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Parthia pitched battles ; in consequence of which he lost all the horse to garrison the places he had reduced ; and put. P.
countries conquered by his father, and was reduced ting his army into winter quarters in Syria, gave
ed in person, and marched toward Armenia, in order The new king enjoyed his dignity but a very short to oppose the king of that country, who had raised a tim, being, a few days after his accession, killed in considerable army to assist the Romans. The other be another battle with the Scythians. He was succeeded sent into Mesopotamia, under the command of Surena
hy Pacorus I. who entered into an alliance with the or Surenas, a most experienced general, by whose conAlliance
Romans ; and he by Phrabates III. This monarch duct all the cities which Crassus had reduced were concluded took under his protection Tigranes the son of Ti- quickly retaken. On this some Roman soldiers who 9 ୨ with the
granes the Great, king of Armenia, gave him bis made their escape, and fled to the camp of Crassus, Homans.
dishea daughter in marriage, and invaded the kingdom with filled the mind of his army with terror at the accounts
ed, a design to place the son on the throne of Armenia ; of the number, power, and strength, of the enemy. but on the approach of Pompey he thought proper to They told their fellow soldiers, that the Parthians retire, and soon after solemnly renewed the treaty with were very numerous, brave, and well disciplined; that the Romans.
it was impossible to overtake them wben they fled, or Phrahates was murdered by his children Mithri- escape them when they pursued ; that their defensive dates and Orodes; and soon after the former was put to weapons were proof against the Roman darts, and their death by his brother, who thus became sole master of offensive weapons so sharp, that no buckler could rethe Parthian empire. In his reign happened the me- sist them, &c. Crassus looked upon all this only as
morable war with the Romans under Crassus. This the effect of cowardice: but the common soldiers, and 7 was occasioned not by any breach of treaty on the side even many of the chief officers, were so disheartened, Crassus rosolves on a
of the Parthians, but through the shameful avarice of that Cassius, the same who afterwards conspired against war with Crassus. The whole Roman empire at that time had Cæsar, and most of the legionary tribunes, advised Crasthe Par- been divided between Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus ; sus to suspend his march, and consider better of the enthians. and by virtue of that partition, the eastern provinces terprise before he proceeded farther in it. But Crassus
had fallen to the lot of Crassus. No sooner was he in- obstinately persisted in his former resolution, being envested with this dignity, than he resolved to carry the conraged by the arrival of Artabazus king of Armenia, war into Parthia, in order to enrich himself with the who brought with him 6000 horse, and promised to send spoils of that people, who were then looked upon to 10,000 cuirassiers and 30,-00 foot, whenever he should he very wealthy. Some of the tribunes opposed him, stand in need of them. At the same time, he advised as the Parthians bad religiously observed the treaty; him by no means to march his army through the plains but Crassus having, by the assistance of Pompey, car- of Mesopotamia, but to take his route over the mounried every thing before him, left Rome in the year 55 tains of Armenia. He told him, that as Armenia was B. C. and pursued his march to Brundusium, where he a mountainous country, the enemy's cavalry, in which. immediately embarked his troops, though the wind their main strength consisted, would there be entirely blew very high; and after a difficult passage, where useless; and besides, his army would there be plenti
he lost many of his ships, be reached the ports of Ga- fully supplied with all manner of necessaries : whereas, 8 latia.
if he marched by the way of Mesopotamia, he would Plunders From Galatia Crassus hastened to Syria, and passing be perpetually harassed by the Parthian horse, and frethe temple through Judea, plundered the temple at Jerusalem in his quently be obliged to lead his army through sandy den at Jerusa
way. He then marched with as great expedition as he serts, where he would be distressed for want of water
Parthia. cia; as by this method he would prevent the Parthians com mmanded in the centre, his son in the left wing, and Parthin
from surrounding him, at the same time he would be Cassius in the right.
plentifully supplied with provisions from his ships. Of In this order they advanced to the banks of a small Betrayed this advice Crassus seemed to approve ; but was dis- river called the Balissus, the sight of which was very rus king of suaded by Abgarus king of Edessa, whom the Romans pleasing to the soldiers, who were much harassed with Edessa, took for an ally, but who was in reality a traitor sent drought and excessive heat. Most of the officers were
by Surenas to bring about the destruction of the Roman for encamping on the banks of this river, or rather rivu-
let, to give the troops time to refresh themselves aster
would the signal, than the Parthians, rising as it were out of certainly perish with hunger and fatigue, and by all the ground, with dreadful cries, and a most frightful mcans to approach Armenia, that they
might join their noise, advanced against the Romans, who were greatiy
charged the enemy, endeavouring, with his pikemen, to
Parthia. them anew, they began to lose courage, and loudly to sooner joined, than the Parthians invested then anew, Part
complain of their general for suffering them thus to making a most dreadful havock of them with their ar-
They jly before us, pushed on full speed after them, not Young Crassus had two Greeks with him, who had
lowed by Censorius a senator, by Megabacchus an Extreme Some of the unhappy Romans finding their entrails experienced and brave officer, and by 'most of the nodistress of torn, and many overcome by the exquisite torments they bility who served under him. Five hundred comthe Ro
suffered, rolled themselves in the sand with the arrows in mon soldiers were taken prisoners, and the rest cut in their bodies, and expired in that manner.
