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cation.” Much has been recently said on this he replied that the children were abrupt and subject in England, of which we may take some rash in their tempers,'that he generally reasoned notice again. But in proof of the need of a with them respecting their indiscretion, but very general investigation of this whole subject, that when civility failed he had recourse to a I will give you an extract from a Report of the little severity. Rev. Baptist Noel, of whom you have heard “There was no classification of the children ; much, and whom I heard for some minutes in and the few books in the school were such as his own church in London. These are spirited some of the parents choose to send.' sketches
“No doubt school-rooms like these might “The Rev. Baptist Noel, in his Report of be found in Manchester; but it cannot be the State of Education in Lancashire, leaves a supposed that such sketches will apply to the very unfavorable impression on the mind, in generality of even those frequented by the thus describing a Dame School he visited, poorest part of the population." frequented by children of the poor :-'I found thirty-one children, from two to seven years of
I have been thus diffuse in my notes age. The room was a cellar about ten feet on the metropolis of manufactures besquare, and about seven feet high. The only cause we Americans are likely to be window was less than eighteen inches square, the second, if not the first, manufacturand not made to open. Although it was a warm day. towards the close of August, there ing people on the globe. I am glad was a fire burning: and the door through which to say that all that I have visited any alone any air could be admitted, was shut. of where in the United States, especially course, therefore, the room was close and hot; in New England, stand in most favorbut there was no remedy. The damp subterraneous walls required, as the old woman assured able contrast with those of which we us, a fire throughout the year. If she opened have been speaking, so far as the the door, the children would rush out to light general appearance of all necessary and liberty, while the cold blast rushing in comforts on the part of the operatives would torment her aged bones with rheumatism. is concerned. But when the AmeriStiil further to restrain their vagrant propensities, and to save them the danger of tumbling can people learn that the cotton into the fire, she had crammed the children as growers of the United States received closely as possible into a dark corner at the foot from Great Britain for their cotton of her bed. Here they sat in pestiferous
of 1846 only thirty-five millions obscurity, totally destitute of books, and with. out light enough to enable them to read, had of dollars—that is, for the growth, books been placed in their hands.'
picking, bagging, conveying to market, “This same gentleman gives another graphic and selling expences of her crop, sketch : -Not far from this infant asylum I while Great Brittain received an acentered a common school. It was a room on cumulated value on the same crop the ground floor
, up a dark and narrow entry; for labor performed upon it, amountand about twelve feet square. Here forty-three boys and girls were assembled, of all ages, ing to the sum of sixty-nine millions from five to fourteen. Patches of paper were of dollars, in the ratio of two to onepasted over the broken panes of the one small that is, Britain makes two dollars for window, before which also sat the master, intercepting the few rays of light which would manufacturing our cotton for every otherwise have crept into the gloom. Although one we make by growing it :- I say, it was in August, the window was closed, and when we learn that fact as a nation, a fire added to the animal heat, which radiated we will certainly become a still more from every part of the crowded chamber. In manufacturing people. the front of the fire, as near to it as a joint on
If so, then, the spit, a row of children sat with their faces from the data here presented, and it towards the master and their backs to the is but a drop of a bucket full at our furnace. By this living screen the master, command, it is expedient that we though still perspiring copiously, was some profit from her experience, and what sheltered from the intolerable heat. another measure of relief, amidst the oppressisn timously provide for the education, of the steaming atmosphere, he had also laid intellectual and moral, the general aside his coat. In this undress he was the comfort and ample remuneration of better able to wield the three canes, two of our operatives, that we may not, in which, like the weapons of an old soldier, hung creating a thousand “cotton Lords,” conspicuously on the wall, while the third was on the table ready for service. When questioned create also a million of paupers. I as to the necessity of this triple instrumentality, 'cannot think that these details can be so interesting to you as they may selves. Christ being the Lord of the be important to many of my readers; Universe, since God has transferred but we must all occasionally, at some to him the power and rule He himself expense to ourselves, yield a little to exercised, Christ, then, has the right the insturction and comfort of others. of dictating to mankind, his rebellious
Since our visit to Manchester, con- subjects, the conditions on which he cerning which I gave some informa- will give them pardon, and the right tion before, I was glad to learn, at of entrance into his kingdom. As a the general meeting at Chester, before monarch cannot hold personal comleaving England, that a union was munication with rebellious subjects, formed between our brethren there without derogating from the dignity of and a Baptist church on the other his character and office, he therefore side of the river. I know of no field sends to them one or more of his serof laborin Great Britain more promis- vants, to act as ambassadors or repreing of an abundant harvest, under a sentatives, to state the conditions on judicious evangelical culture, than the which he will pardon those rebels, town of Manchester and its immense and recognize them as loyal subjects. environs.
