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and the ballet-master forthwith goes to him, and says, "Write down thirty, and let the music for my ballet be so much the better." The day before the performance the composer presents his demand; being half as much again as the manager prescribed, he demurs; "Very well," says the composer, "then my music shall not be played to-morrow night." But no other music can be got in time, and, par conséquence-the conclusion is obvious.

Thus it is, that from the prima donna to the guardian of the lamps, every body has views to answer, and a reputation to support or extend, at the expense of the unfortunate individual who is blamed for every failure, but not credited for any success.


I was dining one day with Taylor, when the subject of capital punishments was started; during the discussion of which Taylor remained in a reverie. A gentleman at table strongly advocated the abolition of capital punishments in all cases.

"What would you inflict, then, on a criminal of the worst kind?" asked another.

"By," said Taylor, starting up, "make him manager of the Opera House."-pp. 116-120.

Taylor said something worse, but we cannot quote it. Nevertheless, such was the fascination which his new pursuit possessed for Mr. Ebers, that he resolved to continue in it, although his rent was raised to ten thousand pounds, and he had lost the benefit of Mr. Ayrton's services.

Paul and Mercandotti were the principal new stars of the ballet in 1822; in the opera, Caradori appeared, who is still a great favourite, and Zuchelli, who left us too soon. The most delightful opera of the season was Pietro l' Eremita, which still supplies our drawing rooms with pieces of exquisite music, that never tire on repetition. The loss on the season amounted to upwards of five thousand pounds. The loss on the succeeding season (1823), was still larger, upwards of nine thousand pounds; yet such was the general impression in favour of the state of the property, that Mr. Ebers had several applicants who wished to take it off his hands. Among these were Mr. Benelli, who ultimately obtained the transfer of Mr. Ebers' interest in it for the sum of ten thousand pounds. This arrangement which, at first, promised to afford some compensation to our author for his losses, only led him into new embarrassments. Into the history of these it is not our province to enter. Suffice it to observe, that at the termination of 1824, the situation of Mr. Ebers was a great deal worse than ever. The season had been a disastrous one; notwithstanding that Benelli's experience, as a theatrical agent, had enabled him to engage a brilliant list of performers :-Čatalani, Pasta, Madame de Begnis, and Caradori; however, all failed, from some cause or another, to attract full houses, and Benelli decamped.

Mr. Ebers, however, still persevered under circumstances of difficulty that would have appalled any other man. The season of 1825 was rendered particularly disadvantageous, the opera having

been removed for a while to the little theatre in the Haymarket, in consequence of the King's Theatre having been surveyed and reported insecure. The necessary repairs were, however, rapidly made, and the Opera was restored to its own stage in April, under the direction once more of Mr. Ayrton. But though every exertion appears to have been made to attract the public, the conclusion of the season exhibited a loss of more than six thousand pounds. The loss of the season 1826, was upwards of seven thousand five hundred pounds; that of 1827, was under three thousand, although in point of novelty and talent, with the exception of Pasta alone, little was done with the view of exalting the merits of the performance. That distinguished woman is, indeed, a host in herself, and when we remember the dense houses which she usually draws, we are surprised on looking at the accounts to see the balance so constantly against the manager. Well might Mr. Ebers exclaim, on concluding his narrative of misfortune

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ART. VI.-1. Memoires du Duc de Rovigo, Ministre de la Police sous Napoleon. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris: Bossange. 1828.

2. Memoirs of the Duke of Rovigo (M. Savary,) written by himself, illustrative of the History of the Emperor Napoleon. Vols. 2 and 3. London: Colburn. 1828.

THE first volume of the Duke of Rovigo's Memoirs was noticed in our number for July. The most interesting portion of its contents were the defences set up for Napoleon by M. Savary, against the accusations which have strongly affected his character in every country in Europe. The affairs of the Duc D'Enghien, of Captain Wright, and of the massacre of the three thousand prisoners, are those from which by far the greater proportion of the public in



England have taken their general impression of Napoleon's character. Was the spirit of the nation to be roused, or new aid to be sought, against the increasing terror of his crimes? As a matter of course, every ministerial paper became eloquent on one of the subjects above mentioned. In the succession of triumphs which preceded his fall, they were always alluded to, to give the last black dye to the tyrant's character; and when his final overthrow and peace were proclaimed, there was not a transparency so frequent or so devoutly gazed at by the shouting multitude, as that representing some interview of Napoleon with the ghosts of the murdered D'Enghien and Captain Wright. There is, therefore, not a passage in M. Savary's work, which will be more likely to give the translation of it a value in the eyes of the English public, than the portion in question. The author is, throughout, a panegyrist, almost renewing the ancient apotheosis in favour of his master, praising him to extravagance whenever his actions admitted of approbation, and, whenever they were doubtful, labouring, till either by finesse or argument, he convince, or think he has convinced, the reader of their propriety. Such is especially the case in all those miserable affairs which have so strongly associated some of Napoleon's actions with the ideas of murdersecret, private murder, and cold-blooded barbarity. There is no doubt that, in respect of each of the instances most strongly dwelt upon, the arguments of M. Savary have all more or less weight, and that a degree of doubt must always remain, which will leave the question debateable for the unlimited admirers of Napoleon's name and genius. If M. Savary's book had come out a century or two after the period it refers to, it would have been an excellent companion to the celebrated apology for the character of our own Richard the Third, by Horace Walpole.

