when he thinks, good easy man, full surely His greatness is a ripening,-nips his root,
that his body shall remain in prison at the king's pleasure. This very description of the præmunire is set out by Holinshed, in his Life of King Henry VIII. p. 909. THEOBALD.
The emendation made by Mr. Theobald, is, I think, fully justified by the passage in Holinshed's Chronicle, on which this is founded; in which it is observable that the word chattels is spelt cattels, which might have been easily confounded with castels : “ After this, in the King's Bench his matter for the præmunire being called upon, two attornies which he had authorised by his warrant signed with his own hand, confessed the action, and so had judgment to forfeit all his landes, tenements, goods, and cattels, and to be put out of the king's protection.”
Chron. Vol. II. p. 909. MALONE. * This is the state of man; To day he puts forth
The tender leaves of hope, &c.] So, in our author's 25th Sonnet:
“ Great princes' favourites their fair leaves spread,
nips his root,] “As spring-frosts are not injurious to the roots of fruit-trees,” Dr. Warburton reads-shoot. Such capricious alterations I am sometimes obliged to mention, merely
And then he falls, as I do. I have ventur'd,
my heart new open'd: 0, how wretched
to introduce the notes of those, who, while they have shewn them to be unnecessary, have illustrated our author. MalONE.
Vernal frosts, indeed, do not kill the root, but then to nip the shoots does not kill the tree or make it fall. The metaphor will not, in either reading, correspond exactly with nature.
JOHNSON I adhere to the old reading, which is countenanced by the following passage in A. W.'s Commendation of Gascoigne and his Poesies : “ And frosts so nip the rootes of vertuous-meaning
minds.” See Gascoigne's Works, 1587. STEEVENS.
and their ruin,] Most of the modern editors read
STEEVENS. Their ruin is, their displeasure, producing the downfall and ruin of him on whom it lights. So before :
“ He parted frowning from me, as if ruin
• Leap'd from his eyes.” MALONE. And when he falls, he falls like Lucifer,] So, in Churchyard's Legend of Cardinal Wolsey, MIRROUR FOR MAGISTRATES,