Christ has done the same. Man, Your affectionate father, therefore, cannot deny to his King A. CAMPBELL. and Saviour, a custom which he him
self practises. Every monarch gives
his ambassadors credentials or proofs, THE QUESTIONS OF THE whereby the rebels may know that PRESENT AGE,
these persons are indeed appointed to CONSIDERED IN THEIR RELATION TO
the office they represent. Christ has done the same ; and again man is compelled to acquiesce, since he prac
tices that custom himself. The Scrip(Continued from puge 509.)
tures declare that Christ ascended to the throne prepared for him by God,
and that he left ambassadors on the I. All mankind, by the strict tenor earth to proclaim the conditions of of the Divine law, were condemned pardon, and reorganize the social and as rebels against God. Christ, by legislative system in his kingdom. the voluntary offering of his own And now, remember, it is not we blood, provided the means by which who speak, but the Word of God : the law, and the character of God, 1. “ Wherefore, he saith, when he might be magnified, and yet the ascended up on high, he led captivity punishment withheld. As the reward captive, and gave gifts unto men ; for the immense sacrifice he made in and he gave some apostles, and some enduring the cross, and despising the prophets, and some evangelists, and shame—in giving the blood of him- some pastors and teachers,” (Eph. iv. self, a guiltless being, as an atone- 8-11. ment for us who are guilty, God has 2. “ For there is one God, and one given him all authority in heaven and Mediator between God and man, the on earth.
He is now the Lord of the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself Universe, and having given us life, a ransom for all, to be testified in due has, and exercises the right of giving time, whereunto I am ordained a
All parents claim the right preacher and an apostle, (I speak the of giving law to the beings to whom truth in Christ, I lie not) a teacher of they have given life : they cannot, the Gentiles in faith and verity,” (1 therefore, deny to Christ the right Tim. ii. 5-7.) which they justly claim for them- 3. “ Now, then, we are ambassa
NO. III.- -THE STATE CHURCH.
THE GOVERNMENT AND INSTRUCTION
OF THE CHURCH.
dors for Christ ; as though God did 6. “ And God wrought special mibeseech you by us, we pray you, in racles by the hands of Paul,” (Acts Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to xix. 11.) God,” (2 Corin. v. 20.)
7. “ Í am become a fool in glory4. “ For which (i. e. to make ing ; ye have compelled me, for I known the mystery of the gospel) I ought to have been commended of am an ambassador in bonds, that you, for in nothing am I behind the therein I may speak boldly as I ought very chiefest of the apostles ; though to speak, (Eph. vi. 25.)
