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PREFACE

TO THE THIRD EDITION.

The present edition is almost a new work. The praxis of sentences, so arranged as to lead the pupil from the easiest to the most difficult, seemed better calculated for the lower class of pupils in reading than for students in rhetoric, and therefore this has been omitted. The want of rules for composition, so essential in rhetoric, has been supplied from the best source-Blair's Lectures : and what was deficient even in these has been furnished from Professor Ward's Lectures on Oratory :-50 that with the original matter on the elegant pronunciation of words, on accent, emphasis, and inflection of voice, and the proper pronunciation of the figures of rhetoric, it is presumed the present work is the most perfect of its kind in the language.

A powerful motive, indeed, for enlarging the Rhetorical Grammar to its present size, was, to give a complete idea of the two circumflexes of the speaking voice. The two simple inflections, the rising and falling, had been several times delineated on copper-plates, in Elements of Elocution; but the two complex inflections, called circumflexes, though frequently described, had not been marked out to the eye ; and these appeared so inseparable from the human voice, so new, and of such real utility in teaching to read and speak, that I could

scarcely think I had discharged my duty to my country till I had given these modifications of the speaking voice as clear an explanation as I was able. · The sanguine expectations I had once entertained, that this analysis of the human voice would be received by the learned with avidity and applause, are now over. I have almost worn out a long life in laborious exertions; and, though I have succeeded beyond expectation in forming readers and speakers in the most respectable circles in the three kingdoms, yet I have had the mortification to find few of my pupils listen to any thing but my pronunciation. When I have explained to them the five modifications of the voice, they have assented and admired; but so difficult did it appear to adopt them, especially to those advanced in life, that I was generally obliged to follow the old method, (if it may be called so) “ read as I read, without any reason for it." —But without pretending to the gift of prophecy, I think I can foresee, that sooner or later these distinctions of the voice must become the vehicle of instruction in reading and speaking. It is not improbable that the active genius of the French, who are so remarkably attentive to their language, may first adopt this vehicle ; and if this should happen, I hope it will be remembered, that an unassisted and unpatronized Englishman was the first who discovered and explained it.

CONTENTS.

Page.

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . - - 11

Observations on some of the Principal Faults in the Pronun- .

ciation of the generality of Pupils, with the Methods of cor-

recting them - - - - - - - - 17

Too slightly sounding the Unaccented Vowels - - - 18

Wavering and uncertain Pronunciation of the Vowels under

the Secondary Accent - - - - - - 20

The Liquid Sound of K, C, or G, hard, before the Vowels A

and I - - - - - - - - - 22

The Liquid Sound of T, D, S, and soft C, after the Accent

before the Semiconsonant Diphthongs - - - - 24

Suppressing the Sound of the Final Consonants - - - 26

The rough and smooth Sound of R - - - 28

Hissing too much the Terminations tion and sion - - 30

Pronouncing S indistinctly after ST - - - - ib.

Pronouncing W for V, and inversely - - - - 31

Not sounding H after W - - - - - - 32

Not sounding H where it ought to be sounded, and inversely 33

Suppressing E where it should be pronounced, and pronounc-

ing it where it should be suppressed - - - - 34

Observations on the Pronunciation of certain Words most fre-

quently mistaken in reading ... - - - 35

The true Sound of the Auxiliary Verbs : also, when ed makes

a distinct Syllable, and when not

ib.

When you is to be pronounced like ye, and my like me - 37

When of, for, from, and by, are to have a long, and when a

short Sound - - - - - - - - 40

How to pronounce the Possessive thy . . . . 42

How to pronounce the Adjective Possessive mine .

The indistinct Sound of the word not - - - - 47

How to pronounce the Participial Termination ing - .

How to pronounce the Word co when succeeded by you .

Reading defined-Ils Relation to Speaking

- 50
Page.

General Idea of the common Doctrine of Punctuation - 53

Rhetorical Punctuation - - - - - - 59

Practical System of Rhetorical Punctuation .

Of Visible Punctuation - - - - - ib.

Rules for Pausing . . . . . . .

'The principal Pause in the Compact Sentence .

The principal Pause in the Loose Sentence - .

The subordinate Pause in the Compact Sentence

Audible Punctuation - - - - - . .

Explanation of the Inflections of the Voice

Explanation of Plate the First . .

The different States of the Voice . . . . . 89

Practical System of the Inflections of voice . . . 91

Compact SentenceDirect Period with Two Conjunctions

Direct Period with One Conjunction - - - - 94

Inverted Period - - - - - - - . 97

Loose Sentence · · · · · · · · 98

Orthoëpial Figures, or Figures of Pronunciation . . . 101

The Interrogation - - - - - - - 102

The indefinite Question - - - - - . . ib.

The definite Question -

. . . . 104

The Exclamation - -

106

The Parenthesis .

-

. - 109

The Commencement

. . . 112

The Contrast - - -

• - - 114

The Series

The Commencing Series -

.' 118

The Concluding Series

. . 119

The Question and Answer

- - - 121

The Echo - - - - - - - - 123

The Antecedent -

. - 127

The Variation - - - - - - - - 130

The Period and the Method of forming a Cadence - 133

On Accented Force - - - - - - - 137

On Emphatic Force . . . . . . . 138

What it is that constitutes Emphasis - - - - 141

On the different Forces of Emphatic Words - - 145

On the propriety of marking Emphatic Words . . 148

A method of marking the different Forces of Words 149

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