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in all haste, to pull down the two sails; the smaller was fortunately taken down, but the tackle of the two larger being entangled, it was only half down, when the storm burst over us. We observed near us a buoy, pointing out a dangerous rock, which we ought to avoid, on our left, but the storm drove us with our half sail directly towards it. Six men could scarcely guide the helm. The sail was half in the water-we saw the moment of our destruction at hand. There was no order in the vessel,' the sailors knew better than the master, and every thing was in dreadful confusion. I thought it best to be silent- to resign myself to Providence, which watches over me and my fate. At last a sailor climbed the mast,' and cut the rope, so that the sail could be taken down; and we fortunately passed the dangerous point.'-vol. i. p. 146.

Sir Francis Burton, Lord Dalhousie's locum tenens, received the Duke on his arrival at Quebec, with the distinction due to his rank. Sir Francis was very popular; but Lord Dalhousie, says our traveller, had, in the general opinion, alienated the affections of the people from himself and the government, and thereby increased the influence of the opposition in the Canadian House of Assembly.

We had met Bishop Plessis (the Catholic Bishop of Quebec) at Sir Francis Burton's, and noticed him as a polished and cultivated man.: He is the son of a butcher of Montreal, and has risen solely by his own merits. Some years ago he made a journey through England, France,: and Italy, and was appointed by the Pope, Archbishop of Canada. The English government, however, refused to confirm the title; because, as Archbishop, he would have taken precedence of the Anglican Bishop in the Canadian Parliament. The Catholic clergy are held in high esteemwhich they deserve, from their talents (bildung) and the services which they have performed. The English government confirmed all the prerogatives and emoluments which they possessed before the conquest of the colony, and thus secured their co-operation.'-vol. i. p. 156.

At Saratoga, celebrated for its waters, the whole fashionable world collect; for they are as strongly infected with the mania of journeying in the summer to watering places, as in other countries. High Rock Spring may be considered the parallel to the celebrated Grotto del Čane, for if an animal be placed over it, it expires in half a minute.


Provided with a letter of introduction from the Governor, our traveller visited the Platonic sect of the Shakers, of whom he gives an interesting account. The greatest cleanliness, unequalled,' says the Duke, 'in any establishment that I have seen, except the Hospital at Boston, prevails throughout.' The colony at present consists of about 600 members, who are divided into families of 100 each. If a family wishes to enter the sect, the husband and› wife must adopt the peculiar doctrines of the Shakers, and the children be educated according to their principles. They also receive orphan children, although scandal sometimes ventures to point out the parents. The Duke adds, rather naifly of course, if the principles of these people were to become general, which.

heaven forbid the world would soon become unpeopled. It might however be advantageous in overpeopled countries, to introduce missionaries of the sect, and favour proselytism.'

Every family has its shop, in which it exposes for sale articles made by its members. They are very successful in their treatment of cattle, and make good butter and cheese. Their swine in particular are excellent; and it is quite a pleasure to go into a Shaker's pigstye. They have likewise a garden, in which they excel in the culture of plants and roots used in medicine. In their place of worship, each member has a space of four foot square allotted for his or her saltatory exercises, which are performed with great zeal.

The Duke visited the military schools at Westpoint, and gives in detail the course of studies there adopted, but we have no room to extract it: nor did it appear to us to possess much novelty. The Cadets have a band, paid by the Government; and the inhabitants of the United States, of course, think theirs the best military music.

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Every one to his taste,' says the Duke; but I must confess that, in my opinion, even the celebrated military music of the English Guards, as well as that of the Americans, is far inferior to the music of the Netherlands, or of Germany.'-vol. i. p. 185.

Our readers will, doubtless, recollect the anecdote of Themistocles, in which every man assumed to himself the first place for valour, but assigned to him the second. Our traveller writes con amore of Westpoint, perhaps delighted by a spot so congenial to his military habits and education, and this spirit is preserved to the end of the chapter. We have only room for the following observations, which we extract without comment :

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At the little town of Tappan, the unfortunate Major André, condemned by the council of war as a spy, was executed and buried. His remains were disinterred a few years ago, by order of the English government, carried to England, and, if I mistake not, deposited in Westminster Abbey; whilst the remains of General Fraser, who fell like a hero, at the head of the King's troops, lie without a monument in the old redoubt near Still Water. The tree that grew over André's grave was likewise sent to England; and, as I was told, planted in the King's Garden, behind Carlton Palace.'-vol. i. p. 188.