The account of battles, or of the most brilliant campaign, when it has been once read in a tolerably faithful recital, has little afterinterest. It is like the description of a geographer, the principal merit it can possess is accuracy. The former part of M. Savary's work, therefore, with the exception of the passage we have mentioned, has little real interest. It is the soldier's story of battles ten times fought; and had the author held no other situation than that of a general in Buonaparte's army, his book would have been equally wanting in interest and usefulness. The conflict seen by half a million of men can never fail of historians, and the determinations of a council of war apply very faintly to the real history of nations. But the Duke of Rovigo, in his civil capacity, had an opportunity of making observations on points of the Imperial government which were hidden to other eyes, and any thing like the fair detail of which must be highly curious, and in many respects important. As a great part of the second volume of these Memoirs is occupied with the military part of the narrative, we shall pass very rapidly over it, paying our attention principally to

the more interesting accounts which the author has given, as minister of police.

The second volume commences with an account of the conduct of Napoleon, on the threatening appearance of Austria, notwithstanding the previous success of his arms and her professed neutrality, Taught as much by the naturally suspicious character of his mind, as by the experience he had had of such situations, he increased the number of his forces, disposed them in a manner the most likely to make them effective in case of an irruption, and took such measures with regard to Prussia, as might secure her co-operation in case of necessity. By these vigorous measures, he was prepared for the war being continued, and pushed to extremity. Soon after this, Napoleon hastened to Poland, and attacked the Russian army near Pultusk, and then formed his head quarters at Warsaw, where he sat down Jan. 1st, 1807. The winter passed at Warsaw is celebrated by M. Savary as one of almost Parisian festivity, and is distinguished by one of Napoleon's affairs of the heart, which is singularly contrasted with the severe attention which he at that time paid to business. Not only was the festivity of the winter quarter thus mixed with toil, but it met with a severer attack on the part of the Russians, who made an attempt on the French army about the end of January, on which occasion our author was appointed to the situation of General in chief, and the command of the 5th corps, in place of Marshal Lannes, While the war was being actively carried on, Talleyrand and the other ministers were at Warsaw, zealously labouring in the service of the Emperor, whose loss of the battle of Eylau had occasioned at Paris the greatest agitation. Successes, however, soon followed, which effectually removed these impressions: but we must hasten over these details, stopping for a moment only to allude to the praises which M. Savary has bestowed upon Napoleon's management of his wounded soldiers. So excellent was the system that he introduced into the hospitals, that the author, while governor of Konigsberg, states himself to have received sometimes seven thousand recovered invalids in a day, and in the course of a month no less than fifty thousand. The extract which he has taken from the report addressed by the intendant general to the Emperor, is well worthy of attention, and affords another proof of the abilities of that extraordinary man.

The Duke of Rovigo's account of his master's return to Paris, after the peace of Tilsit, is given with great liveliness. Napoleon reached St. Cloud two days before he was expected. Every thing, says the author, was prosperous; every thing improving. The feeling of the public was in harmony with the happy condition of the state. More than a fortnight was taken up with the receiving of congratulatory addresses, and the theatres were employed to repeat the flatteries which had been more formally heaped upon the conqueror. This is an amusing part of M. Savary's narrative,

as he introduces in it a mention of Fouché, the then minister of police, whose errors he seems to have much pleasure in describing.

During the Emperor's absence with the family, Fouché had shown himself, in two or three instances, negligent of the duties of his office. On his master's return, he dreaded the effects of his conduct, and, how wisely we cannot say, thought of saving himself from disgrace by the vulgar expedient of dramatic flattery. He accordingly had an opera got up in a most magnificent style, in which Napoleon was compared to Trajan, but the adulation was too gross for the good sense of the Emperor to sustain it, and it produced no effect but disgust.

About this time, M. Savary was sent to mediate a peace with Russia. His situation on his arrival was curious enough. The most violent hatred of the French every where prevailed; prayers were offered against them in the churches, and Savary himself attended service, in which he heard his countrymen denounced as the most detestable of enemies. It may easily be supposed that the press was not suffered to rest during such a season, and what the literary spirit of Russia could not supply in sufficient abundance, was plentifully furnished by that of England. Our author speaks very amusingly of these things; and whether it be from the true independence of a philosophic mind, from conscious integrity, or from indifference, it is well worth while hearing what any man will say under the circumstances in which he was placed. The following passage will also give some idea of the author's mental calibre:

'As a relief from the dullness with which, during my stay at St. Petersburgh, I was frequently oppressed, I one day visited à bookseller's shop. While I was searching for something which I did not find, I happened to cast my eye on several pamphlets, printed in England, against the French, and particularly against the Emperor. I purchased the whole collection, and returned home with my carriage completely filled. I read them all from beginning to end. They presented a tissue of falsehoods, the meaning and application of which I often could with difficulty guess, though I knew all the individuals alluded to. The task of perusing this trash, therefore, did not call for any great exercise of philosophy.


Yet, from these contemptible productions, public opinion, on the subject of the French revolution, had been formed both in England and Russia, and our police minister had done nothing to refute falsehoods so extensively circulated. In one of these publications, I found a biographical sketch of myself, accompanied by my portrait, physical and moral. Neither the one nor the other was a flattering likeness. It was stated that I was the son of a porter to a hotel; that, having committed some crime, I enlisted to escape the punishment of the law; and that I had a certain shrewdness, which I turned to some account during the disorders and sanguinary scenes of the revolution. A certificate of my birth would have been a sufficient refutation of these assertions, which, however false as they were, obtained general credit.

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