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cut; sometimes referring to the subject matter | Hurd, finding the passage in the complete ediof the ballad, sometimes giving a portrait of tion of Daniel's 'Civil Wars,' published in 1609. the queen. These fugitive productions, Gifford and not, perhaps, being aware of the earlier says, “came out every term in incredible num. edition, considered that Daniel had imitated bers, and were rapidly dispersed over the king- Shakspere. This coincidence strengthens the dom, by shoals of itinerant syrens."
remarks which we made in the Introductory
Notice to 'Richard II.' on Shakspere's supposed 2 SCENE IV._“I think he's gone to hunt, my limitations of his poetical friend. The same lord, at Windsor.”
thought descended from Daniel and Shakspere The forest of Windsor was the favourite to Waller, who has thus modified it :hunting ground of the court in the sixteenth "The soul's dark cottage, batter'd and decay'd, century, as it was, probably, at a much earlier Lets in new light thro' chinks that time has made." period. In Lord Surrey's celebrated poem on Windsor Castle, supposed to be written in 1546,
in 1646, 2 SCENE IV.—"In that Jerusalem shall Harry we have the following passage :
die." « The wild forest, the clothed holts with green ; With reins availed, and swiftly-breathed horse, Of the Jerusalem Chamber, which is attached unds, and merry blasts between
to the S.W. tower of Westminster Abbey, Where we did chase the fearful hart of force."
scarcely any of the original features remain22 SCENE IV.-" Hath wrought the mure," &c. nothing, indeed, of the interior that probably Shakspere has here borrowed a thought from
existed in the time of Henry IV. The original Daniel. In the third Book of his 'Civil Wars,'
chamber was built about 1632, at a time when first published in 1595, we have this couplet :
the buildings immediately attached to the “Wearing the wall so thin, that now the mind
abbey were extensively repaired or re-erected. Might well look thorough, and his frailty find."
HISTORICAL. The following extracts from Holinshed de- , trary to the king's peace, they came so in arscribe the progress of the insurrection of Scroop mour. The archbishop answered, that he took and Northumberland. These passages are evi nothing in hand against the king's peace, but dently the historical authorities which the poet that whatever he did, tended rather to advance consulted :
the peace and quiet of the commonwealth, than “Raufe Nevill, Earl of Westmoreland, that otherwise, and where he and his company were was not far off, together with the lord John of in arms, it was for fear of the king, to whom he Lancaster, the king's son, being informed of could have no free access by reason of such a this rebellious attempt, assembled together multitude of flatterers as were about him, and such power as they might make, and coming therefore he maintained that his purpose was into a plain within the forest of Galtree, caused good and profitable, as well for the king him. their standards to be pight down in like sort self, as for the realm, if men were willing to as the archbishop had pight his, over against understand a truth: and herewith he showed them, being far stronger in number of people forth a scroll in which the articles were written, than the other, for (as some write) there were whereof before ye have heard. The messengers of the rebels at the least eleven thousand men. returning unto the Earl of Westmoreland When the Earl of Westmoreland perceived the showed him what they had heard and brought force of adversaries, and that they lay still and from the archbishop. When he had read the attempted not to come forward upon him, he articles, he showed in word and countenance subtilely devised how to quail their purpose, outwardly that he liked of the archbishop's and forthwith dispatched messengers unto the holy and virtuous intent and purpose, proarchbishop to understand the cause, as it were, mising that he and his would prosecute the of that great assemble, and for what cause, con- same in assisting the archbishop, who, rejoicing hereat, gave credit to the earl, and persuaded “The Earl of Northumberland, and the Lord the Earl Marshall against his will as it were to Bardolf, after they had been in Wales, in go with him to a place appointed for them to France, and Flanders, to purchase aid against commune together. Here, when they were met King Henry, were returned back into Scotland, with like number on either part, the articles and had remained there now (1408) for the were read over, and without any more ado, the space of a whole year, and as their evil fortune Earl of Westmoreland and those that were with would, whilst the king held a council of the him, agreed to do their best to see that a re- nobility at London, the said Earl of Northumformation might be had, according to the same. berland and Lord Bardolf, in a dismal hour, The Earl of Westmoreland using more policy with a great power of Scots, returned into than the rest : Well (said he) then our travail | England, recovering diverse of the earl's castles, is come to the wished end : and where our and seigniories, for