I be nothing, truly the signs of an These quotations from the Word of apostle were wrought among you, in God declare: firstly, that the apostles all patience, in signs, and wonders, held the highest rank in the kingdom and mighty deeds,” (2 Cor. xii. 12.) of Christ ; and secondly, that the 8. “ God also bearing them witapostles were the ambassadors of ness, both by signs and wonders, and Christ, to beseech the world in Christ's with divers miracles, (or proofs) and stead. Now will any one contradict gifts of the Holy Spirit, according to Paul, and say that he did not under his own will,” (
..) stand the rank and condition of his The Word of God, says, then, that own office ? But the mere assertion the apostles were in possession of of the ambassadorship is not suffi- proofs, or credentials : whereby it was cient; we shall ask him for his cre- demonstrated that they were the amdentials, whereby we may know that bassadors of the King of Heaven. he is indeed the ambassador of the The Word of God declares expressly, King of Heaven ; and if he show that the Heavenly King confirmed them to us, we must believe his asser- their words (or proclamation) by signs tion. Hear the Scriptures again :- following. Now every king invests
1. “ And they went forth, and bis ambassadors with his own power, preached everywhere, the Lord work- and the King of the Universe has ining with them, and confirming the vested his ambassadors with his own word by signs following,” (Mark xvi. power likewise. He gave them the 20.)
power of taking away life, as in the 2. “ And fear came upon every case of Ananias and Sapphira ; also, soul, and many wonders and signs the power of giving life, as in the inwere done by the apostles,” (Acts ii. stances of Dorcas and Eutychus : and 23.)
a greater proof than these they were 3. “ And with great power gave even endowed with, the power of the apostles witness of the resurrec- creation ! — for Peter gave perfect tion of the Lord Jesus, and great strength and organization to a cripple grace was upon them all,” (Acts iv. who had been “ lame from his mo33.)
ther's womb,” “who never had walkAnd by the hands of the apos- ed.” Now an organic defect like this tles were many signs and wonders could not be remedied without exerwrought among the people ; and they cising a creative power. The Great were all of one accord in Solomon's King, then, had deputed his power to porch, and of the rest durst no man his ambassadors as credentials, and join himself to them, but the people the voice of nature spoke when the magnified them,” (Acts v. 12.) people said, “ The Gods are come
5. “ Long time therefore abode down to us in the likeness of men.” they, speaking boldly in the Lord, Will you contradict the Scriptures, who gave testimony to the word of and say that the apostles were not his grace, and granted signs and won the accredited ambassadors of God ? ders to be done by their hand,” (Acts But the apostles, like all ambassadors, xiv. 3.)
must have— nay, they had—a mis
sion, and what was it ? Christ him- | apostles, must exhibit the same divine self shall tell you. Listen to the credentials. Where is the man who, words he addresses to his apostles, or in the presence of “God, angels, and ambassadors :-“ All power is given men,” dare say, “ I am a successor of to me, in heaven and on earth : go the apostles, and I, as an ambassador ye, therefore, and teach all nations, of God, am invested by his
with baptizing them in the name of the his own power ?" No man dare say Father, and of the Son, and of the it. Then what becomes of the docHoly Spirit, teaching them to observe trine of apostolic succession ? It is all things whatsoever I have com- gone for ever, only to be remembered manded you,” (Mat. xxviii. 18-19.) as the offspring of the spiritual pride,
Christ, then, says that the apostles the ambition, or the folly of man. were commanded to teach all nations Can Acts of Parliament give to a the things he had commanded them man the powers of the Divinity ? to teach. When, therefore, the apos- You say, no ; then the State can do tles had taught all nations - when nothing here, and both God and man they, as ambassadors of God, had can dispense with its assistance. proclaimed the conditions of pardon II.--Every nation has its own conto every human being — then their stitution - every constitution its own mission was fulfilled. Who will con- peculiar principle ; and every nation trovert it ?
has modelled its constitution so as to Let us hear the Word of God, as to harmonize with its own spirit. A whether the apostles did fulfil their democratic republic, such as Athens mission, or whether they did not. or the United States of America, is
1. “So, then, faith comes by hear- the constitution adapted for swift ing, and hearing by the Word of God; progress, and excessive national agbut I say, have they not heard ? Yes, grandizement—a fitful and occasionverily, their sound went unto all the ally frantic energy; and finally, a earth, and their words to the end of still swifter downfall and destruction. the world,” (Rom. x. 16-17.)