We learn that it is very difficult to go through the streets of New York in a carriage on Sunday, as chains are thrown across them before all the churches, to prevent communication. This circumstance gives rise to the singular remark, that the Land of Freedom has likewise its chains.'


In New York, as in all places where English manners prevail, it is the custom for the ladies to rise at the dessert, and the gentlemen remain to drink; but no one is obliged to do so contrary to his inclination. The ladies are seen no more, and every one goes when he pleases. The

attendants are generally negroes or mulattoes; the white servants generally Irish, for the Americans have a great disinclination to service. All classes complain of the insolence of their servants, who think as much of themselves as their masters; of this I saw daily examples. There are a great number of negroes and mulattoes, but they belong to the very lowest class. The people of this country have a great dislike to this race of men, who are compelled to live almost like the Indian Parias. In the army, at the very highest, they can only be received as drummers

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or musicians, but never as soldiers. Yes, soldiers ought certainly never to be of mixed blood.'-vol. i. p. 200.


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Our traveller appears to have a tacit belief in omens. We have already given an instance, in his description of the storm, after meeting the steam-boat with the corpse on board, One or two of similar import appear in different parts of the volumes before us, some of which we shall extract. Thus, after the first week's residence at New York, the Duke changed his lodgings, and immediately upon entering his new apartments received the joyful intelligence of the birth of his son, Hermann Bernhard Georg, on the 4th of August. I thanked Providence for this new gift, and for the preservation of the loved mother of my children, with fervent piety. On the next day I continued my pursuit of amusement and instruction, (vol. i. p. 201). And on a subsequent occasion, on his visit to the grave of Washington, he tells us, that


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When General Lafayette visited Washington's monument, an eagle was seen in the air, and hovered near the grave until the General left. We remarked likewise a very large eagle, that appeared to watch us from its height; we saw him above us when we re-embarked, and he appeared to hover over the same spot for a long time; and it was not until the last boat approached the steam-vessel, that he suddenly left his position, flew to the wood, and we lost sight of him.'—vol. i.

Sagacious creature! Washington's guardian angel, no doubt. It would make a capital episode in an American epic. We should like very much to know whether the royal bird acts as a guard of honour, or watch, only upon French generals and German dukes; or would condescend to accompany an untitled John Bull, or Yankee, to the grave of the hero. At any rate Washington is worthy of the honour, and so we will let the matter rest.

On paying a visit to Mr. Crawford, who had been ambassador to Paris from the United States, the Duke found to his astonishment that, although he had resided some years in France, he could not speak French, and addressed himself mostly to his daughter. His Highness is a man of too much politeness to be personal; yet if Miss Crawford should ever peruse his travels, we are afraid that she will not consider the next sentence, in which her visitor incidentally expresses his conviction that the inhabitants of the South are far behind those of the North in culture' (vol. ii. p. 17), as a proof of his gallantry.


On arriving at Macon, several of the houses were grog-shops, in which the neighbours celebrated Christmas. Tout comme chez nous, thought I, and fancied myself in Europe. We noticed a lady and gentleman on horseback; the horses were not loaded, yet a negress was obliged to run barefoot by the side, and carry a heavy sack of corn for the horses. Then I saw that I was not in Europe, and I was glad of it.' -vol. ii. p. 24.

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In New Orleans, we regret to say our traveller found places established for the sale of negroes. The poor creatures stood or sat the whole day to be exhibited to purchasers. He expresses himself in the terms which such conduct cannot fail to excite, and says that the indifference which custom produces in the whites is incredible. Among the slave dealers, a Dutchman, named Jacobs, in a particular manner excited his indignation. He had the vilest countenance that could be imagined, and treated the unfortunate negroes in the most brutal manner, although he was not unfrequently chastised by the unhappy beings in the extremity of their despair.vol. ii. p. 74.