the people in great numbers people have been long in armour, let them resorted unto them. Hereupon encouraged with depart home to their wonted trades and occupa- hope of good success, they enter into Yorkshire, tions : in the mean time let us drink together, and there began to destroy the country. The in sign of agreement, that the people on both king advertised hereof, caused a great army to sides may see it, and know that it is true, that be assembled, and came forward with the same we be light at a point. They had no sooner towards his enemies : but ere the king came to shaked hands together, but that a knight was Nottingham, Sir Thomas (or, as other copies sent straitways from the archbishop to bring have, Raufe) Rokesby, sheriff of Yorkshire, as. word to the people that there was a peace con- sembled the forces of the country to resist the cluded, commanding each man to lay aside earl and his power, coming to Grimbaut Brigges, arms, and to resort home to their houses. The beside Knaresborough, there to stop them the people beholding such tokens of peace, as passage; but they returning aside, got to shaking of hands, and drinking together of the Weatherby, and so to Tadcaster, and finally lords in loving manner, brake up their field and came forward unto Branham Moor, near to Hay. returned homewards : but in the mean time, selwood, where they chose their ground meet to whilst the people of the archbishop's side with fight upon. The sheriff was as ready to give drew away, the number of the contrary part battle as the earl to receive it, and so with a increased, according to order given by the Earl standard of St. George spread, set fiercely upon of Westmoreland, and yet the archbishop per- the earl, who, under a standard of his own arms, ceived not that he was deceived, till the Earl of encountered his adversaries with great man Westmoreland arrested both him and the Earl hood. There was a sore encounter and cruel Marshall, with diverse other. Their troops being conflict betwixt the parties, but in the end the pursued, many were taken, many slain, and victory fell to the sheriff. The Earl of Normany spoiled of that they had about them, and thumberland was slain in the field, and the so permitted to go their ways."
Lord Bardolf was taken, but sore wounded, so that he shortly after died of the hurts.”
ACT V. > SCENE I.-—" By cock and pye.”
| mouth.” We here see, that the exclamation
“ by cock and pye,” was not of the class of In a little book of great popularity, originally oaths from which Hotspur might choose "a published in 1601, entitled, “The Plaine Man's good mouth-filling oath.” Steevens supposes Pathway to Heaven,' by Arthur Dent, we have that the service-book of the Romish church the following passage :-“I know a man that being denominated a Pie, the oath had reference will never swear but by cock or py, or mouse to that, and to the sacred name. Douce has, foot. I hope you will not say these be oaths. however, given the following very ingenious ex. For he is as honest a man as ever brake bread.planation of the origin of the word :-“ It will, You shall not hear an oath come out of his l no doubt, be recollected, that in the days of
HISTORIES.- VOL. I.
ancient chivalry it was the practice to make would wear out in four terms, or two actions. solemn vows or engagements for the perform. This particularity, may, perhaps, be taken as ance of some considerable enterprise. This | another proof of Shakspere's technical knowceremony was usually performed during some ledge, and fondness for legal allusions, grand feast or entertainment, at which a roasted peacock or pheasant, being served up by ladies
» SCENE II.-“ Not Amurath an Amurath in a dish of gold or silver, was thus presented
succeeds." to each knight, who then made the particular The following valuable note is communicated vow which he had chosen, with great solemnity. I by a friend :When this custom bad fallen into disuse, the "Amurath is generally supposed to be Murad, peacock, nevertheless, continued to be a fa-and no Murad ever did succeed another ;-not vourite dish, and was introduced on the table that it is of much consequence-but Amurath, in a pie, the head, with gilded beak, being in Greek 'Apugães, is Emēër, the Greek , being proudly elevated above the crust, and the pronounced as ee. In old books the Sultan is splendid tail expanded. Other birds of smaller sometimes called “the Amyrath," and the style value were introduced in the same manner, and of Mohammed II. in the Greek version of his the recollection of the old peacock-vows might treaty with the Genoese of Galata is— occasion the less serions, or even burlesque, ««'Egas ó piyas Aidirons, rad pigees 'Aperpães • imitation of swearing, not only by the bird Σουλτανός Μίχμις Μαίη, υιός του μεγελού Αυθεντού itself, but also by the pie; and hence, probably | nad 'Akupã ToŰ Eova Tanoo Mougár Morin.' the oath by cock and pie, for the use of which “I the great Effendi and great Emeer, the no very old authority can be found.”
Sultan Machomet Bey, son of the, &c.—Mourad
Bey'-So that we find Amurath in the same 30 SCENE I.-" I would curry with Master sentence as distinct from Mourad." ..