Others en- pieces. deavouring to tear out by force the bearded points of the The Parthians, having thus cut off or taken the whole arrows, only made the wounds the larger, and increased detachment commanded by young Crassus, marched their pain. Most of them died in this manner; and without delay against his father, who, upon the first adthose who outlived their companions were no more in a vice that the enemy fled before his son, and were closely condition to act ; for when young Crassus exhorted pursued by him, had taken heart, the more because those them to march up to the enemy, some showed him their who had remained to make head against him seemed to wounded bodies, others their hands nailed to their abate much of their ardour, the greatest part of them havbucklers, and some their feet pierced through and pin- ing marched with the rest against his son. Wherefore, ned to the ground; so that it was equally impossible for having encouraged his troops, he had retired to a small bill them either to attack the enemy or defend themselves. in his rear, to wait there till bis son returned from the The young commander, therefore, leaving his infantry pursuit. Young Crassus had despatched frequent exto the mercy of the enemy, advanced at the bead of the presses to his father, to acquaint him with the danger he cavalry against their heavy-armed horse. The thousand was in ; but they had fallen into the enemy's hands, and Gauls whom he had brought with him from the west, been by them put to the sword : only the last, who had charged the enemy with incredible boldness and vigour; escaped with great difficulty, arrived safe, and informbut their lances did little execution on men armed with ed him that bis son was lost if he did not send him an cuirasses, and horses covered with tried armour : how- immediate and powerful reinforcement. This news ever, they behaved with great resolution ; for some of threw Crassus into the utmost consternation ; a thousand them taking bold of the enemy's spears, and closing affecting thoughts rose in his mind, and disturbed his with them, thre'y them off their horses on the ground, reason to such a degree, that he scarce knew what be where they lay without being able to stir, by reason of was doing. However, the desire he had of saving his the great weight of their armour; others, dismounting, son, and so many brave Romans who were under his crept under the enemy's horses, and thrusting their command, made him immediately decamp, and march swords into their bellies, made them throw their riders. to their assistance ; but he was not gone far before he Thus the brave Gauls fought, though greatly barassed was met by the Parthians, who, with loud shouts, and with heat and thirst, which they were not accustomed songs of victory, gave, at a distance, the unhappy father to bear, till most of their horses were killed, and their notice of his misfortune. They had cut off young Crascommander dangerously wounded. They then thought sus's head, and, having fixed it on the point of a lance, it adviseable to retire to their infantry, which they no were advancing full speed to fall on the fatber. As they
Parthia. drew near, Crassus was struck with that dismal and af- wisely conjecturing, from the manner in which the Parthia.
- fecting sight; but on this occasion, behaved like a hero: unknown person had given him the intelligence, that
for though he was under the deepest concern, he had some misfortune bad befallen Crassus, immediately or-
15 seeking from their spears a more quick and easy kind of In the mean time. Surenas, not knowing whether Surenas death. Thus the Parthians continued plying them in- Crassus and Cassius had retired to Carrbæ, or chosen a pretends cessantly with their arrows till night, when they left different route ; in order to be informed of the truth, ivith Cras the field of battle, crying out, that they would allow and take his measures accordingly, despatched a messen-sus.
the father one night to lament the death of his son. ger, who spoke the Roman language, to the city of CarDistress uf This was a melancholy night for the Romans. Cras- rbæ, enjoining bim to approach the walls, and acquaint Crassus.
sus kept himself concealed from the soldiery, lying not Crassus bimself, or Cassius, that the Parthian general was
a man whom he scarce knew. Andromachus immedionly 300 light horse, under the command of one ately acquainted Surenas witb the design of the Romans; Ægnatius, who pursued their march without stopping.. promising at the same time, as the Parthians did not These arriving at Carrhæ about midnight, wynatius, engage in the night, to manage matters so, that they calling to the centinels on the walls, desired them to should not get out of his reach before daybreak. Pure acquaint Coponius, the governor of the place, that suant to his promise, he led them through many windCrassus had fought a great battle with the Parthians; ings and turnings, till he brougbt them into deep: and, without saying a word more, or letting him know marshy grounds where the infantry were up to the who he was, continued his march with all possible expe- knees in mire. Then Cassius, suspecting that their dition to the bridge of Zeugma; which he passed, and guide had led them into those bogs with no good deby that means saved his troops, but was much blamed sign, refused to follow him any longer; and returning for thus abandoning his general.