A regal oligarchy, such as Sparta and 2. “ For the hope which is laid up Rome under its kings, is adapted for for you in heaven, whereof ye heard durability and iron strength, but is before, in the word of the truth of the opposed to progress. An aristocratic gospel, which is come to you, as it is republic, such as Venice, Rome under to all the world,” (Col. i. 6.)
its Consuls, or such as Washington 3. ye continue in the faith, and Alexander Hamilton wished the grounded and settled, and be not United States to be—such a republic moved away from the hope of the as this is the institution which comgospel which ye have heard, and bines strength and energy with a cawhich was preached to every creature reer of progress. A limited monarchy, under heaven,” (Col. i. 23.)
such as England, where the three So, then, the Scriptures declare principles of despotism, aristocracy that the apostles accomplished their and democracy, work uniformly tomission that the ambassadors of gether, each having the least possible Christ, in possession of full creden- amount of power, with the greatest tials, have proclaimed the conditions number of checks against the undue of pardon to every rebellious being exercise of that power—such an instiunder heaven ; and when the apostles tution as this combines every advandied, the office died with them. The tage which any purely human governScriptures declare that the signs of ment can possess : the aristocratic apostleship were “signs, and wonders, and democratic principles, united toand mighty deeds ;” and any one gether, give a sustained energy
which claiming to be a successor of the rises with the need, to an unlimited
extent ; they are, at the same time, ings for the attainment of Christian concentrated by the despotic principle objects, I think it right to present a which likewise works with them. few crude thoughts upon this matter, But the principle which is the most for the consideration of the brethren. perilous of all to the happiness of I am well aware of the many prejuman, possesses the greatest amount dices which will naturally rise in anof concentrated energy. This quality, tagonism to that resolution ; but I in despotism, was one which the Ro- know as well, that the better feelings mans, those masters in state policy, of brethren, who have professed to well understood ; for, in all times of reject the traditions of the fathers internal or external commotion, they and the commandments of men, will invariably elected a dictator or despot, be enlisted in the candid examination with absolute authority over life, of a measnre, which is, by many, property, and civil right.
esteemed to be of great importance to Such have been the various political the “ edification of the body in love." developments of the human mind— I know well that it is difficult to disvaried in every nation according to enthral ourselves from the bands climate, temperament, and education. which sectarianism and priesteraft Christianity being from God, and have woven around our feelings ; but adapted to human nature by its Crea- I am sure that my brethren will stand tor, combines all the principles which forth in all “ the freedom with which man has found useful to himself; and Christ has made us free,” and assert therefore systematically organized, the independence of our judgment to without any of the corresponding be paramount to the bondage of our evils, it is, and must be, adapted to feelings. 'Tis this alone that encouthe happiness of man, and contains rages me to elucidate and support the not only the means by which man position I have assumed ; and while might stand in his proper relation to on the one hand I combat the muchthe Creator, but also a system of ec- loved tenets of Independent-Congreclesiastical polity.
gationalism, it will be seen, on the Now we shall show that Christi- other hand, that I am no abettor of anity not only contains the three that other extreme which forms the principles of despotism, aristocracy, stamina of Presbyterianism, Wesleyand democracy, in perfect equilibrium, an Methodism, and the like. but also that a state church destroys In the following remarks I would the equilibrium of those principles, direct attention to the proper meaning and gives all its influence to pure des- of the word translated “ church.' potism, which the experience of man- Compare this meaning with that comkind has proved to be the most terri- monly attached to it in the present ble punishment which can be applied day, and then conclude by showing to the social crimes of mankind, and the practicability of the scheme prois, therefore, a still greater scourge in pounded at Glasgow, and the benefits the church of God.
which might be legitimately expected Nottingham.
J. G. L. to result from its adoption. In the (To be continued.)
meantime, I do not think it necessary
to advert to the plural meaning of the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF
word referred to, as I conceive it to THE CHURCH.
be analagous to many others which
might be pointed to as presenting a Having at the late Glasgow Co- meaning differing considerably in the operative Meeting, proposed a resolu- plural, from its signification in the tion in favor of the disciples arranging singular number. among themselves districts and meet- A church, according to popular no