33 SCENE III.-" Do nothing but eat, and make furnishes a remarkable example of the cor
good cheer." ruption of language. In Chaucer's time, the Every lover of Shakspere must recullect that phrase was “ curry favel.” In the Merchant's | most exquisite passage in the Twelfth Night,' Second Tale,' we have :
which describes the higher species of minstrelsy “ As though he had lerned cury favel of some old frere."
that had found an abiding place in the hearts Favel was the name of a horse,-a name gene
of the people :
“Give me some music :-but that piece of song, rally given to chestnut horses-as Bayard to a
That old and antique song we heard last night, brown horse, and Blanchard to a white. In an
Methought it did relieve my passion much; old English proverb we have :
More than light airs, and recollected terms,
of these most brisk and giddy-paced times.
Mark it, Cæsario; it is old, and plain :
The spinsters and the knitters in the sun, It is scarcely necessary to add, that it is agree And the free maids that weave their thread with bones, able to a horse to be curried, and that, therefore, Do use to chaunt it; it is silly sooth, to curry favel, applied to a courtier, or a syco
And dallies with the innocence of love,
Like the old age." phant, is to bestow such attentions as may
The outpouring of snatches of old songs by bespeak good offices.
Master Silence, in this hour, when the taciturnity
of a feeble intellect was overwhelmed by the 31 SCENE 1.-" The wearing-out of six fashions,
stimulant which wine afforded to his memory, (which is four terms, or two actions.)"
is a truly poetical conception. In his prosaic In the time of Shakspere the law terms re- moments the worthy Justice is contented to gulated what we now denominate the season. echo his brother of the quorum :-"We shall The country gentlemen and their families then all follow, cousin." But when his “merry heart" came up to town to transact their business and expands in " the sweet of the night," he un. to learn the fashions. “He comes up every ravels his fag-ends of popular ditties with a term to learn to take tobacco, and see new volubility which not even the abuse of Pistol motions.” (Ben Jonson, Every Man out of his can stop. Beaumont and Fletcher, in “The Humour.') Falstaff computes that six fashions | Knight of the Burning Pestle,' have a character, Old Merry-thought, who “evermore laughs, and Edward II. (See Warton's 'History of English dances, and sings;" and he introduces himself Poetry,' section 6.) In the Serving Man's to us with :
Comfort,' 1598, we have this passage, descriptive “Nose, nose, jolly red nose,
of the merriment in which the retainers of the And who gave thee this jolly red nose."
| great partook, in tbe time of Elizabeth :The humour of Old Merry-thought is little “ Grace said, and the table taken up, the plate better than farce; but the extravagance of presently conveyed into the pantry, the ha Silence is the richest comedy, from the contrast summons this consort of companions (upon with his habitual character. The snatches which payne to dine with Duke Humphrey, or to kiss Silence sings are not the
the bare's foot) to appear at the first call; where “light airs, and recollected terms,
a song is to be sung, the under song or holding of these most brisk and giddy-paced times,"
whereof is, 'It is merry in hall, where beards but fragments of old ballads that had been long wag all.'” The concluding line, before the heard in the squire's ball, and the yeoman's command to “ carry Master Silence to bed,” is chimney-corner—"old and plain.” For example, a portion of the old ballad of Robin Hood the expression,
and the Pindar of Wakefield :'"'T is merry in hall, when beards wag all,"
“ All this beheard three wighty yeomen,
'Twas Robin Hood, Scarlet, and John: may be found, with a slight alteration, in the
With that they espy'd the jolly Pindar poems of Adam Davy, who lived in the time of
As he sate under a throne."
HISTORICAL. In the Studies of Shakspere,' p. 164, we bave “With which answer the prince nothing apmentioned the story told by Sir Tomas Elyot, in peased, but rather more inflamed, endeavoured his book of 'The Governor of the committal of himself to take away his servant. The judge Prince Henry to the Fleet by the Lord Chief considering the perilous example and inconveJustice. This tradition was believed (perhaps nience that might thereby ensue, with a valiant upon the authority of Elyot) by Sir Edward spirit and courage commanded the prince upon Coke and Sir John Hawkins; and was referred his allegiance to leave the prisoner and depart to by them in legal arguments. The anecdote, his way; at which commandment the prince as detailed by Elyot, is very amusing:
being set all in a fury, all chafed, and in a ter
rible manner, came up to the place of judgement, “A good Judge, a good Prince, a good King.