The Duke's observations on the state of society in New Orleans, are worthy of quotation. After slightly noticing a masked white ball, he continues

'There was likewise a quarteron ball the same evening. A quarteron is the child of a mestize and a white father, as a mestize is the child of a mulatto and a white father. The quarterons are almost white; at least their descent could not be traced in their complexions. Many a Quarteronne has a whiter skin than many of the proud Creoles. Their black hair and eyes betray them, although there are blonde Quarteronnes. Those who attend this ball are free; but the white ladies entertain the most violent dislike to them on account of their black descent. Marriages between the white and coloured are forbidden by the laws; and as the Quarteronnes look down with similar contempt on the negroes and mulattoes, nothing remains for them but to become the friends of the whites. They consider an engagement of this nature as a marriage, and it is always entered into by a formal contract, according to which the friend gives a certain sum to the Quarteronnes, who take the name of their friends, and are much more faithful than many ladies married at church. Several of them possess considerable property, and yet their situation is very subordinate. They must not drive in a carriage through the streets, and it is only in the dusk of the evening that their friends can drive them to the ball in their own carriage; they must not sit in the presence of a white lady, nor even enter a room without her express permission. Many of them have received a better education than the whites, and generally conduct themselves with more decency and propriety. Yet the white ladies speak of these unhappy and oppressed creatures with the greatest contempt and bitterness. The strongest expressions of the high nobility in the monarchical states of the old world to their fellow-creatures, cannot be more haughty, arrogant, and contemptuous than that of the Creoles in one of the highly-praised free states of the liberal Union. In fact, these comparisons afford abundant source of contemplation to a thinking mind. Many rich parents, on this account, send their daughters to France, where,

from their education and property, they find no difficulty in forming matches. Only coloured ladies are admitted to these Quarteron balls, and to ensure the respectability of the gentleman, the price of admission is two dollars.

As a foreigner like myself should see every thing, that he may become acquainted with the manners, customs, opinions, and prejudices of the persons with whom he happens to be, I accepted the invitation of some gentlemen, who offered to drive me to the Quarteron ball, and I must confess it was much better conducted than the masked ball. The coloured ladies were under the eyes of their mothers; they were well and elegantly dressed, and behaved with great decorum and modesty. Country dances and waltzes were performed, and several of the ladies danced excellently! I did not stop long, for fear of forfeiting all claims to existence in New Orleans, but soon returned to my former party, and took care not to tell the ladies where I had been. But I could not refrain from drawing com parisons, and these were by no means in favour of the white ball.'-vol. ii, pp. 78-80.

^ The manner in which M. Dubourg, the Catholic Bishop of Louisiana, procured a copy of the Encyclopædia, is sufficiently amusing. In his travels through Flanders, with the Prince de Broglio, he became acquainted with a gentleman and his daughter who were very bigotted. The latter, in a confidential conversation with the Bishop, communicated to him her scruples at having in her possession a work in which the church was so shamefully treated, and asked him if she should not throw the obnoxious work into the flames? The Bishop replied, that if she would entrust it to him, he would take care that it should do no harm to any one. He thus saved from destruction a copy of this splendid work, and enriched his own library with it.

On returning to Philadelphia, the Duke visited the episcopal churchyard, to behold the grave of Dr. Franklin. He was buried in the same grave with his wife, who died in the same year. It is near the wall of the churchyard, covered with a white marble; containing only the simple inscription:

Benjamin Franklin,


Deborah 1790.

We must now take our leave of these volumes, although we would willingly have quoted, if our limits had allowed us, his concluding observations upon London, and the contrast which a traveller experiences on returning from America, the land of youth and promise, to the countries which bear marks of "the long perspective of distant years." We were much struck by the manifest. and gradual improvement exhibited in this work. At first the author limits himself to the mere description of what he sees, undiversified by any views of men and manners, and we began to fear that we had taken up a Guide to Travellers, stripped of its superlatives. Much of this apparent reserve is doubtless to be

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