to Carrhæ, took his route towards Syria, which he The message which he sent to Coponius was of some reached with soo horse. Octavius, with 5000 men temporary service to Crassus. For that commander, under his command, being conducted by trusty guides,
Parthia. gained the mountains called by Plutarch and Appian when be least expected it. The Parthian general, per- Parti
Sinnaci, and there intrenched himself before break of ceiving, as he approached Crassus, that he was on foot,
cried out, in a seeming surprise, “ What do I see? a
my bands (said hie), which I give you in the name into a hollow square; and placing Crassus in the mid- of my master King Orodes.” He had scarce uttered dle, made a kind of rampart round him with their buck. these words, wben some of the king's officers, taking lers, resolutely protesting, that none of the enemy's ar. Crassus by the middle, set him upon the horse, which rows should touch their general's body, till they were they began to whip with great violence before them in all killed fighting in his defence. Surenas, loth to let order to make him gnicken his pace. Octavius, ofso fine a prey escape, surrounded the hill, as if he de- fended at this insult, took the horse by the bridle ; Pesigned to make a new attack : but, finding his Partbi- tronius and the few Romans who were present, secondans very backward, and not doubting but the Romans, ed him, and flocking all round Crassus, stopped his when night came on, would pursue their march, and get horse. The Parthians endeavoured to re pulse them, and out of his reach, he had recourse again to artifice; and clear the way for the proconsul ; whereupon they began declared before some prisoners, whom he soon after set to justle and push one another with great tumult and at liberty, that he was inclined to treat with the pro- disorder. At last, Octavius, drawing his sword, killed consul of a peace ; and that it was better to come to a one of the king's grooms; but, at the same time, another reconciliation with Rome, than to sow the seeds of an coming behind Octavius, with one blow laid him dead eternal war, by shedding the blood of one of her generals. at his feet. Both parties fought with great resolution,
Agreeable to this declaration, Surenas, as soon as the the Parthians striving to carry off Crassus, and the Roprisoners were released, advanced towards the hill where mans to rescue him out of their hands. In this scuffle the Romans were posted, attended only by some of his most of the Romans who came to the conference were
16 officers, and, with bis bow unbent, and open arms, in- killed ; and amongst the rest Crassus bimself; but whe
killed. vited Crassus to an interview. So sudden a change ther by a Roman or a Parthian is uncertain. seemed very suspicious to the proconsul ; who therefore Upon his death, the rest of the army either surrender. declined the interview, till he was forced, by his own ed to the enemy, or dispersing in the night, were pursoldiers, to intrust his life with an enemy whose treach- sued, and put to the sword. The Romans lost in this ery they had all experienced ; for the legionaries flock- campaign at least 30,000 men; of which 20,000 were ing round him, not only abused him in an outrageous killed, and 10,000 taken prisoners. manner, but even menaced bim if he did not accept of tbe When the battle of Carrhæ was fought, King Orodes proposals made bim by the Parthian general. Seeing, was in Armenia, where he had made peace with Artatherefore, that bis troops were ready to mutiny, he be- bazus. While the two kings were solemnizing their gan to advance, without arms or guards, towards the new alliance with expensive and public feasts, Styllaces enemy, after baving called the gods and his officers to or Syllaces, a Parthian officer, whom Surenas bad sent witness the violence his troops offered him; and intreat- with the news of his late victory, and the head of Crased all wbo were present, but especially Octavius and sus as a proof it, arrived in the capital of Armenia. Petronius, two of the chief commanders, for the honour The transports of joy which Orodes felt at this sight, of Rome their common mother, not to mention, after and these news, are not to be expressed; and the lords his death, the shameful bebaviour of the Roman legion- of both kingdoms, who attended their sovereigns, raised aries. Octavius and Petronius could not resolve to let loud and repeated shouts of joy. Syllaces was ordered him go
alone ; but attended him down the hill, as did to give a more particular and distinct account of that likewise some legionaries, keeping at a distance. Cras- memorable action ; which when he had done, Orodes sus was met at the foot of the bill by two Greeks who, commanded melted gold to be poured into Crassus's dismounting from their horses, saluted him with great mouth; reproaching him thereby with avarice, which respect; and desired bim in the Greek tongue, to send bad been always his predominant passion.
17 some of his attendants, who might satisfy him that Sure- Surenas did not long enjoy the pleasure of his victory; Sarenas pol nas, and those wbo were with him, came without arms. for Orodes, jealous of bis power and authority among to death by Hereupon Crassus sent two brothers, of the Roscian the Parthians, soon after caused bim to be put to death. Orodes. family; but Surenas having caused them to be seized, Pacorus, the king's favourite son was put at the head advanced to the foot of the bill, mounted on a fine horse, of the army; and, agreeably to his father's directions, and attended by the chief officers of his army. Crassus, invaded Syria : but he was driven out from thence with who waited for the return of bis two messengers, was great loss by Cicero and Cassius, the only general who surprised to see himself prevented by Surenas in person, survived the defeat of Crassus. After this we find no 5