men thinking that he would have slain the judge, “The most renowned prince, King Henry V., or have done to him some damage: but the judge late king of England, during the life of his father, sitting still without moving, declaring the ma was noted to be fierce and of wanton courage. jesty of the king's place of judgement, and with It happened that one of his servants whom he an assured and bold countenance, had to the favoured well, was for felony by him committed | prince these words following: arraigned at the King's Bench: wherefore the “Sir, remember yourself. I keep here the prince being advertised, and incensed by light place of the king your sovereign lord and persons about him, in furious rage came hastily father, to whom you owe double obedience: to the bar, where his servant stood as a prisoner, wherefore eftsoones in his name, I charge you and commanded him to be ungyved and set at to desist of your wilfulness and unlawful enterliberty. Whereat all men were abashed, re- prise, and from henceforth give good example served the chief justice, who humbly exhorted to those which hereafter shall be your proper the prince to be contented that his servant might subjects. And now, for your contempt, and be ordered according to the ancient laws of this disobedience, go you to the prison of the King's realm; or if he would have bim saved from the Bench, whereunto I commit you, and remain ye rigour of the laws, that he should obtain, if he there prisoner until the pleasure of the king might, of the king his father his gracious pardon, your father be further known. With which whereby no law or justice should be derogate. words being abashed, and also wondering at the marvellous gravity of that worshipful justice, | world; wherefore I, as your next heir apparent, the noble prince laying his weapon apart, doing took that as mine own, and not as yours. Well reverence, departed and went to the King's fair son, said the king (with a great sigh), what Bench as he was commanded. Whereat his right I had to it, God knoweth. Well, quoth servants disdained, came and shewed to the the prince, if you die king, I will have the king all the whole affair, whereat be a whiles garland, and trust to keep it with the sword studying, after as a man all ravished with glad against all mine enemies, as you have done. ness, holding his eyes and hands up towards Then, said the king, I commit all to God, and heaven, abraided with a loud voice: 'O merciful remember you to do well ; and with that turned God, how much am I bound to your infinite himself in his bed, and shortly after departed to goodness, specially for that you have given me God, in a chamber of the Abbots of Westminster a judge who feareth not to minister justice, and called Jerusalem. We find, that he was taken also a son who can suffer semblably and obey with his last sickness, while he was making his justice.”
prayers at Saint Edward's shrine, there as it The circumstances which preceded the death | were to take his leave, and so to proceed forth of Henry IV., including the story of the prince on his journey: he was so suddenly and grieremoving the crown, are thus detailed by Holin. vously taken, that such as were about him shed:
feared lest he would have died presently; where"In this fourteenth and last year of King fore, to relieve him, if it were possible, they bare Henry's reign, a council was holden in the him into a chamber that was next at hand beWhite Friars in London, at the which, among longing to the Abbot of Westminster, where other things, order was taken for ships and they laid him on a pallet before the fire, and galleys to be builded and made ready, and all used all remedies to revive him: at length he other things necessary to be provided, for a recovered his speech and understanding, and voyage which he meant to make into the Holy perceiving himself in a strange place which he Land, there to recover the city of Jerusalem knew not, he willed to know if the chamber had from the infidels. The morrow after Candle any particular name, whereunto answer was mas-day, began a Parliament which he had called made, that it was called Jerusalem. Then said at London; but he departed this life before the the king, landes be given to the Father of same Parliament was ended: for now that his Heaven, for now I know that I shall die here provisions were ready, and that he was furnished in this chamber, according to the prophesy of with all things necessary for such a royal journey me declared, that I should depart this life in as he pretended to take into the Holy Land, he Jerusalem." was eftsoones taken with a sore sickness, which We close our Historical Illustrations with a was not a leprosy (saith Master Hall), as foolish passage from Holinshed, descriptive of the friars imagined, but a very apoplexy. During change of life in Henry V.:this, his last sickness, he caused his crown (as | “This king was the man that, according to some write) to be set on a pillow at his bed's the old proverb, declared and shewed in what head, and suddenly his pangs so sore troubled sort honours ought to change manners; for him, that he lay as though all his vital spirits immediately after that he was invested king, had been from him departed. Such as were and had received the crown, he determined about him, thinking verily that he had been with himself to put upon him the shape of a departed, covered his face with a linen cloth. new man, turning insolency and wildness into The prince his son being hereof advertised, gravity and soberness: and whereas he had entered into the chamber, took away the crown, I passed his youth in wanton pastime, and riotand departed. The father being suddenly revived ous misorder, with a sort of misgoverned mates, out of that trance, quickly perceived the lack of and unthrifty playseers, he now banished them his crown, and having knowledge that the prince from his presence (not unrewarded, nor yet his son bad taken it away, caused him to come | unpreferred), inhibiting them, upon a great pain, before his presence, requiring of him what he not once to approach, lodge, or sojourn, within meant so to misuse himself : the prince with a ten miles of his court or mansion: and in their good audacity answered, Sir, to mine, and all places he elected and chose men of gravity, wit, men's judgements, you seemed dead in this and high policy."